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Importance of English in Tourism Industry

Importance of English in Tourism Industry. Introduction What is English, English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca. It is an official language of almost 60 sovereign states and the most commonly spoken language in sovereign states including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Caribbean nations. It is the third-most-common native language in the world, after Mandarin and Spanish. It is widely learned as a second language and is an official language of the European Union and of the United Nations, as well as of many world organisations or group. After this is, Owing to the assimilation of the words from many other languages always from the history, modern English is consists of a very large of the vocabulary, with complex and irregular spelling, specifically of vowels. For the modern English has not only assimilation words from other European languages, but from all over the world. The Oxford English Dictionary lists more than 250,000 of not the same words, not include the many technically, scientific, and slang period. Why the teenagers in the tourism industry are unable to communicate of well in English, what is the communication. The communication is the giving or receive the information, message or the data from other person. The communication is the something we are doing in the life of the everyday. In this way, why the communication from us is very important for other people. The communication also can separate the two types of communication for the example is the verbal communication and the non-verbal communication. The good communication is very important in the tourism industry this is because it is prevent of the misconception and the error or the mistake. Main Body Next, if you is a good or well of communicator. You must speaks expressly to customer, guest and the tourism. After this is, you must listen carefully to listen what are the customer, guest and the tourism says to you. Next, check and confirm the information, message, and the data is correct or not. What is the reason about why the teenagers in tourism industry are unable to communicate are well in English. This is because, the teenagers working in tourism industry have some teenagers is come from other country or the overseas for the example is Vietnam, Brunei, Philippine, Thailand, and also have other country, because the most teenagers come from country in above cannot or don’t know how to speak and communication with the customer, and the guest. This is because every guest come from different country is using the English to communicate or ask the different kind of the question with the other person. Why English is important for us using to communicate or ask the different question from other person. Why English is important for us using every day, the reason is the English may not be the most of spoken language in the world, but it is the official language in a large number of countries and English is forecast that the number of the people in the world that use in English to communicate on a regular basis is 2 billion ! Next, if our can speak or understand the English can easily to understand the question from other person and easily to make or ask question from other and also can improve the relationship with other person. Next is the many of the world’s top films, books and music are published and produced in English. Therefore by the learning English you will have access to a great wealth of the entertainment and will be able to have a greater of theculture understanding, and the most of the content produced on the internet ( 50% ) is in English. So knowing English will allow you access to an incredible amount of information which may not be if not available ! Why the English is very importance for the Hotel Management, this is because in hotel everyday can see the different kind of the traveler or the tourist want to stated in the hotel. Sometimes a lot of the traveler or tourist is come from United Stated, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada, Australia, and the Ireland. In hotel, every day can see the a lot of the people is online booking the room or the reservation. All of the online booking or the online reservation is using the English, the staff of the hotel will check or confirm have the person online booking or online reservation or not. Sometimes have some guest is use the phone to booking or reservation of the room, the guest almost is using the English to booking or reservation the room. You must know the information, message or demand from the guest want to booking or reservation the room in your hotel. Can easily to get the information, message and demand of the different kind of guest this is because our know the importance of English in hotel management and understand the English. If our cannot understand the English our cannot get the information and massage from the guest, also our cannot give the information and message about our hotel for the customer, because cannot understand or don’t know how to speak the English to guest. English is importance for a hotel management, this is because you can easily to get the information or the message from the tourist or the traveler. Our also can easily to using the English to communicate with the communicate and can satisfy the demand, need and wants from the different kind of the customer. This is because you understand what is the people said to you so you can clearly to confirm the demand, need and the wants. In the hotel most time is using the English to communication because the English is a international or the official language in the world, sometime some guest want to using the facilities in the hotel such as the spa, the gym, swimming pool, or other facilities in a hotel. Next, the English is important for us in hotel management this is because our can easily or faster to receive or to get the information from the different kind of the guest, so can easily to give the different service to the guest on the time or fast, the customer can feel the more polite from your. Also can increase the image or the name for your hotel. Next, also can increase the profit of the hotel. Next, the English is important in hotel management is you cannot confuse the information, this is because you understand and know the demand, wants, and needs of the different kind of customer. And you can easily to request and serve to customer. CONCLUSION Conclusion, English is important for us is easily to communication with different kind of guest. This is because the English is a important language in the world and English also is a international and official language for us. If the teen staff in tourism industry or in hotel can communicate well in English, the guest will feel the staff in hotel have good polite and give the good service to different kind of guest. So, English is very important for teen staff in tourism industry or in hotel. INTRODUCTION 2 What is a English, the English is a is a language from the West Germanic language that was first spoken in early madievel England and is now a global lingua franca. It is an official language of almost 60 sovereign states and the most commonly spoken language in the sovereign states include the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Caribbean nations. Why English is very important for us to communicate with different kind of the people, service for the other person, get the message, information or the data from the other person. First, the English may not be the most spoken language in the world, but it is the official language in a large number of countries. It is estimated that the number of people in the world that use in English to communicate on a regular basis is 2 billion ! Next, English is the dominant business language and it has to become almost a necessity for people to speak English if they are to enter a global workforce, research from all over the world shows that cross-border business communication is most often conducted in English. Its importance in the global market place therefore cannot be understated, learning English really can change your life. Third is many of the world’s top films, books and music are published and produced in English. Therefore by learning English you will have access to a great wealth of entertainment and will be able to have a greater culturalunderstanding. Why have some people working cannot speak and cannot understand the English from the different guest ask them. This is because, some people working in the hotel is not Malaysians all is come from other country for the example is Vietnam, Brunei, Philippine, Indonesia, and also have some country. MAIN BODY I already access the teenagers working in tourism industry and the hotel. The name of the hotel I already access is called the Vistana Hotel. The reason why the teenagers in tourism industry are unable to communicate well in English. Because some teenagers are working in tourism industry is not Malaysians, all is come from the overseas country, so them cannot unable to communicate well in English for the different kind of the guest. Have a lot of the reasons of the teenagers are working in tourism industry are unable to communicate well in English. First reason is the teenagers is dislike, this is because the English have a lot of the vocabulary and the all vocabulary is have the many different meaning, the English easily to confuse and more difficult than other language. The teenagers working in tourism industry and the hotel them feel the English difficult understand, this is because the English vocabulary have a lot of use and the meaning. Next reason of the teenagers in tourism industry and the hotel are unable to communicate well in English reason is, lazy to learning the English because them very lazy to learning or speak the English. This is because them feel the English is not important for them of the life in every day. Them is also feel the English are very difficult for them, this is because in the English have a lot of the things are not spelled as they sound, such as pterodactyl which sounds like the teradactle or tough which sounds like tuff. Third is them feel the English language is a crazy language, this is because the English is the sometimes them think all the English speakers should be committed to an asylum for the verbally insane. In what language do people recite at a play and play at a recital ? Ship by truck and send cargo by ship ? Park on driveways and drive on parkways ? Have noses that run and feet that smell ? How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites ? You have to marvel at the unique lunacy of a language in which your house can burn up as it burns down, in which you fill in a form by filling it out and in which an alarm goes off by going on. Next reason is, them feel the English is easily to learn but hard to perfect because English can be hard, but not the hardest. Chinese, Japanese, and Russian with all of the characters and sounds. They seem more difficult to tackle. So, them say it’s somewhat hard to learn, but hard to perfect of the English. Some native speakers don’t even know the major grammar/spelling rules. But can see how someone who isn’t a native speak get confused between the ” read ” and ” read ” or ” lead ” and ” lead. “ The fifth reason of the teenagers in tourism industry or a hotel unable to communicate well in English language is English is the hardest language to speak Pretty much every comment on the ” No ” side makes me laugh. Some people wrote Cantonese and Chinese are the hardest languages to learn. Its Cantonese and Mandarin or them said English was easy to learn. Probably because they were born and raised around English in schools and around friends. Any Chinese person that I have met who lived in China up until certain ages have incredible difficulty speaking English and you can barely understand them. People should become more educated about different languages and cultures before they make comments. Next reason is the English is the most difficult language does mean that you know the whole English language, even though them starting learning English since they are on their mother womb, this is because them don’t practice or trying to learning on them will stuck on some sentences and them will use the N word and the M on each sentences because them don’t know how explain or spelling or talk the correct English. And some sentences have plus the ing, ed, and s will to become the sentences have a lot of different meaning. The next reason is the teenagers in tourism industry or a hotel, them only like, speak or learning their mother tongue. This is because them feel their mother tongue is easily to understand, speak and learning than English language. Another reason is the teenagers is anytime speak the mother tongue for the guest come from same country such as the Brunei, Vietnam, China, Philippine, India, and the Indonesia. So this reason is cause the teenagers are unable to communicate well in English. Next reason of the teenagers in tourism industry or a hotel unable communicate well in English is them cannot remember the use or the meaning the English sentences. This is because, some English sentences is more spelling can cause the teenagers easily confuse and very difficult to remember the English sentences. For the example, some guest want to reservation or booking the room. The guest will give the name, phone number, IC number, and other data, if the teenagers in hotel cannot remember and no confirm the data from guest, and give the wrong message or the information to guest will cause the loss of hotel and the guest don’t want state in hotel because the guest is using the English do the reservation the room. Why the hotel loss the profit, because the teenagers of overseas cannot understand, confuse, lazy, not confirm the information and check the spelling is correct or not, don’t know the meaning and use of English and cannot speak and communication in English. All of this reason is cause the teenagers in industry tourism or a hotel unable to communicate well in English to different kind of the guest come from different country. CONCLUSION Conclusion, if speak or communication are using English will be more polite of us. If cannot speak, communication or understand the English our cannot give any information or message to guest and also if our cannot understand the guest or other person said, our cannot receive the any information or the message from the guest or other person because them is using the English to communicate with you. So, English is important for teenagers in tourism industry or a hotel this is because the English is a international language in the world and in hotel every day need to serve the different kind of guest so the teenager cannot without the English in every day. REFERENCE https://www.google.com/webhp?tab=wwImportance of English in Tourism Industry
Massimo Fanara Describe the three different types of volcanic eruptions that have given rise to rise to Iceland’s volcanic landforms. There are three different types of volcanic eruptions based on the lava texture. These are; Effusive: eruptions in which lava with low viscosity and settles on the side of the volcano forming gentle slopes. In this type of eruption, gases escape easily and thus there is no explosions due to the build-up of pressure (The Geological Society, 2014). Explosive: occur when gas pressure builds up in the volcano until it is released catastrophically. The highlyviscousmagma magma is trapped in the volcano by a blockage, which prevents gases from escaping. As the magma rises towards the surface, pressure increases until a weak point in the blocked crater is found. At this point all the pressure is released in a massive explosion of pyroclastics, volcanic gases and lava (The Geological Society,2014). Mixed: Eruptions involving explosions and magma flows Describe the characteristics of a thuya. How does this acquire its distinctive shape? Tuyas are eruptions occurring underneath ice sheets resulting in a layer-cake structure with a flat-top and steep-sidedvolcano. This steep sided layer-cake shape results from the rapid cooling of lava which does not travel far from the vent and thus piles up into a steep-sided mount. When the eruption is long enough that melts all the ice, a flat cap of basaltic rock on top of the hill is formed. Definethe term jökulhlaup and explain its significance to Iceland. Jökulhlaups: refers to an outburst flood event of glacial origin. Jökulhlaups erode, deposit, and re-work sediment simultaneously; they usually cause significant glaciological and sedimentological impacts creating large canyons and transport sediment and icebergs over vast outwash plains and sandur deltas (Russell, Roberts, et al., 2005). Another important aspect of jokulhlaups is the significant heat exchange between the magma and glacier, which result in subglacial eruprions and formation of hyaloclastite ridges and tuyas (Björnsson, 2010). What are the origins of Icelandic river waters? Describe the relevant main characteristics. Most of the Icelandic river waters originate from abundant glacier melting. This result in distinctive characteristics including; Huge amount of debris High turbidity Usually yellowish-brown in colour. The maximum discharge usually occurs in July or early August. Most of the rivers are unnavigable. Explain the following terms: (i) tephrachronology, (ii) crytotephra,and (iii) isopachs. Tephrochronology: is a method for relating and dating geological, palaeoecological, palaeoclimatic, or archaeological sequences or events (Lowe, 2011). Crytotephra: It involves the use of volcanic ash which travelled long distances and which may have formed distinct but invisible layers within a site’s stratigraphy (Lane, Cullen, et al., 2014). Isopachs: Isopachs are line drawn on a map connecting all points of equal thickness of a particular geologic formation. These allow the user to create isopach mapsillustrating variations in thickness within a layer orstratum. Isopach maps are used are utilized inhydrographic survey,stratigraphy,sedimentology,structuralgeology,petroleum geologyandvolcanology. One measure used totackle the problem ofsoil erosion is re-seeding with appropriate floral species. What characteristics of a plant would make it suitable for such a purpose? Roots are important structures not only for the plant but also for the underlying terrain. Plant roots; Act as an anchorfor the plant in the soil. Hold the soil in place and thus reducing erosion (act as stabilizers) Absorb water and mineral saltsfrom the soil. Storage offood. Form a passage way for water and dissolved substancesfrom the root into the stem and also for foods from the stem down into the root (CRITSITE, 2014). Describe one method that could be used to measure the profile of a beach. Beach profiling can be carried out by the use of a clinometer. This method consist of first, finding two points to use as reference points which define the line to follow when measuring a beach profile. The instruments needed are a clinometer, a compass, GPS (for the starting point coordinates), a measuring tape and a piece of wood (to place the clinometer on it when taking the readings). Measurements of the beach surface are taken by the use of a clinometer which measures the angle of the slope. This is done at different intervals between the two reference points until the sea is reached. Explain the following: (i) lateral moraine, (ii) kettle lake, and (iii) outwash plain. Lateral moraine: Unconsolidated material deposited on the sides of an alpine glacier. Most of the material deposited results from the freeze-thaw weathering of alpine valley walls (Lemke, 2010). Kettle lake: Kettles arefluvioglacial landforms created when depressions left behind by the melting of partially-buried ice blocks are filled with water (Schaetzl, n.d.). Outwash plain: Outwash plains areplainsformed fromglacialsediments such as gravel, sand and claydeposited by meltwater outwash at the terminus of aglacier (The Geography Site, 2006). Explain the presence of wave-cut platforms in areas ofIceland presently distant from the coast. Studies were carried out on the lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy in the northern coast of Iceland in the attempt of reconstructing deglaciations relative sea level changes. According to these studies sea level felt by approximately 45m between 11300 and 9100 BP. This corresponds to an isostatic rebound of 77m. Therefore, this change in sea level explains the presence of wave-cut platforms distant from the coast (Rundgren, Ingolfsson, 1997) Distinguish between mafic and felsic lava. Mafic lava: is less viscous than felsic lava due to lower silica content. This causes non-violent eruptions where lava moves slower. Mafic lava tends to be associated more with interplate volcanism and mid-ocean ridges and produces basaltic type rock. Felsic lava: found mainly at convergent zones. This type of lava has a high silica and water content, causing the lava to be highly viscous and causes very violent eruptions. This lava produces rhyolite and andesitic rocks. What is the nominal fix accuracy of a GPS? Why can a DGPS improve this nominal accuracy? Nominal fix accuracy of a GPS is how accurate a GPS can be. There are several factors affecting the accuracy such as atmospheric effects, sky blockage, and receiver quality. A higher accuracy is attained when using GPS in combination with augmentation system. These enable real-time positioning to within a few centimeters (National Coordination Office for Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing, 2014). A Differential Global Positioning System(DGPS) is an enhancement toGlobal Positioning Systemthat provides improved location accuracy, from the 15-meter nominal GPS accuracy to about 10 cm in case of the best implementations. The DGPS is a combination of local land stations connected with satellites for more accurate data. In cartographic terms, explain why the datum used by a GPS navigation set must be the same as for the reference chart being used. A datum is any numerical or geometrical quantity serving as a reference point from which to measure other quantities. With regard to chart datums, these are also used in plotting GPS positions or transferring positions from one chart to another. When plotting and transferring points from one chart to another GPS positions must be on the same datum as the chart being used in order to prevent any inconvenience regarding with hazards and safe distances. References Björnsson, H. (2010). Jökulhlaups in Iceland: Sources, release and drainage [Abstract]. CRITSITE. (2014). Root structure characteristics. Retrieved, 2014, Retrieved from http://www.critsite.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/plants.rootStructures/index.htm Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger, H.,
ENG 100 UOP Parents Role in Children Teaching Social Media Habits Article Discussion.

I’m working on a english project and need support to help me study.

Prepare to write a reading response. Consider the following questions:What is your opinion about the reading? Do you agree or disagree with the author’s perspective?What are one to two reasons that support your opinion?What is your thesis statement?Using the Reading Response Template below, write a 175- to 250-word response, no more than 2 paragraphs, that includes the following:An introduction of the article, including the author’s nameBrief summary of the articleJustification of your opinion (this is your thesis). Reviewing the Thesis Writing section in this week’s Learning Activities will help you build your thesis statement.Connection of your topic to life, work/school, or current eventAPA citations created by using an example in the reading or by using the Reference and Citation generator from the CWE.
ENG 100 UOP Parents Role in Children Teaching Social Media Habits Article Discussion

A Study On African Americans Values Sociology Essay. Values are ideals to which one holds, beliefs about what is right and wrong and standards as to how to live life. It is my belief that the topic of values is very personal and subjective and varies from person to person, even when you are of the same heritage. There are, however, some general themes in the African American culture. Historically, church and family were the most important values in African American life. They are still important today. African Americans are not immune to the high divorce rates in the United States. Oftentimes, with the nuclear family not remaining in tact or families needing assistance with childcare because of employment, economic circumstances or illness, it is often the grandmother who steps in to assist with rearing children. Therefore, grandmothers have earned a place of respect within the African American family. “It is she who stresses the importance of service to others, racial pride, educational achievement, strong family ties, commitment to children, self-respect, discipline, and hard work” (Ruiz, 2004). Very often it is up the grandmother to hold the family together and, even when not in her own best interests, she accepts this role. Spirituality and a belief in a higher power helped enslaved African Americans persevere and earn their freedom. That spirituality gave them strength to fight for equal rights and end segregation. Church was where bonds were formed with the community, food for the soul was offered and important messages of hope and persistence were shared. “Apart from the family, the church serves as one of the strongest socializing agents in the African American community” (Moore-Thomas, Day- Vines, 2008). Churches not only fulfilled a spiritual need, but also economic and social needs as well. African American sense of community is deepened by ones participation in Church. Having been denied equal opportunity for education, the African American community values education. This is due to the enactment of the Jim Crow laws which sanctioned separate public facilities for African Americans from 1877 to 1965 (Pilgrim, 2000). A poll of students reveals reports that 82% of African Americans have a high school diploma, yet only 19% have college degrees (ACCSB International, 2005). Students reported that financial obstacles were the biggest challenge. Kwanzaa, a non-religious African American holiday founded by Dr. Maulana Karenga, centers on the principles or values of unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, collective economics, purpose creativity and faith. To summarize African American values perfectly, Dr. Karenga, in his 2008 annual message stated: This means boldly and continuously facing the difficulties and dangers that confront us; seeking and speaking truth; doing and demanding justice; treating each other with ultimate respect and loving kindness; walking and working together righteously; resisting wrong, oppression and injustice everywhere; and struggling constantly and conscientiously to bring, increase and sustain good in the world. (Karenga, 2008). Karenga, Maulana, (2008). “Kwanzaa And The Seven Principles: Repairing And Renewing The World” Los Angeles Sentinel, 122508, p. A7 http://www.officialkwanzaawebsite.org/documents/KwanzaaandTheSevenPrinciples_000.pdf Families Maintained by African American Grandmothers: Household Composition and Childcare Experiences.Full Text Available By: Ruiz, Dorothy S.; Zhu, Carolyn W.. Western Journal of Black Studies, Fall2004, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p415-423, 9p, 2 charts; (AN 19912081) Pilgrim, David (2000, September). What was Jim Crow? Ferris State University (n.d.). Retrieved on October 2, 2009, from http://www.ferris.edu/JIMCROW/what.htm ACCSB International (2005). African Americans Eye College Degrees. BizEd | 2005-104:6, | 10(2) | ISSN: 1537338X | EDUCATION, Higher; AFRICAN American teenagers; COLLEGE costs; DEGREES, Academic; BUSINESS education; UNITED States | Description: Publication Type : Periodical Language : English AN : 18175787 Abstract :Cites key poll findings in the U.S. in 2005 indicating that African-American teenagers plan to go to college, but one key obsta Moore-Thomas, C. and Day-Vines, N.L. (2008). Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents SOURCE: Prof Sch Couns 11 no3 F 2008 A Study On African Americans Values Sociology Essay

The Use Of Entry Deterrence Strategies

The use of entry deterrence strategies by market incumbents has long been a topic of interest in industrial organization. Many models in this setting emphasize the use of specific ways as the established firm’s strategic tool for deterring entry. This paper studies the constrained firm’s ability to deter entry into its market. We consider a scenario where a firm is self has the capability to pursue successfully strategies that will prevent the entry of new firms into its market. This means that we will not examine the regulations which government legislate to make entry more difficulty or even impossible, albeit a government may make competition illegal and a statutory monopoly be established. There are a lot of different ways how an incumbent firm reacts when facing the threat of entry. Actually, incumbents pursue so many different strategies to seemingly the same problem, namely threat of entry. In order to enter in the market entrant has to deal with some kind of hurdles-difficulties; Barriers to entry are those factors that allow incumbents to earn positive economic profits, while making it unprofitable for newcomers to enter the industry. Barriers to entry may be structural or strategic. Structural entry barriers result when the incumbent has natural cost or marketing advantages (as advertising, research and development, distributor and supplier arguments and so on) or benefits from favourable regulations (such as government regulations). Strategic entry barriers result when the incumbent aggressively deters entry. Assuming that the incumbent monopolist’s market is not perfectly contestable, it may expect to reap additional profits if it can keep out entrants. We discuss three ways in which it might do so: Entry-deterring strategies may include limit pricing, predatory pricing, and capacity expansion. The first form of strategy that a firm can expand to successfully defer the entrance of a new firm in the market is the limit pricing, which may be expressed by two types: the contestable limit pricing and the strategic limit pricing. By the time the incumbent prices lower than the entrant’s marginal cost and also that present price is in accordance with the market demand then contestable limit pricing is expanded, whereas the incumbent has excess capacity and a marginal cost advantage over entrants. While strategic limit pricing occurs when contestable limit pricing is insufficient. In that way the incumbent sets such a lower price as it may be unable to meet market demand and if this may not be enough to keep the entrant out of the market, the incumbent will have to sacrifice profits in order to assure entrant’s exclusion. The limit pricing will be clearer as an entry-deterring strategy factor by stating the rule of switching costs first and then examining entrant’s reactions in each incumbent’s movements to try to bar any new firm’s existence from the market. In a low growth market, switching costs deter entry as the incumbent has the majority of the market covered and its profit margin equals the switching cost. Firms will have to run a loss to enter the market and it can be assumed that the incumbent will react aggressively to the new entrants. In a market with above average growth middle range switching costs are the most conducive to entry. Low switching costs deter entry, as firms will have to run a loss in the initial entry period. Profits are lower as there is more less scope to exploit locked in consumers. Incumbents are therefore more likely to invest in order to attract new customers that are reacting aggressively to entrants. With high switching costs, firms earn good profit margins and may be willing to forego these temporarily in order to preserve their monopoly and so are hostile to entrants. Switching costs help explain limit pricing. In the first period when the firm is a monopolist, they charge a price below marginal cost so the market is fully covered. Firms don’t enter as they feel the incumbent will continue this strategy. Even if the incumbent raises price to make a profit, the potential entrant feels the incumbent will revert to this strategy if they enter, so zero profits will be earned. This is a rational belief as a firm invests in excess capacity as a signal of strategic behaviour. It is sending a message to potential entrants that if they enter they will make it extremely difficult for the entrant to gain market share. From above it is obvious that limit pricing involves charging prices below the monopoly price in order to make entry appear unattractive, in other words to limit new firms’ entry. A low price would discourage entry if prices had a commitment value. But actually they do not, because prices can be changed quickly. Hence if a potential entrant has complete information about the incumbent, limit pricing would be useless. But if the incumbent’s costs are private information the price in a preentry period can be a signal about the incumbent’s costs and hence limit pricing may discourage entry by reducing expected post-entry profits. Incomplete information and resulting limit pricing do not necessarily imply a lower entry rate than with complete information. E.g. in a separating equilibrium, the entrant is perfectly informed about the incumbent’s cost (but a low cost incumbent might still engage in limit pricing to separate himself from the high cost incumbent). Assume here two-sided incomplete information, both incumbent and entrant does not know the other’s cost. Since the incumbent’s preentry pricing does not influence the entrant’s expectations about postentry competition, in accordance with the above analysis, limit pricing fails to achieve its targets (always from incumbent’s perspective). It is helpful to analyse another strategy which successfully prevent the entry of new firms into the market; predatory pricing. Predatory pricing is very similar to limit pricing, since the dominant incumbent charges low prices to lead the current competitors out of the market and additionally these low prices can discourage potential entrants to be introduced in the market. The expectation of the dominant incumbent, conducting predatory pricing strategy, is being focused on the long term profit rising, as by the time the prospective entrants will opt out of the market, the incumbent’s diminished profits or even the volitional losses will recover later through future monopoly advantage. Predatory pricing is a controversial issue. On one hand, price cuts can be used as a means to exclude rival firms and increase future market power. On the other hand, price cuts are the bread-and-butter of market competition. This may happen either as a result of incumbent’s irrational price setting or by analysis’s failure to capture important ingredients of their strategies. The established firms ought to be very careful about their predatory actions, aiming to successfully prevent potential rivals’ entrance into the market, as any false step would be harmful and eventually would have the right opposite’s outcome than initially had been methodized. Predatory pricing strategy will be profitable for the incumbent firm merely when it has accurate knowledge about its costs’ levels and the market demand as well. Definitely entrant must lack that information. Predatory pricing in that case is based on dynamic effects through the firms’ profit functions (either through demand or through costs). In respect of cost’s issue can be stated that the entrant is preferable to have less cognition about the incumbent’s costs versus the established firm, having mastery of its own costs, leaks knowingly information that has low cost and therefore implying that has margins to charge its products at very low prices discouraging every entrant to participate into a market with eliminate profitability. By implication to the costs’ levels the nescience of market’s demand will guide to the same results. Apparently above assumptions of uncertainty are crucial and both make predation rational as from entrant perspective the price limit depicts that incumbent’s costs or market demand is low and hence have deterrent effect on firm’s entry into the market. Except uncertainty there is another reason why predatory pricing is a plausible strategy. That is asymmetry between incumbent and entrant. By repeatedly fighting rivals with low prices, the incumbent increases its reputation for toughness; and thus encourages exit and/or discourages future entry. Firm having very low cost, or might dislike competition, even to the point of sacrificing profits to remain a monopolist, have every reason to become tough, especially since the present incumbent firm has dependable information that the entrant is uncertain about whether the incumbent would slash prices or not. Alternatively, if the entrant is not sure about the incumbent’s costs, motives or future plans, then the latter’s low prices signal that the incumbent’s costs are low too, and so are the entrant’s long term prospects. It is obvious that in both ways the incumbent establishes a reputation for toughness (Milgrom and Roberts). Concluding, predatory pricing is indeed a risky strategy. The firm involved may incur high up-front losses, with some evidence to the incumbent for future gains from monopolization. The strategy will only be profitable and the predatory pricing is unlikely to succeed merely if the incumbent lowers its price below cost and maintains it there until equally efficient competitors are forced to incur unsustainable losses and exit the market. The established firm then raises its price to a monopoly level in order to recoup its lost profits. Another strategy tool which can be used from the established firms is by holding excess capacity which may also signal unfavourable postentry conditions to new entrants. Firms hold more capacity than they use for several reasons. For strategic purposes firms use it to blockade entry by altering potential entrants’ forecasts of postentry competition. Holding excess capacity may signal the incumbent’s willingness to slash prices if entry occurs. This means that prices are never cut, and so the risk of reverse results in response to limit or predatory pricing never occurs. Alternatively excess capacity, acting as a barrier to entry, shifts the risk-return expectations of potential entrants in such degree as to divert these entrants’ investments into other industries. Excess capacity may deter an entrant with full information about the incumbent’s costs and strategic direction (in contrast with limit and predatory pricing). The incumbent’s excess capacity can affect the entrant’s forecasts of post-entry competition, which depend on each firm’s costs and capabilities. Investment in additional capacity can be a credible commitment to deter entry. Critical that the capacity investment is sunk: if the incumbent could sell its capacity for the full purchase price, then, once entry had occurred, better off selling any capacity. The entrant, looking forward and reasoning backwards, would realise this and enter no matter how much capacity the incumbent held. Holding excess capacity may also signal unfavourable postentry conditions to new entrants and will not arouse antitrust suspicions. May serve as a credible commitment to expand output and drop price should entry occur – especially if capacity investment is sunk and the incumbent firm is inflexible in the output it produces. We have analyzed the strategic use of entry deterrence of an established firm and the entrant’s reactions in the market. The incumbent influences entrant’s expectations for market profitability by choosing first the prices’ level before the entrant does. We also show the three strategic methods which the incumbent firm is able to utilize in order to deter or blockade potential firm’s entrance. Also was mentioned at which, and to what extent these strategies are deliberate (by the dominant firm) of driving competitors out of the market by setting very low prices or selling below the firm’s incremental costs of producing output and hence to successfully increased its market power or best to dominate into its market. Moreover we observe the route which the incumbent followed to successfully drive out existing competitors and deterred entry of new firms, and furthermore when he could rose prices and earned higher profits.

African American Studies- Race, Racism, and Law

assignment writing services African American Studies- Race, Racism, and Law. Paper details Please read the directions and prompts carefully and choose to write on 1 prompt out of the 4 given that you feel you are able to best support. This assignment is for an African American Studies class named Race, Racism, and Law. Please refer to textbook when fitting throughout the paper. Please let me know if you are unable to open the pdfs or if you have any questions. Thank you.African American Studies- Race, Racism, and Law

Multidimensionality of Politics Term Paper

Table of Contents It May Not Work in Politics Congressional Ethics Third Party Candidates Federal and State Authority References It May Not Work in Politics Politics is a complex area of human relations. One of its most important tasks is the management of society, taking into account the interests of different social actors that are often mutually exclusive. Politics can be defined as the activities associated with the distribution and execution of power within the state and between states in order to achieve the security of people. This paper considers different sides of politics and its implications to display the multidimensionality of this notion. Congressional Ethics The USA has developed a system of laws and by-laws, instructions, and regulations that govern the issues of ethical conduct of members of the Congress as well as its staff and federal employees. Not so long ago, the ethical violations have been proved in the activities of one of the Democrats – Charles Rangel (“The president, congress, and lobbyists,” 2013). His guilt was proved in the non-payment of taxes, misconduct of soliciting funds, using his official position, and others. Rangel was censured for these violations. On the one hand, I agree with the verdict because one of the important conditions for the stability of American society is the public confidence in the authorities, and if such cases are not sanctioned, the trust of the people in authority and regulatory bodies will decrease. On the other hand, I do not agree with the degree of penalty; the proven cases are only small episodes in the career of the politician while he was accused of various frauds throughout his career (“The president, congress, and lobbyists,” 2013). Furthermore, the rendered censure did not prevent the further political career of Rangel. In addition, if an ordinary American citizen conducted the same violation of tax statements, it can be assumed that he or she would be pursued to the fullest extent of the law, including criminal charges, while Rangel suffered from a symbolic punishment. It should be noted that US political leaders pay much attention to the fight against the abuse of official position and various forms of corruption. The norms of political ethics governing the conduct of members of Congress, congressional staff system, and federal employees are generally reduced to the regulation of financial issues: the prevention of abuse in the use of public and state funds, proper and timely completion of financial statements, and so on (“The president, congress, and lobbyists,” 2013). Cases similar to Rangel’s undermine the authority of government officials and have a negative impact on the perception of the power structure by American society. Third Party Candidates Until now, no third-party candidate has won the US presidential election. It is crucial to note that if an independent candidate leads a presidential campaign, he or she takes away the voters from the Republican and Democratic parties, though having an impact on the outcome of the election. All third-party candidates are dropped out of the election since the US political system can be characterized by bipartidism, which is a monopoly of the two parties that limits the ability of small parties to participate in elections (Hill, 2012). The latter is to register in each state, which is rather a complicated procedure. Further, third party candidates have almost no access to the media; however, the number of second party candidates is increasing. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The position of the head of the country has gone from the Republicans to the Democrats and the reverse. Candidates from other parties and those self-nominated with rare exceptions do not play a significant role in the presidential race. For instance, in the US history, one can count more than three thousand parties, but at the national level, only two of them have won, which is due to the majoritarian electoral system that operates in accordance with the principle of “winner takes it all” (Farah, 2011). If one of the candidates gets at least one vote more than the other candidate does, he or she receives all the voices of that state. Therefore, the presence of the two-party system with a majoritarian approach to elections virtually negates the success of the third party candidate as they will fail to attract the required number of electors. For instance, in 1992, Bill Clinton and George Bush competed with Ross Perot, who was a Texas businessman that created his own party and formed his own agenda. He got nearly 20% of the votes but failed to get the electors; consequently, that 20% of the votes had been lost. In fact, he took the votes from Republican Party supporters and helped in the election of Bill Clinton (Farah, 2011). The majority system pushes to ensure that there is a maximum of two candidates, if there will be three of them, Congress will need to decide. According to the Constitution, the House of Representatives and the Senate consider the results of the presidential elections and vote. In the XIX century, there were such cases when candidates did not receive the necessary number of electors, and the Congress elected the President of the United States. Federal and State Authority One of the current issues facing the United States today is the controversy related to the arms. The right of citizens to keep and carry arms is guaranteed by the Second Amendment to the Constitution. However, there is no uniformly applied law throughout the territory, while about 2.5 thousand laws and regulations of federal, state, and municipal levels control the ownership, use, and sales of weapons (Feinman, 2014). In this regard, there is a clear contradiction in regulations, and there were examples when the Constitution constrained the Federal and state responses to the issue. Currently, US citizens have the right to possess a short and long-barreled rifled or smoothbore weapons as well as semi-automatic weapons. The US Supreme Court affirmed that the Second Amendment advocates the right of citizens to bear arms and gives them the right to use weapons for legitimate purposes such as self-defense in their home. Since 2002, the US Supreme Court decision on the scope of the Second Amendment to the US Constitution. For instance, in 2008, in District of Columbia v. Heller Court, the Court overturned the law of Washington, DC forbidding residents to keep guns in their homes or use long arms for self-defense while being at home (Strang, 2011). The Court found that the Second Amendment advocated an individual’s right to keep and carry firearms for self-defense. In addition, it was pointed out that a revolver is preferable for self-defense, and keeping it at home was legal. Over time, the Court has repealed such laws in other cities (such as Chicago). Despite the fact that the political debate around the limits of Constitutional guarantees is common and necessary, the discussions of the Second Amendment are conducted on a more basic level – it’s content (Strang, 2011). In this regard, there are multiple questions whether it is appropriate that the Constitution constrains the Federal and state responses to the described issue. We will write a custom Term Paper on Multidimensionality of Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, the contradictions in political activities and perceptions appear in the form of confrontation between different political sides such as political parties, organizations, movements, and others that express different political interests of society. Political contradictions are the source of development of the totality of political and authority relations. The multidimensionality of American politics is the source of both confrontations between the parties and the development of the society, which is an essential outcome of such interaction. References Farah, G. (2011). No debate. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press. Feinman, J. (2014). Law 101. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Hill, K. (2012). An essential guide to American politics and the American political system. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. Strang, L. (2011). Federal constitutional law. New York, NY: LexisNexis. The president, congress, and lobbyists. (2013). In J. Thurber (Ed.), Rivals for power (pp. 137-155). Lanham, MD: Rowman

MGT 441 SLU What Is the History and Focus of The Railway Labor Act in US Ques

MGT 441 SLU What Is the History and Focus of The Railway Labor Act in US Ques.

Part 1What is the history and focus of the Railway Labor Act (RLA)? What boards were created by the RLA?Clearly and concisely explain your response. Your post must have at least 200 words. Include in-text citations as well as a reference page (per APA 7th edition guidelines), which must include at least two references with one of them being our textbook. Use a website based in the united states as a second reference.Part 2What is the history and focus of the Railway Labor Act (RLA)? What boards were created by the RLA?Clearly and concisely explain your response. Your post must have at least 200 words. Include in-text citations as well as a reference page (per APA 7th edition guidelines), which must include at least two references with one of them being our textbook. Use a United States website as the second reference.Part 3Financial Statements offer a wealth of information about the assets, liabilities, and, with the income and expenses of a firm…Business uses ‘ratios’ as a key measure of ‘how/what’ is transpiring with regard to the movement of the items within a financial statement…So…offer one ratio (you’ll want to read the posts from fellow students so as to add a ratio not already used…you job is to offer a ‘new’ [to this discussion] ratio..And, tell us ‘what’ the ratio tells senior management or investors of the firm, and, ‘why’ this ratio might be improved (meaning ‘which way’…up or down is a ‘better’ direction for the ratio)…200-400 words use united states websites as resources.Example for part 3Cash Ratio = Cash/Current Liabilities is the ratio I choose for this discussion is cash ratio. The purpose of is to tell how capable your business is of covering its debts while using only cash. There are no other assets used for this ratio (D’Angelo, 2020). I think this an important factor to know how much cash you have on hand to pay your debts in order to avoid overextending the business and putting it a financial bind where they are not able to their debts back without having to go into more debt.The ratio I chose is Market Ratios as I believe they are important since they evaluate share prices of a firm/company’s stock. Understanding and knowing Market Ratios will help investors decide if the company is the right company to invest in. The Market ratios is made up of two other ratios which are the: Price to earning ratio or (P/E ratio), and Market/book (M/B ratio). Successful investors like Warren Buffet often value businesses based off their P/E ratios, since the P/E ratio is used in comparison of other firms that financially reward investors such as dividend pay outs. The Market book ratios reveals to the investor if it is worth paying more than the book value for a share of the business. By successfully understand both components investors can successfully value a stock and business rather than speculate.For this week’s discussion I have decided to discuss Return on total Assets ratio(ROA). This ratio is also referred to as return on investment(ROI). This ratio is a tool that measures how effective a business is in generating profits. There is a formula that investors. use to calculate the ROA. The formula is written as follows: ROA= Earnings available for common stockholders/Total Assets. The ROA is a common ratio for investors to quickly and efficiently determine how profitable a business is. This is a pretty important tool for a company. If a company can not efficiently produces profits, investors will look to invest in another company that can more easily produce profits. Since this tool is easy to use and very straight forward to interpret, it is used extensively in stock investment and can be used to determine if a company should expand or not. For investors that are less more reluctant to take risk will look at companies with a lower ROA ratio. Investors that are willing to take more risks will look for higher ratios. For this discussion, I chose current ratio. Our textbook defines current ratio as measuring liquidity by comparing a firm’s current assets to its current liabilities. This means being able to see at the moment what available assets a company has compared to its current obligations. This tells senior management and investors if the company can meet its short-term obligations. Basically, can a company pay its bills. This is important because for a company to make money in the future, it needs to be able to pay its current bills. In this scenario, having more liquid current assets is better than having more current liabilities because it means the company has more cash readily available to pay all its bills and is more stable.These ratios have been used by students.
MGT 441 SLU What Is the History and Focus of The Railway Labor Act in US Ques