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Implementing organizational change Research Paper

Introduction We all know that for one to thrive in the business world, change is paramount. Management has to develop new initiatives and catch up with the rapid technological and socio-economic advancements in order to stay ahead of the competition. There are various theories and models recommended to corporate managers on how they can handle organizational change. However, in implementing organizational change in practice, especially where a large-scale organization is involved, can be challenging and complex and if not handled properly, it can be disastrous to the whole organization. This paper discusses practical implementation of organizational change in a large-scale business. General Motors Corporation will be analyzed by looking into the various changes it has undergone through and problems resolved as well as recommendations on new changes that could be carried out to enable it retain its competitive advantage in the industry. The GM adopted the overall structure organizational change model in implementing its changes. Implementing organizational change General Motors Corporation Organizational Changes The GM recently changed its traditional organizational model from being decentralized to a more centralized and unified one. The traditional model was characterized by a hierarchical structure of management and leadership. Jobs are arranged into independent functional departments. “GM was divided into different independent automakers…each independent automaker was operated differently and competing with each other,” (Kenly85 2009). The new model, however, does not have independent departments but rather consists of a team and individual employees all focusing on a common organizational goal. This model was adopted to respond to problems such as harmonization of workers. The staff required to develop a central set of skills by learning from each other’s designs of work as well as improve communication amongst themselves so as to work as a team rather than as autonomous individuals. The management revised its management to respond to the declined demand for medium and high-priced cars which had been created by the depression. A new management staff was put in place at the five-car division with the operational committee being dissolved and the executive committee eliminated. “In order to cut costs, the divisions had to share frames, chassis and other parts. This meant that productions and designing cars would entail cooperation and coordination among the four divisions,” (Spector, 2010). This resulted into reduced operation costs and streamlined management system. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, it was deemed necessary to reorganize the general office. The office was now empowered to oversee the operational and overall financial decisions. The top executive basically made all the major financial decisions in the organization. This is because financial decisions are very important to the future success of an entity through prospective policies and procedures. This made it a requirement to include general executives with special knowledge in prospective policies in decision making concerning financial matters. Operational policies were therefore left to the administrative committee. Later, the financial policy committee was created which was meant to authorize all financial decision matters. An operating committee was also formed and was mandated to oversee strategic planning and policies. The division managers no longer had legal authority. Its only role was to recommend policies for the operating policy committee to adopt. The president and chairman formed the CEO and had overall authority over the financial committee. Division managers were later included in administrative committees but this did not relegate their power of having overall control over policy. Policy groups made up of general office men now formulated policies. The proposed policies were then handed over to the administration committee which were required to debate and ratify or modify the policies. The divisions only had power to revise or amend such policies. Support systems were also formed to ensure organizational changes were effectively implemented. An Automotive Strategy Board together with a management committee were formed to keep the CEO updated on the happenings of the corporation. There were also monthly meetings whose attendance was compulsory globally. The meetings were used by operation heads to monitor the progress of the organization so as to inform the CEO. It also ensured that the organization staff worked as a team towards the achievement of the organizational goal. A Culture Transformation Team as well as an Operating Model Team were established. The Automotive Product Board and also Automotive Strategy Board were eliminated and replaced with one committee consisted of eight individuals. This was done to fasten the decision making process. We will write a custom Research Paper on Implementing organizational change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The committee reported to the CEO twice a week when they met to discuss product matters. The operation team, however, was composed of ten executives representing the various divisions in the globe. This increased bureaucracy even more and the decision-making was made even slower. The government has also contributed to the GM change. The U.S. government eliminated certain vehicle brands such as Pontiac and Hummer and slashed headcount. It also reduced its debts and the obligated benefits and shuttered dealerships. The government now has a 60% shareholding in the company; therefore, we can say that the ownership and control of the organization has shifted to the government. However, most of the government intervention in GM has been helpful to its growth as well as its changes. For example the New Deal Legislation in the past which was aimed at avoiding future depressions through relief, recovery and reform. It has somehow helped and the GM to recover from its bankruptcy through government funding and subsidies. The GM had to implement its organizational changes according to the Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy act. The government also funded the GM to the tune of $14 billion through the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act. The Troubled Asset relief Program (TARP) supported the funding. It was aimed at saving the free-market system that GM represented. Effects of the organizational changes There were both positive and negative effects of the transition. Positively, the organizational change was able to muster teamwork amongst its workers. Streamlining of production and general operations cut down operational costs. By cutting costs, the organization was able to operate efficiently and maintain its solvency. Further, a good communication system was established from the teamwork. Good communication increases the motivation of workers through recognition and the ability to voice their grievances. It also helps in reducing resistance to change by engaging employees in the change program. This ensures that everyone knows what is going to be achieved and they are all willing to contribute towards the same. It will also give management an opportunity to clarify on the need for change and the intended results to ease out employee’s uncertainty and fear of the unknown on the outcomes of the change process such as retrenchments and layoffs. Much as these changes were meant to add to the development of the corporation, this was not the case. Instead, this transition affected the two most important stakeholders i.e. the customers and the surrounding community. Due to the discontinuation with some of the brands, it became hard for customers of some models to service or upgrade their vehicles. Consequently, GM did not only lose its customer base but also its reputation was affected. Not sure if you can write a paper on Implementing organizational change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During the transition, however, GM had to close some of its factories aimed at streamlining production. Consequently, other entities “such as restaurants, gas stations, the real-estate market and the grocery stores suffered financially,” (Kenly852009). Therefore, the community’s financial well-being was disturbed. Of course, this had an impact on the money circulation chain in the market creating unemployment, downsizing in some public departments and generally lower standards of living. “Due to downsizing, people tend to move out of the town resulting to start of the cycle all over again,” (Dawson, 2003). The transformation of management system also had great effects on the workforce. This is because they were required to learn a new set of skills and also learn central software being used in all the organizations’ offices in the globe. This in turn impaired the communication system. Training and development of staff also became a major problem. This occurred because with the traditional model, the independent departments existing were using different softwares each. Recommendations for Future Organizational Changes The organization needs to adopt a new organizational culture which, according to Fitz Henderson, should consist of accountability, focus more on the customer and the product as the main subjects and also one that was ready to take risks. Also, it should be faster in decision making process. In the past, the organization was restructured where the Human Resource was given the responsibility of supporting culture change rather than drive it. Leaders came up with a new performance management standard and conducted an informative education system to communicate the new organizational culture and it’s values to all the workers. Those cultures were aimed at incorporating a culture into the organization’s highly bureaucratic system to ensure that its independent departments, regions as well as brands became self-governing and competitive within the organization. In order to retain its competitive advantage in the industry therefore, GM requires to make new changes to its organizational structure. For instance, it needs to come up with new organizational culture. There should be a way of making the executive body accountable for its performance standards. Employees should be exposed on how other organizations and, in general, other industries operate. The various staff should be promoted based on their performance as opposed to how much they have invested in the organization or how many years they have been on the job. Further, the organization should change its bureaucratic nature and adopt a more democratic decision making process to include even the employees in the process. This will bring the employees closer to the product, the problem as well as the customer themselves. In return, he will be able to respond quickly to the rapidly changing and divergent needs of customers as well as the highly unpredictable market conditions. Also, a company that is highly bureaucratic takes long in making decisions thus resulting into slow decisions. The organization should make changes to its production system into a Just-in-Time production system. This reduces costs since production is only done when the products are needed and therefore storage costs are minimized. Also, they should concentrate on producing environmental friendly cars as opposed to the guzzlers. This will not only ensure a clean environment but will also increase demand since that is what customers are going for nowadays. Further, they should make more connections with suppliers globally to increase their distribution channels. Also, focus on getting low-cost suppliers by using competitive bidding. By keeping up with the consumer needs and general economic trends, the organization will be able to change as the market changes and produce products that will satisfy the consumers. It will also be able to adapt to current early enough to technological developments to avoid being outdated. In a world where technology is becoming the in thing, failure to adapt to new technology on time will have disastrous results to the whole organization driving it to bankruptcy. Conclusion The General Motors has taken various steps to change its organizational design in order to retain its competitive nature in the industry. This organizational change has helped it achieve some of its objectives such as teamwork and cutting operational costs. On the other hand, those changes have brought about several negative effects by affecting the customers, the community as well as the staff themselves. Its bureaucratic system has also contributed negatively to its failures. But GM’s organizational change has shown that bankruptcy can also be used as an opportunity to take that crucial step to implement major organizational changes that will see a company fly up and start flourishing once again. Therefore, companies should not fear making that big step and making holistic organizational changes. References Dawson, P. (2003). Reshaping Change: A Processual Perspective. Routledge. Kenly85. (2009). Blog 1: Organizational Change- General Motors (GM). Web. Spector, B. (2010). Implementing organizational change: Theory into practice, (2nd Ed). ND.
South University Online Wk 4 Correctional Health Care Discussion.

A US prison inmate who had complained of stomach pain was scheduled for a visit to a general practitioner a week after the initial symptoms occurred. The general practitioner prescribed him medication for acidity, but his stomach pain continued. The inmate continued to complain about his stomach pain for another three weeks, but was told to give the medicine more time to cure him.The prison staff finally scheduled another visit to the general practitioner who in turn scheduled the inmate for test scans a couple of weeks later. The scans showed that the inmate was suffering from stomach cancer.Surgery was performed immediately to remove the tumor. Surgeons also had to remove a part of his stomach during surgery.The inmate sued the prison, claiming deliberate cruel and unusual punishment because of the time that passed between his initial complaints and diagnosis.Do you think inmates should be granted the right to medical treatment? Why? If yes, what are the rights they should have? What are the arguments against granting such rights?Do inmates have a right to advanced treatment for medical ailments which can be a financial burden on society? Explain, giving reasons, whether or not the society should bear the heavy cost of treating those whom it has put in prison for anti-social activities.What is deliberate indifference toward a prisoner’s health? Explain with reference to a case. Did the officers show deliberate indifference towards this inmate’s health problem? Why do you think so?Would Estelle v. Gamble (1976) support the inmate’s case? Why? What are the points of similarity and difference in both cases?
South University Online Wk 4 Correctional Health Care Discussion

Create a Resume

Create a Resume.

I’m working on a social science writing question and need an explanation to help me learn.

For this assignment you will create a resume below is my information for the resume Seanna lackey 835 Bear vally RdVictorville Ca 92395760 787-4630EDUCATIONVictor valley College 9-19 thru currentJobs1.Play and Learn Center 1-2-21 thru 5-16-212. Jenny’s Day care center 1-4-20 thru 6-9-20Job dutiesPreschool Teacher responsibilities include:Developing a careful and creative program suitable for preschool children.Employing a variety of educational techniques (storytelling, educational play, media etc.) to teach children.Observing each child to help them improve their social competencies and build self-esteem.Skills Important QualitiesCommunication skills. Preschool teachers need good communication skills to tell parents and colleagues about students’ progress. …Creativity. Preschool teachers must plan lessons that engage young students. …Interpersonal skills. …Organizational skills. …Patience. …Physical stamina.Training s and Certifications1. Ceco Certificate Covid -19 Resources2.Ceco 3 R’s Relationship .3.Ceco 3R’s Resilence and Readiness4.Ceco Foundatipn and framework Overview5.Ceco Preschool Social emotional development and language and Literacy.6.CECO Preschool Mathematics 7.CECO Preschool Science and Physical Development. S8.CECO History-Social Science 9.CECO Module Visual and Performance arts; ELD English Language Development 10.CECO Sesame Street (Make Believe with Math) 11.CECO California Collaborative on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CA CSEFEL) 12.Mandated reprorterCerfications1.CPR and First aid2.Pedriatric CPR and First aid3. Memberships1.easter seals2.COPPA
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The delft network in the netherlands

essay help online free 1 About the Delft network Delft is a city located in the Netherlands, having a population of 96168. It is spread over an area of 24 sq.km. (Wikipedia 2009a). The Delft University of Technology is the largest technical university in the Netherlands, with over 15,000 students (Wikipedia 2009b). Due to the significant student population, cycling is an important mode of transport. Delft is bound by freeways on all sides, except the southern, which is delimited by a highway. The hierarchy of roads in Delft is freeways, highways, main roads, and local roads. The railway line cuts across the city, running in the north-south direction from the centre of the city. A main road and a highway are the main linkages between the two freeways on the either side of the railway line. 2 Transport Problem in Delft The railway line passing through Delft is a component of one of the principal railway connections in the Netherlands, connecting Rotterdam and The Hague. The existing 2-track railway line is insufficient, and it has been planned to be upgraded to a 4-track line. However, due to lack of space to build another viaduct, and environmental problems caused by the railway line, it has been proposed to rebuild the railway line in a tunnel. 2020 is envisaged to be a typical year while the construction is in operation. Thus, Links 10486, 9873, and 9827 will be blocked for all traffic. Due to the detours which would result due to the blocked links, cyclists and cars would have to deal with increased travel times. It is anticipated that Mercuriusweg/Abtwoudse Pad or the Ruys de Berenbrouckstraat links would be used in lieu of the blocked links (Chen 2009). 3 Description of Current scenario and Alternate Scenarios 3.1 Description of the Current Situation 2003 Zones 1-7 are the external zones, whereas the rest of the zones are considered as the internal zones. The internal zones are the primary areas of concern. It has also been given that in 2003, zones 23, 24, and 25 are still under development and there is no travel demand from and to these zones (Chen 2009). 3.2 Description of the Zero-Alternative Situation 2020 By 2020, zones 24 and 25 will have been completely developed. However, Zone 23 would still not have been developed. Infrastructure has been upgraded accordingly to connect zones 24 and 25 with the rest of the city. Zone 12 remains the highest trip generating and trip attracting internal zone, as does Zone 1 amongst the external zones. 3.3 Description of Future Situation during Construction 2020 Considering the future scenario for the city of Delft in 2020 during the expansion of the rail line from 2-track to 4-track, it shall be assumed that this project will be in progress and 2020 will be a typical year. It has been given that during the expansion, Links 10486, 9873, and 9827 will be blocked (Chen 2009). The trip generation remains the same as for the zero-alternate scenario for 2020. 4 Modelling for Current Situation 2003 4.1 Trip Generation For performing the trip generation modelling function, the Zonal-based Multiple Regression model has been employed. It takes into account the linear relationships of the socio-economic characteristics of the households in the zones, which affects the trips produced and attracted for each zone (Ortúzar and Willumsen 1999). The following functions have been used for the trip generating model in the case of internal zones: Pi = 0.3RESIDENTSi 0.06JOBSi 0.03RESEARCHi 0.03EDUCATIONi Ai = 0.05RESIDENTSi 0.75JOBSi 0.3RESEARCHi 0.3EDUCATIONi Where Pi = production of zone i, Ai = attraction of zone i, RESIDENTSi = number of residents in zone i, JOBSi = number of jobs in zone i, RESEARCHi = research facility space in zone i, EDUCATIONi = amount of educational services offered in zone i. Source: Chen 2009 For the case of external zones, the numbers of trips generated and attracted have been assessed based on the traffic volume counts. These are as indicated in Appendix 1. For the internal zones, it can be seen that the variable of the number of residents living in each zone is the most dominant one affecting the number of trips produced. The variables which are most dominant for trip attraction are number of jobs, and the research facility space in that particular zone respectively. Appendix 2 indicates the trip generation for 2003, including both the internal as well as the external zones. 2003 histogram.JPGFigure 4-1: Productions and Attractions for the Current Scenario 2003 It can be seen from the Appendix 2 and figure 4-1, Zone 12 is the largest trip generator and attracting external zone. Zone 1 is the highest trip generating and attracting internal zone. 4.2 Trip Distribution and Modal Split The Gravity Model has been employed to generate the trip distribution model. This model is a type of Synthetic Model as “it estimates trips for each cell in the matrix without directly using the observed trip pattern” (Ortúzar and Willumsen 1999 p.159). There are three variants for the Gravity Model function, namely: Exponential Function: f(cij) = exp (-ßcij) Power Function: f(cij) = cij-n Combined Function: cnij exp(-ßcij) Singly constrained versions, in this case destination-constrained, can be produced by making Ai equal to 1, i.e. Ai = 1 and Bj= 1/?iDif(cij) The Combined Function variation of the Gravity Model is the most superior one, as it is the best fit with the actual observed values for trip length distributions of cars (Ortúzar and Willumsen 1999). OmniTRANS performs simultaneous modal split, for which the gravity model can be extended to the “simultaneous gravity model” which is given by: Tijv=p.Qi.Xj.Fv(zijv) Where Tijv= Number of trips from zone I to j via mode v p= Scaling factor Xj= Column Balancing Factor Fv(zijv)= Distribution function taking into account the willingness to travel by mode v given impedance z Appendix 4 indicates the traffic distribution of cars in Delft. 44566 cars have been distributed. As can be seen in Appendix 5, 8635 cyclists have been distributed the entire network of Delft. The modal split indicates that 83.77 percent of the traffic is constituted by cars and 16.23 percent by bicycles. The trip length distribution function for cars can be seen in figure 4-2. This indicates the willingness to travel to a certain distance without any impendence, such as congestion. Hence, in this case the maximum uncongested distance travelled is 10 km. Similarly, figure 4-3 indicates the trip length distribution for bicycles, which experiences its peak at 3 km. The trip time distributions for cars and bicycles have been indicated in Figure 4-4 and Figure 4-5 respectively. These functions, too, follow a similar pattern as that of the Trip Length Distribution. In the case of cars and bicycles, both, the peak is of 12 minutes. The mean trip distance for bicycles is 3.14 km and the mean trip time is 14.22 minutes. Similarly, for cars, the mean distance is 7.59 km and time is 11.12 minutes. Intra-zonal car trips constitute only about 0.57 percent of the total number of trips made by cars, and those made by bicycles constitute about 16.55 percent of the total number of bicycle trips. 4.3 Traffic Assignment 4.3.1.1 Assignment for Cars The General Equilibrium technique of traffic assignment has been used for cars. The condition as given by Wardrop is that “Under equilibrium conditions, traffic arranges itself in congested networks in such a way that no individual trip maker can reduce his path costs by switching routes” (Ortúzar and Willumsen 1999 p.303). Under this traffic assignment model, costs are all perceived in the same way by the trip makers, and hence Stochastic effects are not considered. The following links have the largest traffic flow (for a single direction) of about 7064 cars assigned: 10972, 10973, 11289, 11427, 11428, and 11477. Figure 4-6 represents the traffic assignment for cars in 2003. The colours of the bands, in the graph, indicate the V/C Ratio and the width indicates the traffic load. It reflects that the main road, the east and west freeways crossing the railway are suffering from V/C ratios greater than 1, which requires attention. 4.3.1.2 Assignment for Bicycles The Stochastic Method has been employed for the traffic assignment model for bicycles. This method is superior to the All-Or-Nothing Method, as it takes into account the diversity in the road users’ perceptions of distance, travel time, generalised costs; and thus considers alternate routes to the best-route choice, given by the All-Or-Nothing technique. This is a suitable model for the traffic assignment of bicycles as this technique does not take into account the congestion effects, which is not calculable since capacities for bicycles are not specified. Link 10850 has been assigned the maximum number of bicycle trips for a single direction, which is 941 trips. Figure 4-7 represents the assignment of bicycles in 2003. Most of the trips are confined to the internal zones. 5 Modelling for Future Situation 2020 The modelling stages for the future scenarios of 2020 will remain the same till the Traffic Assignment Stage, which would differ based on the blocked links for the future construction scenario of 2020. 5.1 Trip Generation The Zonal-based Multiple Regression model has been employed. The functions are the same as those for 2003. However, forecasts for the number of residents, jobs, and the research facility space and education building space in 2020 are different from the current year. Also, it has been given that the productions and attractions generated by the external zones is to be assumed to grow by 15 percent from 2020 to 2003 (Chen 2009). The above figure 5-1 illustrates that Zone 1 still remains the highest trip production and attraction external zone; and Zone 12 continues to remain the highest trip producing and attracting internal zone. The same is reflected through Appendix 3. 5.2 Trip Distribution and Modal Split The Gravity Model has been employed for the trip distribution. A total of about 54380 cars have been distributed, and about 10413 bicycles. The modal split for 2020 demonstrates that about 83.5 percent of the trips would be by cars, and the remaining 16.5 percent by bicycles. For cars, the intra-zonal trips constitute about 0.54 percent, whereas for the bicycles, intra-zonal trips constitute about 15.71 percent of the trips. Trip length distribution function (indicated in Figure 5-2 and 5-3) and the trip time distribution functions (indicated in Figure 5-4 and 5-5) have been generated. The maximum uncongested distance remains the same for both cars and bicycles, as in 2003, as also the maximum uncongested time in the case for cars. For bicycles, the maximum time has reduced to 8 minutes. The mean trip distance for bicycles is 3.26 km and the mean time is 14.75 minutes. Similarly, for cars, the mean distance is 7.56 km and time is 11 minutes. 5.3 Traffic Assignment for Zero-Alternative Situation 5.3.1 Traffic Assignment for Cars The General Equilibrium model has been employed. The following links have the maximum numbers of cars assigned, i.e. about 8346 cars, to them for one direction: Links 10972, 10973, 11289, 11427, 11428, 11477, and 11478. Figure 5-6 represents the assignment for cars. The colours of the bands, in the graph, indicate the V/C Ratio and the width indicates the load of traffic. The freeways continue to have high V/C ratios, as well as the main roads crossing the railway. 5.3.2 Traffic Assignment for Bicycles For the traffic assignment modelling for bicycles, the Stochastic Method has been used again. Link 10850 has been assigned the maximum number of bicycle trips (114 trips). Figure 5-7 represents the bicycle assignment. 5.4 Traffic Assignment for Future Construction Situation In the future situation during construction, the decision to upgrade the railways from two tracks to four tracks has been made. This would result in the closing of Links 9827, 9873, and 10486. 5.4.1 Traffic Assignment for Cars It has been calculated that links 11283, 11407, 11463, and 11464 have the maximum load, of 10723 cars in one direction. Figure 5-8 represents the car assignment considering future construction. The cross-railway link south of zone 17 experiences a greater load, whereby there is a reduction in the northern cross-link. 5.4.2 Traffic Assignment for Bicycles The Stochastic model employed for assigning the bicycle traffic that Link 10452 the maximum load, in one direction, of 1446.54 bicycles. Figure 5-9 represents the assignment for bicycles. 6 Analysis 6.1 Trip Generation Amongst the internal zones, which are of primary concern, Zone 12 is the zone which remains the highest trip producing and attracting zone. This is supported by the fact that Zone 12 has the highest number of residents living in it, and the maximum number of jobs existing in this zone. This zone is located at the heart of the city, adjacent to the railway line and the main road connecting the two freeways. All the internal zones have experienced a growth rate for the number of trips generated and produced by about 11 percent. Zone 1 also remains the highest trip producing and attracting external zone. This may be accounted by the fact that Zone 1 is directly connected to Delft by the railway line, and thus could perhaps be an important junction or location. 6.2 Trip Distribution and Modal Split The trip distribution can be reflected through the study of the matrices given in Appendix 4 to 7. For 2003, the maximum number of car trips has been of the nature Internal-to-External, with the most dominant one being from Zone 15 to Zone 1. This has not changed for 2020. For 2003 and 2020, the most dominant character of bicycle trips is Internal-to-Internal, with maximum trips being made within Zone 12. This is as should be expected, since long distance travel by bicycles is not likely to be made except in rare circumstances. The maximum number of bicycle trips may also be attributed to the fact that Zone 12 is the Delft City Centre. The maximum growth (4.8 times) for car trips has been seen for the pair Zone 7-Zone 1, and the maximum for bicycles (0.15 times) has been for the pair Zone 5-Zone 12. On studying the zone-to-zone average travel distance and time, it can be seen from Appendix 8 and 9 that the maximum increase for trip distance has been from zone 7 to 15 (46.86 percent) and maximum increase in time has been for the pair zone 18 to 22 (48.67 percent). The maximum increase (48.78 percent) in cost has been experienced for zone 11 to 22. The modal split indicates a marginal change from 2003 to 2005, whereby there is a decrease from approximately 83.77 to 83.5 percent for cars. Intra-zonal trips made in 2020 have experienced a fall from 2003. This may indicate greater travel distances and time, and thus greater generalized costs in the future. 6.3 Traffic Assignment On comparing the figures indicating the traffic assignments for the three scenarios, it can be seen that the maximum car trips load remains on the freeways defining Delft on the eastern and western sides. The main difference can be seen between the zero-alternative and construction situation for 2020. Due to the blocked links, car traffic has been assigned to the links 1164, 11645, and Westvest-Hooikade particularly have experienced a significant increase, whereas the Westlandseweg links have experienced a decrease in the load of trips. Also, as was expected, there was an increased use of the Ruys-de-Berenbrouckstraat, and Abtwoudse links. However, the Mercuriusweg saw a decrease in the traffic load as compared to the zero-alternative scenario, which goes against as was anticipated. In the case of assigned bicycle trips, due to the blocked links, the Hof-van-Delftlaan link has seen a substantial increase in the traffic load. The share of the railway crossing traffic has been seen to change for all the three scenarios. This has been indicated in figure 6-1. There is a decrease in the share from 2003 to the Zero-Alternative scenario. However, comparing the future construction scenario with the Zero-Alternative, there has been an increase in the share, for both cars and bicycles. 7 Conclusions Zones 1 and 12 being of prime importance, also supported by their connectivity will continue to dominate as the zones attracting and generating the maximum traffic. Since maximum bicycle traffic load is concentrated in Zone 12, measures may be taken to restrict the entry of cars in this area so as to ensure a more safe environment, which would even benefit the households, as the maximum percentage are located in this zone. Increased generalised costs must be taken into account, based on the above analysis. Links which are experiencing greater traffic loads due to construction works have been identified, and relief measures for these should be planned, particularly for the freeways on the eastern and western side of the city. 8 Strengths and Weaknesses of OmniTRANS The strength of OmniTRANS is that it helps in the rapid and accurate transport modeling procedures. Also, the data can be very easily examined on the transport network map, rather than just being confined to tables and numbers, which makes analysis tedious. Also, a number of variables can be studied, which can be further sorted out based on the direction for any particular link. The weaknesses could be cited as only being able to employ the use of the Simultaneous Gravity Model being available for trip distribution stage. Also, only limited types of traffic assignment models can be performed (such as Stochastic, All-or-Nothing, and Equilibrium). Public transport modelling is also not performed by the software (OmniTRANS 2009). References CHEN, H. 2009. Handout: Coursework Description, lecture notes distributed in TRAN5020 Principles of Transport Modelling. University of Leeds, 3 November 2009. OMNITRANS. 2009. What’s New in OT5 [online]. [Accessed on 1st December 2009]. Available from http://www.omnitrans-international.com/resources/brochures/what’s new 2008.pdf. ORTÚZAR, J.

The Operations Plan: Non-Profit Religious Music Promotion Evaluation Essay

Introduction Efficiency is very critical in the spheres of quality assurance as part of the company’s operations management strategy. Customers across the globe are keen on efficiency and quality of services they receive from companies and would quickly change preferences on the basis of perceived quality. It is necessary that businesses ensure that efficiency and quality in service delivery is the baseline of their operations. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the concepts of the organizational chart, operations management, supply chain, business laws, and efficiency in the running of the nonprofit Texas Religious Music Promotion Company. Management Team Operations management deals with management of a production process of goods and services in an organization. Operations function is central to any business because it deals with merchandise (Janus, 2008). As a whole, operations management contributes to the organizational strategy through cost reduction, customer satisfaction, and reduction of risks resulting from operation failures, reduction of the amount of investment, and providing a basis for future innovation. The main determinants of success matrix in business production activities are the production strategies and the aspect of human input. As a matter of fact, the labor output will eventually determine the productivity of a business activity at micro and macro levels of business operations. The chart below summarizes the organizational chart for the nonprofit Texas Religious Music Promotion Company. Organizational Chart The business manager will be tasked with the duty of ensuring that the business guidelines are met within efficient utilization of resources. The business coordinator will form the primary link between the general manager and other units of the business. The head of logistics and the marketing manager will ensure a smooth flow of the business activities in the company through constant coordination with the sales team. Plan for Hiring Employees Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Type of resource Source Period of engagement (in hours) Calculated rate of delivery in ($/hr) Cost aspects in ($) Management Within 226 218 5,487 Marketing Within 218 119 5,429 Logistics Within 159 119 4,298 Direct sales Within 150 115 7,320 Total costs 22,432 The company will consider providing a job compensation structure that supports the organizations as well as individuals’ growth and development perspectives. At the end of every six months, performance reviews will be carried out at the company for all the employees (Longenecker et al. 2009). Through the compensation model, the business will be in a position to survive market swings and competition as a result of employee dissatisfaction. The performance reviews will minimize instances of employee redundancy and add value to skills required in the production strategy. Employee Policies and Work Ethics Policies The company has designed a staffing review strategy that captures the actual performance of its human resources within specified duration. The preferred approaches to personnel selection are employee personal traits, learning ability, engagement skills, and attitude towards an assignment. This ensures that efficiency is the building block of salary determination and promotion program. When selecting a potential employee, the company offers a job opening opportunity to its current employees. The internal or external characteristics and traits that will suggest qualified personnel are incorporated in the selection procedure. The interview process is carried out by several interviewers, each tasked with testing a specific dimension or job performance indicator. This strategy provides a more precise behavioral and job related evaluation of personnel candidates in terms of cognitive, knowledge, and personality test in line with the goal of optimal employee performance in the company. Work Ethics The work ethics for this company encompass company’s moral values and social ethics in employee engagements at intra and inter personal communication parameters. Personal foresight determines reaction to situations and structured responses to workplace ethical dilemmas. For every ethical dilemma identified, the company has a response strategy and rules to govern the decision making process. Employees are motivated to adopt a positive attitude and self esteem to effortlessly function within the code of ethics and culture within the company’s organization culture. Workplace Environment Workplace stresses often occur as a result of disorganization, dissatisfaction, and unhealthy work environment as perceived by the employees. As a result of workplace stress, the performance of each employee will fall below the minimal expectation. To avoid occurrence of this, the business is located in the stress free environment of the city of Texas. The business is located in the ultra modern and environmentally friendly structure with adequate work space. The Supply Chain The supply chain determines the success of a company’s marketing strategy and ease of business sustainability. An organised supply chain is a prerequisite for confidence and trusts without and without a company’s market catchment. This company will adopt the pseudo marketing strategy to further penetrate the market and sustain its captured market. Accessibility and transition in the marketing plan will ensure efficiency and proactive response analysis to further improve on the demands of prospective clients. To increase credibility and maintain professionalism, the market entry plan will encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate healthy and lifetime relationships between the business and its clients. Among the new development elements that will be incorporated to build trust are establishment of a strong distribution, fair retribution process, and passing accurate information to target audience to restore confidence within the new networks. Customer retention is therefore achievable through the creation of reliable and affordable marketing channel that is essential in monitoring a matrix that maps out potential competitors and identifies weaknesses and strengths of the clients. Moreover, the reporting criteria will reflect the success of the marketing calendar and set targets generated from time to time. We will write a custom Essay on The Operations Plan: Non-Profit Religious Music Promotion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quality Assurance Strategies Production efficiency is critical in the production line since it is characterized by optimal utilization of allocated factors of production within the least possible cost. Quality improvement will be used to measure, assess, and improve client service delivery outcomes. The success for quality improvement and organizational change management is dependent on alignment of the production soft skills and sustainability strategy. If well organised, the strategy will complete the response projections for the company which shall be addressed in the proposed quality service delivery system. Laws Impacting the Business In the ‘equitable doctrine of promissory estoppels’ law, a business entity is protected from false promises made in bad faith and the court of law has powers to protect parties involved. Thus, the Texas Religious Music business will be protected from bad contacts. An example of this would be a trader who had material information that was not known to other individuals. If this individual undertakes a business deal with this information, the court will have the right to declare the deal as a prime facie (Harrison

Leadership and Management at Amazon: Jeff Bezos

Executive Summary In this report we will be examining the Amazon Corporation and its CEO Jeff Bezos on a number of aspects related to leadership and management. Leadership: Amazon’s culture is influenced by Bezos’ abrasive personality and leadership style. Bezos ‘authority and transactional leadership style has cascaded down the organization and influenced the culture negatively at the point where employees do not experience a supportive work environment and feel sabotaged and threatened at work. Organization Design: The current organization design supports Benzo’s leadership style. The matrix structure with a mix of functional small teams as well as divisional structure. It facilitates managerial control of the company. Amazon has a track record of constant expansion across the globe in the e-commerce market and its structure supports the rapid growth. Critical Thinking: Bezos’s vision and decisions as a leader have shaped Amazon to be both the success it is today and but has also caused many of the challenges. Situational Analysis: While internal opportunities and external threats must be examined, for Bezos, the customer is the ultimate test of success. Resources and Capabilities: Amazon’s capabilities are built around scaling and efficiency and structures are in place to get the most out of people for better or worse. Business Rhythm: Amazon has many formal decision-making processes in place in order to ensure accurate and speedy action. Alignment and Performance: Amazon is aligned with their mission and strategy. The link between their operational goals and company strategy is based on consumer satisfaction. Metrics and Effectiveness: Amazon measures its success based on the value it creates for its shareholders. Amazon has delivered on their metrics for measuring success and has been validated by financial analysts placing them among other tech giants. Change Management: Bezos and Amazon has shown they can change after the scathing New York Times article. Amazon is one of the world’s most successful companies. Bezos has unquestioningly been an influential leader. Amazon’s leadership principles, business structures, and culture of excellence, have made it a “CEO Factory” (Mattioli, 2019). At the same time, there have been many high-profile issues with the culture at Amazon and the experiences of the employees. There are many lessons that can be learned from understanding the successes of Amazon as well as the failures. We will discuss how we find Bezos’s leadership and management to be effective, but also where there are challenges and areas of improvement. Leadership Amazon’s culture is influenced by Bezos’ abrasive personality and management style, including an “eagerness to tell others how to behave; an instinct for bluntness bordering on confrontation; and an overarching confidence in the power of metrics” (Kantor, J; Streitfield, D, 2015). Bezos’ authoritarian and transactional leadership style has cascaded down the organization. At Amazon, employees don’t have a supportive work environment and feel threatened. Bezos’ portrays his leadership style and workplace ideas into the Amazon’s fourteen leadership principles. These guidelines encourage employees to constantly prove their worth, outpace their colleagues and even sabotage their careers. In contrast to Google’s Oxygen 8 Behaviors for Great Managers which is focused on coaching, career developing, communication and autonomy. Amazon, via its leadership principles and tools, encourages employees to be brutally critical of each other’s ideas in meetings and to furtively send feedback to each other’s managers which employees perceive as sabotage. (Amazon as an employer p.1) Leaders at amazon have a clearly transactional leadership style where they keep employees motivated through reward and punishment. In contrast to transformational leaders who are those who can shape individuals. (Frost