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Implementing Graphic Equalizer Using Dsk Tms320c6713 Processor Computer Science Essay

In this paper, the Equalizer is implemented as the summation of four band pass filters with different frequencies as a graphic Equalizer. The co-efficient file ‘Equalizer.Cof’ contains the Coefficients of Low-Pass filter (1300Hz), Band-Pass filter1 (1300-2000 Hz), Band-Pass filter2 (2000-2800 Hz), High-Pass filter (2800Hz). The set of coefficients is calculated using MATLAB. The filter is designed with convolution method by transforming both input signal and set of coefficients. Lab VIEW, is a graphical programming was developed by National Instruments, which is well suited for high-level system design. This paper introduces programming using a Lab VIEW graphs. This paper yields how the Code Composer Studio makes the users to establish communication link between PC of a host who is running Lab VIEW and a C6713 DSK board. Index Terms- Graphic Equalizer, DSK TMS320C6713 processor, LabVIEW. I. INTRODUCTION THE Graphic equalizer makes us to see graphically in an Audio controller and manages different frequency bands individually. Every basic equalizer contains unsimilar sets of same amplifiers for each channel. There are two different types of equalizer techniques.1. Graphic equalization and 2.parametric equalization. We use graphic equalizer called constant Q graphic equalizer. In this paper we explore the DSK kit in which the input and output are supported by TMS320C6713 floating point processor with the Code Composer Studio software. We focus mainly on the design and implementation of equalizer with the digital signal processor. The other portion of this paper draft provides the design techniques, which helps the digital system to execute and run on the processor. The final model of the equalizer in designed using the code composer studio and executed via DSK6713 processor, where in the process , an audio signal is taken as the input function/signal and analyzing the output In order to use the DSP kit we make use of the DSK support tools. The three key components of the DSP kit are Code Composer Studio (CCS), an oscilloscope along with signal generator. CCS provide the supporting tools for the software compatibility like c compiler, Matlab, Simulation In order to work with DSP we have to first execute some operations with the DSP. That is Quick test. The Quick test is for testing the DSP board for proper functioning.. II. PRE STUDY A DSP Starter Kit TMS320C6713 DSP Starter Kit (DSK) gives users a opportune, low cost means of evaluating the features and architecture of theTMS320C6713 Digital Signal Processor from Texas Instruments. Various algorithms are well suited and based on VLIW architecture, on which the TMS320C6713(C6713) is also based on. Both fixed-point processing and floating-point processing can be done by the kit. In order to improve the various applications of signal processing, the stand alone C6713 DSK has introduced a wide range of on board peripherals and interfaces [1]. B FIR Filter Design The instruction set and architecture of TMS320C6x makes it well appropriate for FIR filtering operations. Digital filter, such as an FIR filter, operates on discrete-time signals and can be implemented with a DSP such as the TMS320C6713 [1]. There are wide methods including a number of tools available to design and implement within a few minutes an FIR filter in real time using the TMS320C6x-based DSK. The filter design consists of the estimation of a transfer function with a resulting set of coefficients. Different techniques are available for the design of FIR filters. Fourier series is mostly utilized as computer aided design technique for the designment of FIR filter. The important characteristic feature of FIR filter is that it can guarantee linear phase. The linear phase feature can be very helpful in applications such as speech analysis, where phase distortion can be dangerous. Hence Linear phase filters are FIR filters. However, not all FIR filters have linear phase. Many applications in adaptive filtering and speech processing such as in a linear predictive coding (LPC) application uses Lattice structure of FIR filters [2]. Approximating the magnitude response of the transfer function to a desired magnitude response is done by making use of Fourier series design method of an FIR filter. C Graphic Equalizers: They are very excellent equalizers and are much suited to situations where the actual “modification” is required more. Achieving the equalization with four different filters which had fixed frequencies is called the audio graphic equalizer, which is very efficient. The variation of the magnitude response leads to high quality output sounds. A set of filters together is simply called as Graphic Equalizer, with a fixed center frequency for each filter that cannot be changed. The only control you have is the amount of boost in each frequency band. Sliders are those used for controlling the boost or cut. This interface is pretty perceptive because the positions of the sliders themselves resembles the frequency response of the equalizer. The sliders are a graphic representation of the frequency response, hence the name ‘graphic’ equalizer [2]. The actual graphic equalizer implementation is different than the common tone controls. certain frequency bands are attenuated on stereo boost which acts as bass and treble tone knobs while letting everything else pass unaffected, so we can sequence them in series. G1 G1 BPF1 Input BPF2 G2 output Σ BPF3 G3 BPF L GL Figure: Design of Simple Equalizer A graphic equalizer make use of a set of bandpass filters that are intended to completely isolate certain frequency bands. Equalization is the method of varying the frequency response characteristics of a signal. A music equalizer is used to amplify or attenuate a particular band of frequencies of a given signal in order to get better sound effects. The input signal is divided into different frequency bands by a series of bandpass filters (BPF) and then each band is attenuated or boosted by different frequency bands which inturn have independent gain control. All those sliders on the front of the equalizer are the gain controls in each band. The parallel arrangement of Gain factors (G) and all the bands are added finally to generate a composite signal. D Parametric Equalizers Once the signal passes through the bandpass filters, you can now manipulate each of the filters, compared to the series connection with the tone controls, is used to diminish the more harmful effects of the filters. The magnitude frequency responses shown above do not tell us everything about the filter. The filter has a phase response as well. While phase distortion is desirable in some cases , in most sound reinforcement applications, we want to ensure that the sound isn’t colored at all if possible. For each filter you add in series, its phase response is added to the phase response of the other filters. The phase response also reveals how the filter actually delays the signal. If you have two or three filters in your tone control, chaining them in series might be fine, but with a 15 or 31 band graphic equalizer, distortion begins to add up and make a difference. D Equalization method using Discrete Filters The audio graphic equalizer has evolved into a set of filters at fixed frequencies, covering the audio range.The operator has has adjusted the level of each individually, either to correct a magnitude response variation, or to create one intentionally. This degree of control has remained popular despite the recent advances of technology.Digital Signal Processing (DSP) has made it practical to provide many times this resolution to the point where the term arbitrary magnitude response is considered applicable. As is well known, equalization has phase shift as a mathematical requirement. Phase shift has not always been considered as important as magnitude response because it was less audible. Still, studies have confirmed that it is audible in some situations.Minimum phase is often chosen for its economy and because it is appropriate for correcting a system with minimum phase characteristics, which may be cancelled by minimum phase filtering without adding time delay. Minimum phase filters might also be appropriate for magnitude correction of system responses with unknown phase characteristics [2]. Although discrete filters can be designed with narrow bandwidths, even approaching a filter shape with a flat top and steep cutoff is expensive,so in practice each filter has an effect over a wider range of frequencies than it is intended to affect. The filter response curves still have significant magnitude at neighboring filter band frequencies. Each band becomes independent, or very nearly so. Otherwise, to be effective, an operator must be very accustomed to the product’s particular filter and combining behavior. Equalizer filters began as analog second-order filters, and have since been implemented as digital IIR filters. Equalization curves with complex shapes can also be accomplished with single large FIR filters, allowing multiple frequency band settings to be filter significantly affects no more than the first few neighboring frequency bands. An FIR filter may be designed to approximate the impulse response of many IIR filters, and provides the ultimate in flexibility, where magnitude and phase may be adjusted more specifically and semi-independently. In order to support low frequencies, many thousands of taps are required. In order to economically implement this, complicated methods like multirate processing or the use of FFT for fast circular convolution are used. IIR filters have some advantages over single FIR filters, namely simplicity and speed of design, and better efficiency for a limited number of bands that include low design frequencies. Analog filters are designed once, while a digital filter may need to be redesigned when any parameter changes. Small IIR filters can be adjusted (redesigned) quickly, compared to large FIR filters. Equalizers are usually adjusted manually, but in theory an automated analysis of the sound system may be used[3]. Care then must be taken with correcting no minimum phase responses, where matching the phase requires added delay. Also, equalization of deep notches in the response should not be attempted because of potential adverse effects in other areas of a room, as well as the possibility of amplifier overload. These techniques are also beyond the scope of this paper. E LabVIEW LabVIEW is a full-featured graphical programming language and provides a developed environment for system design(embedded). LabVIEW is a graphical design tool for development of algorithms, system design (embedded), hardware interference with real world applications. There are different modules introduced to explain the important functionalities of LabVIEW to real-time (scenario) operating systems, DSP, and FPGA programming [2]. By using the LabVIEW as a platform, all the provided functionalities are made possible for signal processing system/ algorithm design and implementation. The LabVIEW helps to install other hardware , drivers toolkits , interfacing its software to provide more support and to provide more compatibility. functionality and capability. The LabVIEW helps to improve graphical applications and creates a flexible surrounding to interface. A program in LabVIEW is named as Virtual Instrument (VI), which is same as the function called in the C language. III PROBLEM SOLUTION There exists a very good concept for the creation of equalizer. The pre-lab study including FIR filter design and its fundamentals helps alot in generating this equalizer. We stared first by clicking on the software (CCStudio V3.1). This now gave us the access to the 6713 chip can also be accessed with the information given in the pre study. Now get the chip connected and then create a new project. And the files according to the program are added to different folders such as the source and library folders. And the scan all dependencies command ,will automatically searches for all the header files in the system and then to the project building of the program is done so that the out file can be generated.The generation of out file is not generated if an error occurs in the program building. DSP board chips will then be loaded with this out file in order to achieve its desired purpose.So here the processing comprising of producing four filters consisting of 1-high-pass , 2-band pass and 1 low pass filters. The low-pass filter has a frequency range of 1300Hz . The first band-pass filter has the range from 1300-2000 hertz . The second bandpass filter has a range between 2000-2800 hertz . Aliasing effect was due to too high order used. Based on FDA tool the filter coefficients were produced in the matlab. FIR filter was measured with window method. Every individual frequency of the filter generates all the filter coefficients. The software was loaded with C-header file generated. The same procedure was followed by different frequencies. Controlling the different frequency bands by the user graphically is the main aim of the graphic equalizer and providing all frequencies in the signal reducing the distortion. Usually the speech sampling rate is at 8 samples/per sec. Sampling frequency rate is selected at 48KHz so that no aliasing takes place due to higher order. The improper sampling is caused due to aliasing disturbance.If the sampling frequency is less than twice of the input frequency than aliasing takes place. The idea of this project is very simple to get graphical equalization by taking four-band filters1-high pass, 2-band pass and 1-low pass filter. So we have concentrated on this range of frequencies. For that we have taken four-band filters are low-pass filter from 1300Hz (Because audible ranges are in the low frequencies, so we have concentrated on the low frequency)and then introduced band pass filter. In order to increase the resolution the band pass filter can be separated into two filters. So we have separated one band pass into two band pass filters. These are bandpass1, band pass filter2.the first one is band-pass filter1 from 1300-2000Hz, and second one is band-pass filter2 from 2000-2800Hz and after that other frequencies high-pass filter from 2800Hz. Figure: Graphic Equalizer Template To get desired transfer function we calculate the filtercoefficients . The equalizer coefficients file consists oftotal filter coefficients of the graphic equalizer. In the coefficient file each set contains (N) coefficients,these coefficients are designed by using MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) filter designer SPTOOL or MATLAB FDATOOL. Figure:Block Diagram of Block Equalizer ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Kristen Nilsson for his valuable guidance and discussions in the accomplishment of the project. REFERENCES [1] Rulph Chassaing and Donald Reay”Digital Signal Processing andApplication with the TMS320C6713 and TMS320C6416 DSK”2nd Ed. pp 125-150 [2] Dr. Woon-Seng S. Gan, Dr. Sen M. Kuo”Embedded Signal Processing with the MicroSignal Architecture,”By c 2006 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. [3] Ray miller “Equalization methods with true Response using discrete filter ‘Audio’.”Engineering Society Convention Paper 6088. [4] John G.Proakies, Dimitries G.Manolakis “Digital signal processing Principles, Algorithms, and Applications” 3rd edition pp 629-630.
Community Health Assessment / Windshield Survey. I need an explanation for this Nursing question to help me study.

GUIDELINES:

Community description.
Community health status (can be obtain from the department of health).
The role of the community as a client.
Healthy people 2020, lading health indictors in your community.
Conclusion.

Also, you must present a table as an appendix with the following topics and description;
Housing
Transportation
Race and ethnicity
Open space
Service centers
Religion and politics

Community Health Assessment / Windshield Survey Community AssessmentA community health assessment (sometimes called a CHA), also known as community health needs assessment (sometimes called a CHNA), refers to a state, tribal, local, or territorial health assessment that identifies key health needs and issues through systematic, comprehensive data collection and analysis. Community health assessments use such principles as

Multisector collaborations that support shared ownership of all phases of community health improvement, including assessment, planning, investment, implementation, and evaluation
Proactive, broad, and diverse community engagement to improve results
A definition of community that encompasses both a significant enough area to allow for population-wide interventions and measurable results, and includes a targeted focus to address disparities among subpopulations
Maximum transparency to improve community engagement and accountability
Use of evidence-based interventions and encouragement of innovative practices with a thorough evaluation
Evaluation to inform a continuous improvement process
Use of the highest quality data pooled from and shared among, diverse public and private sources
(Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/cha/plan.html)Windshield Survey:”A windshield survey is an informal method used by community health nurses to obtain basic knowledge about a given community. It provides a subjective view of the various physical characteristics of a communal area as observed while driving or walking through a neighborhood..”(Retrieved from; mynursingprofessionalportfolio.weebly.com/uploads/8/9/3/3/8933086/windshieldsurvey.docx).”As stated in the syllabus please present your assignment in an APA format word document, Arial 12 font attached to the forum in the discussion board title “Week 1 discussion questions”. A minimum of 2 evidence-based references are required (not counting the class textbook) no older than 5 years. A minimum of 1000 words are required. Make sure the assessment is based in the community where you live. I don’t want community health assessment from other communities, once again it must be from the community you live. Please mention the zip code of your community on the first page of the assignment.Please follow the instructions given in the syllabus
My Zip code is 33196
Please Help me. Let me know if you have any questions, Galina

Community Health Assessment / Windshield Survey

Behavior Modification.

I’m working on a psychology question and need support to help me learn.

this work follow the fileBehavior Modification Project Part 3 – Weekly JournalFour-Week Journal of Behavioral Modification (30 pts):Start your chosen behavior change and monitor how it goes for a four week period. At the end of each week, write a half-page to one-page (100-250 words) journal entry (include the date for each entry) describing your progress thus far in specific, measurable terms including how frequently you engaged in the problem behavior and how frequently you successfully changed the behavior, as well as any challenges or obstacles that you experienced. Some people prefer to include a behavior tracking/monitoring sheet as well, which you can create on your own or find online. Your journal entry should also include discussion of revisions to your change plan that you made or plan to make for the next week, sources of support for making the change that you found helpful, and benefits of the change that you are noticing.Example Journal Entry: “Oct 20th, 2017. Week One Journal: I began my plan to cut down and quit smoking this week. I smoked two cigarettes this week, one on Monday morning and one on Thursday night. This first week was harder than I expected when it came to not smoking during the stress of preparing for an exam on Monday and when I was out with friends on Thursday. On the other days, it seemed to help when I remembered to fill up my water bottle and when I could safety reach the gum in my bag while I was driving. I haven’t bought a pack of cigarettes in over two weeks, so that’s nice as well. When I fill up my car with gas, I plan to pay at the pump and not go inside the store to break that old stimulus cue of buying cigarettes when I get gas.”During your journal weeks, refer back to your Part 2 submission to review your plan, anticipated behavior and thinking changes, and anticipated obstacles to reflect on how the lived experience of making this change compares to your expectations.*Note, these weekly submissions will not be graded individually, and no points will be deducted for late journal entries. The journals will be graded together with your Final Report due later in the semester.
Behavior Modification

Destroy Coal Plants Before They Destroy the Environment

Coal has been a huge part of our power industry, but things are changing. The Congressional Quarterly Researcher (CQR) from June 17, 2016 titled “Coal Industry’s Future” discusses the likelihood of coal-fired power plants either maintaining their operation in the future or closing their doors for good. As of today, coal is a huge source of power for much of the world, but that could be changing in the near future. Many places are making the switch to more efficient, cleaner energy, such as wind, water, and solar power, and leaving coal-fired power plants in the dust. Due to the cost and harmfulness of burning coal, supporters of clean energy want to abandon its use, but the coal industry is fighting back. According to them, our power grid would be jeopardized without burning coal. There are numerous smaller issues highlighted in the CQR that exist within the main coal industry problem. For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ordered a ten percent reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from all coal plants by the year 2030. Many states and power companies have questioned whether the EPA is overstepping their boundaries and have taken the reduction to court. Also, about 40% of the coal in the United States is mined on public land through leases. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) controls these leases, and they have currently made the decision to halt new leases. The BLM wants to reassess the value of leases based on things like fairness to taxpayers and pollution. Finally, when the coal companies shut their doors, they leave thousands of people unemployed, and this is a substantial blow to our economy. The coal industry is changing now, but it has always been steadily evolving throughout the past. In 1882, the Unites States’ first coal-fired power plant is opened in Manhattan. This began the legacy of coal that would power our country for over a century. In 1907, there are roughly 700,000 people employed in coal mines, and the number of mines peak at 3,242. In 1970, the Clean Air Act is passed. This started the long string of regulations to reduce the amount of pollution generated by burning coal. Making the decision to abandon coal for cleaner energy is a difficult decision, and many people have opinions. Among these people is President Elect, Donald Trump. Trump will soon be setting foot in the white house, and, as president, he has the power to drastically change the coal industry. In the QCR, Trump is quoted saying that he wants to bring back and save the coal industry. Siding with Trump is Luke Popovich, a spokesperson for the National Mining Association. Popovich believes that the coal industry can evolve to increase efficiency and reduce pollution. On the other hand is Mary Anne Hitt, the director of the Sierra Club’s Beyond Coal movement. Beyond Coal aims to close the doors of every coal plant in the United States to make the planet a cleaner place. The CQR also includes the question “Should the federal moratorium on new coal leases be permanent?” and two responses written for the CQR. Jeremy Nichols, the climate and energy program director at WildEarth Guardians, argues yes. He believes that cutting mining from federal lands will greatly reduce pollution and pave the way for a coal-free United States. Laura Sheehan, senior vice president of communications at the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity, argues no. In her opinion, an operation such as this would be too costly and would cripple the coal industry and its surrounding economy. All in all, I learned many things after reading the QCR. I think the we should continue to close coal plants. Cleaner, zero-emission alternatives are clearly the better choice because I’m a firm believer that we should greatly reduce pollution. Just think. What would our planet look like today if the Romans started burning coal a thousand ago? I am fully aware that this will cause many issues, but it’s worth it. People will lose jobs, and people will lose money. Despite all this, we need to switch to clean energy because we cannot lose our planet.

Feminism and its Impact on Society

order essay cheap ‘Feminism is one of the basic movements for human liberty’ (Schneir, 1996: xi) a feminist role in society is to actively recognize the need for, and work towards creating equality for all women. Feminism is purely a movement which intends to enlighten people with a goal of improving gender equality and strengthening women’s status in society. Geographers began to study feminism in the late 1970s as a resistance against sexism. “Since the late 1970s to 90s, the work of many feminist geographers have explored the connections between gender and geography, and has challenged gender inequalities in both geographical discourse and knowledge about the world” (Blunt, A

Clive Lewis’ Biography and Books Essay (Book Review)

Table of Contents Background to the author A summary of the main points or themes An evaluation of the book’s usefulness Works Cited Background to the author Clive Lewis had an eventful upbringing that would gradually see him mold into the person that he became in his adult life. It was full of education as most scholars were at a time when there were many challenges that he faced. His articulate method of thinking got him to start evoking thoughts of categorizing love, thus, his wayward writing. Grappling at a time when most people were ignorant of their inner feelings, Clive Lewis managed to climb out of the pit of sunken feeling and bring out some of the most thought provoking, every day scenarios. The renowned author, Clive Staples Lewis, was sired in Ireland in the city of Belfast in the year 1898 on the 29th day of November. His father, Albert James Lewis, who was born in the year 1863 and passed away in 1929, was a legal representative who had been born and raised in Ireland after his father repositioned himself from Wales in the midst of the prior century. Lewis’s maternal parent was the offspring of an Anglican Minster in the Irish Papacy. She was called Florence Augusta Lewis, née Hamilton and she lived between the years 1862 and 1908. Clive had an elder brother named Warren Hamilton Lewis. He changed his name at the age of four after an incident that involved the death of his favorite pet dog. He actually refused to answer to any other name apart from the one that had been bestowed upon his dog. Clive loved animals all his young life and he started writing at a tender age. He would replicate some of the stories that he read written by Beatrix Potter and would create his own versions and animals in his stories (Lewis Four loves 68). He managed to create the world of Boxen with his brother where the animals ruled the world that they lived in. He was in love with reading and would saunter into his father’s library and get hold of all the books that he could, and go through them thoroughly. This made him quite adept to reading and he would take to books like a duck to water. At one point, he stated that locating the right manuscript to read was as stress-free as finding a new vane of pasture in a meadow. Private tutors helped with his initial schooling at home. This was prior to his being shipped off to Hertfordshire in the region of Watford. Here, he attended Wynyard School in the year 1908. This was following the death of his mother. She passed away after suffering from cancer. Luckily, for him, his brother was already enrolled there and it was easy for him to settle in without problems. Unfortunately, the school had to close down due to a serious lack of students. The headmaster was then committed to a mental asylum after losing his faculties. He was called Robert “Oldie” Capron. Clive proceeded to Campbell College on the eastern side of Belfast. This place was situated almost one mile from his home. He had to leave after a short while due to some respiratory problems that he developed. He was transferred to a health resort town called Malvern in Worcestershire. He attended Cherborg House, which was a preparatory school. In this period, Clive abandoned his Christian hood and declared that he had become an atheist. He gained more interest in the occult, as well as mythology. He registered in Malvern College in month of September of the year 1913 and stayed until the middle month of the subsequent year. He experienced some stiff competition socially as he stated later. He left the school and an old friend of his fathers who was a former headmaster of Lurgan College tutored him. He was called William T. Kirkpatrick. One of the things that always caught his full and undivided attention was the legends, as well as, songs of what he termed as Northernness. This was the ancient literature of the Scandinavian region that was more or less preserved in the Icelandic sagas. His internal longing that he later named “joy”, emanated from the legends. He fell head over heels in love with nature and he stated that its beauty brought memories of the tales of the North and he also stated that the North brought back memories of the beautiful aspects of nature. The tales and epics that he would write as a teenager on Boxen veered and he started utilizing various graphic types that included theatricals as well as larger-than-life poetry in a bid to regain his interests in folklore of the Norse, as well as, the regular world. Kirkpatrick brought out his great interest in the literature from Greece. He also brought forth his interest in Greek mythology as well as sharpening his skills in debating and offering sound reasoning power. His enormous efforts led to his being offered a scholarship at the Oxford University College. Lewis went to war in the First World War, and suffered injuries, which left him depressed as well as homesick. He reverted from being an atheist later on and returned to Christian hood (Lewis Mere Christianity 77). He had been separated from his Christian upbringing after he started viewing it as being tedious. He became a successful writer after he managed to expose most of the feelings that may have been suppressed in most people and evoked feelings that may never have been interpreted in the way that he did. A summary of the main points or themes This book explores and elucidates on the nature of love from a Christian based angle, through experiments of thoughts. In the initial phase of the book, Clive Lewis admits that he misunderstood the words of St. John “God is Love”, as an artless starting, point to speak on the subject matter. This would be interpreted later on to depict a couple of diverse types of love. These are the need-love and the gift-love. The former is the love such as the mother to child love while the latter is the love such as the love for man by God. Clive Lewis discovered that the natures of these uncomplicated classifications of love are more complex than they may first appear to people. Lewis formulated his ideas and notions for the basis of his topic from this, by exploring the natural aspects of pleasure and then he divides love into four different categories. This does not imply that the premier classes can operate without the lower ones to support them. The categories are mostly based partly on the four Greek words for love. These are affection, friendship, eros and charity (Crooks 37). Lewis likens the corruption of love to insolently depict that it is not what it actually is, to Lucifer, who was an archangel at one time, and deviated himself by his pride and arrogance, and finally fell into decadence. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Storge (affection) – affection can be termed as fondness via familiarity, mostly among members of a family or rather individuals who have formed a gathering by chance. This form of love may be defined as the utmost emotive, natural and widely subtle modes of love. It is considered as being natural because it is present among people with no sense of compulsion, and is considered as emotive due to the fact that it is resultant from affection due to understanding. It is also considered as most widely diffused, due to the fact that it offers the least amount of attention to some of the characteristics that may be believed to be valued or worthy of love and as such, is capable of transcending majority of the discriminating aspects. In an ironic twist to the tale, the strength that it exudes is what mainly makes it most vulnerable. The emotion of affection appears to in built or rather ready-made according to Clive Lewis, and as a result, individuals come to anticipate, or even mandate its presence. This is regardless of their conducts and the natural results it brings forth. Philia (friendship) – This is the love that is shared between friends. Friendship is termed as the tight bond that exists between individuals who may be sharing common wellbeing or undertakings in their lives. Clive Lewis is able to set apart friendship love from other forms of love. Lewis is able to describe friendship love as being the least animate, extroverted, natural and indispensable of the loves that people have, and he insists that the human species does not require friendship so as to breed. Clive Lewis further states that friendship is overly philosophical since it is selected without restrictions. Clive Lewis is able to elucidate the fact that factual companionships, such as the lovingness between Jonathan and the renowned personality, David in the scriptures, is one of the knacks that has been well and truly lost to people today. He exudes a sturdy dislike for the manner in which the people in society today have taken friendship for granted. There are a number of poems that he uses to relate to true friendship. Lewis elucidates on this issue by saying, “to the Ancients, Friendship seemed the happiest and most fully human of all loves; the crown of life and the school of virtue. The modern world, in comparison, ignores it” (Mere Christianity 77). Clive Lewis makes the bold assertion that many people in society do not appreciate true friendship because they have never quite been through it or experienced it enough before, so that they may know what the true value it stands for entails. Eros (romance) – This is described as love in the sense of loving or being in love with somebody. This is distinctly exclusive from sexuality and Clive Lewis calls it Venus, as much he does not go in depth into talking about sensual goings-on and the mystical reference in any sense, whether Christian or non-Christian. Lewis recognizes eros as apathetic. He states that it is Venus that wants the carnal features of an association while on the other hand, eros wishes for the passionate association with the counterpart. Clive Lewis, in a synopsis, states that people who may utterly give themselves to it may consider eros as their center of worship. He depicts that it can be a tremendously philosophical experience for individuals who may vow to stay together to the last points in their lives. Agape (absolute love) – Charity is the type of love that may bring forward thoughtfulness as well as tenderness, irrespective of the state of affairs. In his statement, Clive Lewis depicts that this is the extreme level of loves and he views it as one of the highest Christian virtues. The episode on the subject matter points to the desire to subsidize the natural loves to the love of the one and true God. He is full of charitable love, which is also considered as sacrificial love. An evaluation of the book’s usefulness The book is useful in terms of getting individuals to understand the aspects of love in a Christian context. All Christian denominations can learn from his teachings and get their followers to believe that the categories of love can actually enhance their lives once they get to acknowledge them as they are. The book is also useful in that many other writers have been inspired by the teachings and they have elucidated on the aspects of love from diverse angles that proffer unique thoughts. Many books have been inspired by his writings and have helped many people get along with their lives (Lewis Reflections 44). The book also depicts a situation whereby it shows the need for others in people’s lives. Those who may assume that they may not require other people in their lives may start seeing things in a different way and get to appreciate other people and not view them as obstacles or hindrances in their lives. Works Cited Crooks, Robert. Our Sexuality. Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage, 2007. Print. Lewis, Clive. Mere Christianity. New York: Harper Collins, 2001. Print. We will write a custom Book Review on Clive Lewis’ Biography and Books specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lewis, Clive. Reflections on the Psalms. New Jersey: Fount, 1958. Print. Lewis, Clive. The Four Loves. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace, 1991. Print.

American Art and 1920 Jazz Age Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Art during the War American Art during 1920 Jazz Age Conclusion References Introduction American art includes the historical paintings and other visual artistic expressions. Realistic paintings of portraits and landscapes are some of the art types produced at the onset of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the height of the industrial revolution in America, the America craft movement which began as a response to the industrial revolution was one of the major developments taking place. Exhibitions that were done in New York City such as the Armory show of 1913 are examples of modern art that started penetrating America. Before this show, artists from America concentrated on western paintings and arts from European countries. When the First World War ended, Paris was used as the center of art in the world. Since this development, movements have sprung in America that have completely changed modern art. Art during the War The period during the war in America was characterized by a negative attitude towards fine arts. Most of the art that was produced during this period included paintings from famous painters like Washington Allston. This caused the painters to become disillusioned with the status of the art. Apart from paintings, portraits were another form of art that received much popularity. These portrait paintings exhibited the kind of energy possessed by builders of the American nation and the confidence that was in them. During this period, there was also a remarkable emergence of genre painters. They were involved in painting the American scene. For example, Audubon provided detailed and impressive paintings of birds alongside other paintings of other figures that were regarded as legendary (Henkes, 2001). In the first half of 19th century, the first school of American landscape painting came into existence. This school of art painted landscapes with descriptions of the American people. Their work of art was a show of appreciation to nature that has continued to define American art. In addition, the Americans passion for objects was depicted through paintings. Portraits of sculpture are also another form of art that was prevalent during the war period in America. Though artists like John Frazee had not received intensive training in producing art, they produced original and excellent work from wood and marble. The sculptors of America were highly influenced by neoclassicist personalities from Denmark. American Art during 1920 Jazz Age With the end of the war and its characteristic art of paintings and sculptures, American art started to change in the 1920s with the arrival of the Jazz movement. This period was characterized by the emergence of jazz music accompanied by dance. The movement was sparked by the advent of radio after the end of the war. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The arrival of jazz movement brought about totally different cultural practices and art. The most instrumental pioneers of Jazz music are the African Americans although it was later suited to white Americans. African Americans only used the white Americans to make the jazz culture popular. The jazz culture made it possible for African Americans to share their cultural ideals. Places like New York were often used by African American artists as centers for playing jazz. The jazz music introduced by African Americans played in most radio stations causing youths in the 1920s to shun the traditional cultures that were being propagated. During this period, there was also a complete shift in art after the introduction of fads and radio concerts. Throughout 1920s, jazz music was very popular despite stiff competition that was coming from other forms of music. Common dances that had been developed by the African Americans became popular as part of American art among other white Americans. The radio stations embraced these new forms of music so the Americans were given a chance of enjoying new artistic forms (Infoplease, 2011) Conclusion The Jazz age was truly a turning point for the American art from the art that existed during the period of war. During the war, American art was characterized by paintings and sculptures that represented the Americans aspirations and their love for culture. However, there was a complete change in art after the introduction of the jazz music. It initially originated from the African Americans but later spread to other white Americans. References Henkes, R. (2001). World War 2 in American art. Carolina: McFarland. Infoplease. (2011). After the Civil War. Web.

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