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Impact Of The Studio System On Filmmaking

Examine the extent to which the Hollywood studio system nurtured or inhibited the artistry of film makers. This essay will be analysing to what extent the studio system has helped or possibly hindered the artistic nature and idea of filmmakers. The studio system can be defined under the idea that the studio owns and controls all aspects of the film creation. The largest and most prominent studios at this time were Warner Brothers, Paramount and MGM, they had final say over all decisions to do with the film (Filmsite, 2010). The Studio system was at its most prominent in the 1950’s after having dominated the market from the 1920’s to the 1940’s, they made the final decision on all aspects of the film, and choose who they wanted to direct the film; this director would be given clear guidelines and rules to follow when creating the film. During the 1950’s there started to emerge in Europe a belief that film should be more than just a story on the screen and that it was in fact an art form. This idea of the director taking control over the film to produce their own version, to show how they felt about the film carries into the theory of authorship. Authorship is when a creator of something puts their own stamp on what they are producing, from telling the story in a different way to shooting the film in a different style. The idea of authorship is seen in many texts over the centuries like Shakespeare’s Hamlet, where Hamlet speaks to the audience and in Jane Eyre when the main character address’s the reader in the first person. This idea is related to filmmakers because a film adopts the idea of literacy theory. During the 1950’s a group of film critics in France created a magazine called ‘Cahiers Du Cinema’, to celebrate the film maker within the system, and to champion the cause of authorship. (Versobooks, 2009) From this the idea of Auteurism was born, whereby the director was given the control of the film making process to create their vision for the film. This theory is born out of the idea that film is art, and not just about making money, as was the conception to be the goal of the studio system during this time. The resulting flow of privately created artistic films that were created in Europe in this period, was known under the title of “The French New Wave.” This gained more momentum due to the magazine set up by Banzin, Chabrol, Truffaut, Rohmer and Godard, due to the growing idea of film as art through the theory of Autuerism. (Suite101, 2008) The French new wave was about legitimising cinemas as an art form, they believed that the idea of authorship was about the notion of a creative person, you are responsible for what you create and it will show in your art. They wanted to make films that were different from what most studios allowed. Most studios just made films that were based on novels and stories. A medium in which and by which an artist can express his thoughts, be they abstract or whatever, or in which he can communicate his obsessions as accurately as he can today in essay or novel (Unattributed B, 2010: 1) The French new wave believed that the director should be seen as a chief source of creativity, they believed that the idea the director comes up with has a huge impact on the film. It could be argued, that the Hollywood studio system has always tried to nurture the artistry of film makers, because even though the idea of film makers being seen as the director emerged slowly, studios did begin to see that directors has specialities in certain genres, and allowed them to build on that genre. John Ford was best known for his westerns, and Alfred Hitchcock was best known for his horror and suspense stories, this idea grew and allowed directors to grow in their own right. After the idea of the French new wave hit American it brought thought to studios, and they began to consider whether or not film should be seen as an art form. T.W. Griffiths film ‘Birth of a Nation,’ was one of the earliest films that made studios question film as an art. His film brought the beginning to the golden age of Hollywood cinema, it shows that filmmakers tend to use film to make a point about what is going on at the time. Like Griffith many cinematic historians have examined stories from the past to suggest lessons concerning modern day controversies. (Toplin, R B, 1940: 18) The ideas that the Hollywood studios allowed the growth of creativity of film makers, is easy to see because, the auteur theory expresses the belief that a creative personality can surface through unpromising studio material, and in the end they make it their own. A film is seen as being unique because it does something only a film can do, it is an art form that can express a moment in time, and this idea is also called the holy moment. The idea of the auteur theory began to emerge from this, and it expressed a belief that some Hollywood directors could shape their material to something that meant something to them. It sought to establish individual creativity as the source of value in Hollywood ( Maltby, R, 2003: 46) the idea of the film maker being creative soon followed, and studios began to develop, with each studio having specialities like directors, MGM was good at creating musicals like singing in the rain, Warner brothers was good at making gangster film. One main person who believed that film makers like directors should be acknowledged more in a film is Alexandre Astruc, he was a film critic who was born in France and he argued that certain directors used the camera like a pen. The images themselves add nuance and develop the narrative as much as the dialog does (Unattributed C, 2010: 1) Using this idea and looking at American directors, it could be argued that as well as film makers being seen as authors with a creative process, there is an artistic value that results from their ideas and thoughts, allowing them to creatively express their imagination. The ideas of a film maker being creative, is all about whether they can create something amazing from not much that is given to them, and allowing themselves to work within the studio system. Sometimes auteurism is identified within specific genres and is linked to specialisation; each director has reoccurring elements that is found in all films they make. Alfred Hitchcock is one of the directors who makes each of his films with similar elements, and whose name always comes up when talking about auteur theory. His films are suspense films that keep audiences on their seats. Hitchcock’s success didn’t come from the type of genre the film was in. The skill which he exhibited in the filmmaking i.e. his treatment of the subject in terms of the shots he uses and how he combines them (Unattributed D, 2010: 1) However on the other hand it could also be argued that the Hollywood studio inhibited the artistry of film makers because, most film makers really only do what studios tell them, most work they do has to be checked by someone higher. The whole idea that Hollywood wanted to produce product not art is common because, under the studios rule the director is mainly a person hired to do what they want, he just puts the camera in the right place. Singing in the rain is a prime example of the way Hollywood saw its actors, directors etc, they were just hired. The ideas of auteur theory being a celebration of a director’s freedom can’t be understood by everyone because, it isn’t just one person that works on a film it is a variety of people. More than one person will work on a film, so what makes the director more worthy of praise than, say, the scriptwriter or the camera operators? (Unattributed A, 2007: 1) Whether a film maker is creative or not in their film making process, may not even matter due to the fact that everyone sees things differently, what the person feels is not always what the audience sees. Due to the fact that films are made by studios, and the director isn’t always the dominant one, most try to go independent but lose because, equipment used to make and produce films was expensive and not widely available. The idea of the independent American auteur is rare however, they do exist and they try to create a film that is away from the control of the studio system. Independent filmmaking consists of low-budget projects made by (mostly) young filmmakers with a strong personal vision away from the influence and pressures of the few major conglomerates that control tightly the American film industry (Daisies, G, 2010: 1) Independent film makers do work for studios as directors/ writers, and even actors for hire, just to make money to fund their project. Orson Welles is one of the film makers who pushed away from the studio system to make something he wanted. Welles embodies the concept of the tragic artist, he does everything an ideal film maker should do, he acts, writes, to raise money, but making his films he becomes a suffering artists. He wrote and starred in Citizen Kane which was about an investigation into the life of newspaper tycoon Charles Foster Kane. Orson Welles did make many films after Citizen Kane, but his success in making independent films was very expensive and so he didn’t make many big budget films, after twenty years in the studio he made another independent film called chimes at midnight. The fullest, most completely realized expression of everything [Welles] had been working toward since Citizen Kane. (Unattributed E, 2010: 1) No matter the financial problems at the end, Orson Welles remains the ideal film maker who fought against the studio systems control. In conclusion it is hard to try to discover whether or not the Hollywood studio system nurtured or inhibited the artistry of film makers, no matter how much the directors/film makers are seen as creative, most of them all are contracted by the studios. Followers of the French New Wave movement argue that, the studio system does hinder a director, as they think that films should “be” art and should be a representation of the director’s views, and emotion towards the script. According to (Alfred Hitchcock: Auteur?, 2010) the idea behind the auteur director are done in terms of personal vision, the recurring themes, even a defined view of the world, and a degree of control over production, In auteur films, it is the director who controls the artistic statement, takes credit for the film and is responsible for attracting the audience. (Unattributed F, 2010: 1) Alfred Hitchcock was a major example of seeing a director as a auteur, as his films follow the necessary needs taking up by the French new wave, they have reoccurring themes which are done by a personal vision of his and will even shock audiences. So looking at American directors it is common to see that each one has a creative way to express their imagination. Studios throughout the 50’s and onwards always had some control over the films production, when a director is hired and given a clear set of rules and guidelines to follow, and is not given full control of all aspects of the film, (such as stars of the film, setting or style) then they cannot possibly make their mark on the film. This may well be the case that the Studio system does hinder a director, and stop him from being an “artist”, but maybe this is not what the public want from films. This can be seen in the current situation we have where, although previously widely thought to be a hindrance to directors and their artistry, the studio system period is now being heralded in the media and by the public as the golden age of cinema. The idea of authorship takes hold in the film industry after the 1950’s when film was seen as art not entertainment, however Hollywood had been in an era of a golden age, there reign caused many problem and in 1948 the US department of justice sued the major studios for anti competitive practices. No longer could the film industry control (or monopolize) all aspects of film production, distribution and exhibition (Kliedie, 2007: 1) It seems that regardless of whether or not the studio system affects the artistry of filmmakers, it is now becoming more popular again, and some of the films from this period that are used to stereotype the studio system, are being heralded as classic films. So it would seem that despite films not being creative art and having complete authorship from the director, the mass public does not seem to mind watching studio system type films.

Mathematics homework help

Mathematics homework help. In a 2- to 3-page essay, identify and reflect on three elements of this course that are useful in your professional development and ability to: Formulate communication strategies to develop effective working relationships with professional colleagues, policy makers, and the community.,Elements of this course that are useful in your professional development,INTEGRATION AND REFLECTION, The Doctor of Education program goals include regular self-assessment, self-reflection, and goal setting. It is important to take a moment to reflect on your development as an educational leader and scholar practitioner. The completion of each course in the program is a milestone that provides an opportunity for reflection. At the end of each course, you will be asked to discuss what you have learned. Also, how it applies to your current practice, or you will be asked to set an academic or a professional goal. The expectation is that you will save these self-reflection essays and have a record of your development throughout the program. This is a valuable tool to assist with your professional development in the program; it is also a practice that many educational leaders use to mark their professional and personal development.,In a 2- to 3-page essay, identify and reflect on three elements of this course that are useful in your professional development and ability to:, Formulate communication strategies to develop effective working relationships with professional colleagues, policy makers, and the community., Integrate educational research, technology, and information sources into leadership practices to support successful educational organizations., Communicate proficiently with others in the field through scholarly writing and skilled knowledgeable oral and written presentation to general and specialized audiences., Logically think through an issue using quantitative reasoning and quantitative and qualitative data, to employ and apply mathematical and/or statistical tools to address problems in your field., ,Develop and apply information literacy skills., The Reflective Essay is a required course component (but not part of your final grade).,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Mathematics homework help

Strayer Univeristy Apple iPhone Goods and Services Discussion

essay order Strayer Univeristy Apple iPhone Goods and Services Discussion.

So, this week we are looking at competitors and creating a USP! After picking your one brand, in YOUR OWN WORDS, identify the top to competitors you think of when you think of this brand and then discuss why YOU THINK they are the leading competitors. DO NOT go to that business’s website and copy what the business has. Why did YOU list them as a competitor? Add your own experiences and ideas here, use what you have learned about inside of our modules and in your textbook reading. What do you think that business has that has customers tied between your business products and there’s?Then, come up with the main selling point, what do you think sets your business ahead of the two competitors you listed and discuss why YOU THINK your business is better. Why do you think customers are coming to this business, instead of the competitors you identified in Bullet 1. Remember, this is YOUR ASSESSMENT, so there are no wrong answers!Know that when we talk about products offered by a business we are talking about actual goods, services, and ideas. Consider the following products:Coca-Cola Classic Apple iPhone Nike basketball shoes L’Oreal ShampooPick one of these products, identify two competitors, and discuss what it is they offer that competes with your product.For the product you selected, describe the unique selling proposition (USP). How is your product superior to the competitors you identified?
Strayer Univeristy Apple iPhone Goods and Services Discussion

The Analysis Of Racism In Books English Literature Essay

This term paper will be on an analysis of two books that we read throughout the semester which are: Black like me and The color of water. These books basically, talk mostly about racism towards black and white people and towards those who are of different religion. The first type is called ethnic racism and the second one religious racism. From my point of view, ethnic racism is the ideas that each race has about themselves as the most powerful or the weakest of all races. Moreover, religious racism can be defined as the ideas that a religion can has about itself as the best or the worst. So these are one of the major topics I found in these books, that’s why I consider to talk about racism very interesting. Black like me and the color of water are two books beautifully written in the form of memoirs. Both are an historic representation of what is a real suffering for black people. For years, this group of people has been a notorious black spot on society, for those who have some sort of resentment towards black people either who have had a bad experience with some person of that color, by the strong ideology of empires and nations that demonstrate their anger at those who are different, the rivalry between races, such as biological differences, cultural, political, religious, sexual and gender, among many others. This is an issue which triggered a number of social problems. Some of these problems are: the segregation between nations, peoples, members who share cultural similarities or just from one person to another.Segregation is the manifestation of rejection and separation between different racial groups and racial. Another problem that causes racism in society is the violence, some people are capable of physical assault and verbal mind to a different person, given that rejection and intolerance becomes extreme towards the person who is attacked. For me, racism is a serious problem in society that not only can be seen with the naked eye, but is a soul disease that kills anyone who has it and that subsequently affects at psychological level. Also, this has been a movement that has marked several regions. One of these places has been India which was one of the sitesaffected with this disease where Gandhi promoted the fight against racism through nonviolence. South Africa was equally struck by this horrible disease, time in which the South African president Nelson Mandela, showed his opposition against the racist regime of South Africa, called “apartheid.” Spite that such movements were manifested not only physically, many authors and journals of earlier times, expressed their disagreements in their books or personal experiences that were born just through close contact with this illness. Such is the case of John Howard Griffin, the author and main character of the book Black like me, and James McBride, the author and the protagonist in The color of water. Now to address these books and to reach an analysis of both I should seek the similarities and differences between them. First of all, I have to mention that both share a lot of similarities, for example, they have written in a memoir way, both are written by white men and also they were written at an historical time, and this have so importance because they has a great influence in the past and in the present, so these volumes led to the reflection of many intellectuals of that time. Black like me was written approximately in the era of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the civil rights movement, time in which the United States of America was crossing a crucial stage of transition in terms of racism. Moreover, the color of water represents the historical backdrop of the Black Power movement. Talking about themes, these books share some of them into the story. As a main topic both have racism as a protagonist, in black like me is presented the racism against whites to blacks, and in the color of water not only is showed racism of white people to black people but racism towards people of different religion. So this is one example which was expressed by John H. in the book Black like me, “When all the talk, all the propaganda has been cut away, the criterion is nothing but the color of skin. My experience proved that. They judged me by no quality. My skin was dark.” November 24, p. 115. (Taken from important theme is segregation. In black like me we can see this topic when John goes to get a job, when he is in the bus, to cash a check, to find a bathroom and be freely in a park without being attacked by white people. Moreover, in the color of water this topic is showed when James and his mother are segregated by people in their suburb because James’s mother is white and the place where they live, people are black, also Ruth is rejected because of her religion and she is seen by their neighbors as a rare person. This is a quote which was told by James and this talks about the bad experience of her mother about this topic: “Her oddness, her complete nonawareness of what the world thought of her, a nonchalance in the face of what I perceived to be imminent danger from blacks and whites who disliked her for being a white person in a black world. She saw none of it.” Chapter 2. (Taken from The next similar topic which both books have is discrimination because despite both talk about this theme, this is presented in a different way, that’s mean that in the book Black like me the main character receives discrimination by whites because he has decided to be a black man changing his color skin by a treatment and in the color of water, black people treats very different and badly to James and his mother because they are whites and also Ruth tells how she was discriminated in her childhood because she was a Jewish girl.This is an example which was expressed by James where he say how big was the fear he and his mother had to black people: “But there was a part of me that feared black power very deeply for the obvious reason. I thought black power would be the end of my mother. I had swallowed the white man’s fear of the Negro, as we were called back then, whole.” Chap. 4, Black Power, p. 19. (Taken from Also negative bias is considered for me as another important and interesting topic into both stories. In black like me we can note how white man pre judge black people without given them an opportunity to be closer to blacks and know them better. In the color of water this is reflected how blacks pre judge whites because they have the idea that white people are prepotent and bad. This is presented when people only have an idea of what another group of people different in race, idiom, culture, etc. are. Another one is transition only that in both books this is showed in a different way. In black like me the main character’s life change when he decided to be a black man but more when he begins to live as a black he starts to experiment by himself how black are discriminated and attacked only because they are different of the others. This is one example of this topic where John shows his feelings about it, “The completeness of this transformation appalled me. It was unlike anything I had imagined. I became two men, the observing one and the one who panicked, who felt Negroid even to the depths of my entrails. I felt the beginnings of great loneliness, not because I was a Negro but because the man I had been, the self I knew, was hidden in the flesh of another”. (Taken from On the other hand, both volumes have themes in which they differ, one of them is identity. This topic is showed in the book black lime me when John decide to change his color skin because he wants experiment how black people feel about discrimination, so when he does it, he goes at the mirror and sees himself as a black man, so he does not recognizes him as the man he always has been. In contrast, in the color of water, the lost of identity was indirect because both characters do not know how to face their differences and their identity of what they are so until they are Christians they remember what is their identity and their importance to God and that he always is going to love them it does not matter what race they are. “God is the color of water” as Ruth told James when he asked her what color God was. Past versus present is another topic which is presented in one of the books and not in the other. In the color of water this is presented when James discovers that to understand the problematic in his life and in the reactions of his mother he has to go back to his mother background. So he can face their problems of discrimination thanks to the past to survive in the present. Secrets without disclosing are showed when Ruth does not reveals James that when she was a teenager she was pregnant of her first boyfriend and also she keeps the secret of Tateh’s sexual abuse of her. Those are secrets that happens in the past but that persist in the present of James family because they are traumas that Ruth acquired in the past and that affects to herself and to her family in the present. In addition, motifs in both volumes are a little different. In the color of water the author writes this story in a memoirs technique but also he portrays his mother’s life to understand not only his own background but to understand racist people in the world. On the other hand black like me portrays the experience of the main character. As a conclusion, I think these copies are just a small proof that shows to the whole world that racism exists in different places at different times. So is very important to take into account how serious is this problem, whether in ourselves, in our society or in the world. is a need to reflect that each person can make change, change our minds, leaving aside the false ideologies that only act as barriers to the union and the common good in people and unity in society. For me, to read both of them let me a strong impact about racism, I could not imagine how much hatred can exist in a soul; how this kind of feelings can take control of a person that can become a disease. The worst thing is that this type of illness can destroy to the person who has it and also to people who are victims of this one. Finally, in my own opinion, I think they are excellent samples of humanity which try to give a sensitive message to anyone who decides to change its attitude towards situations or people different from him. Outline: Analysis of the books Black like me and the color of water: racism 1. – Introduction *What is racism? *Background of racism -Causes and consequences of racism in society and in a person -Global issues *Different manifestations of racism 2. – Body *Talk about different manifestations of racism as: segregation, discrimination, and show some quotes as examples *Talk about other themes such as: identity, negative bias, past versus present and show some quotes as examples 3. – Conclusion * Significance in both books -Why is important to take into account the racial problematic in our society * My personal opinion about the books Tania Enríquez Figueroa.

Autonomous Learner Characteristics

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study Looking back in time, English language were used once during the Cambodian Republic Regime (1970 – 1975), but thereafter, English was completely banned during the Genocidal Regime of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge; in 1993, for the first National Election in Cambodia, English language emerged again in this country with the arrival of United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) (Narith, 2008). Since then the popularity of English language has gradually grown among Cambodian people. According to Crystal (1997) indicates that English language gains its popularity in the world due to political power, military power and economic power. In Cambodia, because of local and international business, international non-governmental organizations, job requirements, consumerism, computers and mass media, young people are encouraged to learn English as a foreign language (Narith, 2008). Further, Igawa (2008) studies about English language and its education in Cambodia states that “communicative competence in English means a better job and a better pay for Cambodian people”. That is why English language is encouraged and promoted to learn. Concerning English language learning, Cambodian students culturally seem to be respectful, obedient, and passive towards their teachers. This happens because of the traditional classroom, which is commonly practiced and mainly focused on teacher-centered approach. This approach offers fewer opportunities to students to engage in their learning, because the teacher always plays a role as a knowledge transmitter to students. Moreover, there is little interaction among teachers and students. The teacher usually spends a great deal of time speaking and explaining in the class; while students are required to sit passively and listen to the teacher attentively (Wang, 2007). However, after the communicative language teaching has emerged in Cambodia over the last ten years, the role of teacher and student has been gradually changed in modern classroom. In other words, there is a shift from a teacher-centered approach to a learner-centered approach, which offers students more possibilities to actively engage in their learning process. Since this shift occurs, learners are viewed as the main source of information for learning process, which the practice of learner autonomy begins to grow in language learning and teaching (Benson, 2001). Holec (1981) was the first person who coined the term “learner autonomy” and defined it as “the ability to take charge of one’s own learning”. Autonomous learning encourages a very active role of learners and focuses on greater students’ initiative rather teacher-centered direction. (Eyob, 2008). Tudor (1993) also states that learner-centeredness is not a method, nor may it be decreased to a set of rules. It is, however, an approach, which views students to have more active and participatory roles in the learning and teaching process than in traditional approaches. Additionally, this approach requires different classroom activities, the structures of which are decided by students themselves resulting in increases in students’ involvement and motivation. There is also a parallel change in the teacher’s role in learner-centered classrooms. The teacher is less likely to dominate classroom events in contrast to traditional classrooms where the learning environment is teacher-centered and teachers are considered as authorities. According to, Nunan (1996) there are two complementary aims of learner-center. One of them focuses on language content, the other focuses on learning process. To achieve these aims, leaner need to decide what they want to learn and how they want to learn at their own pace, and make a decision regarding their own language competence. Thus, it is the teacher’s duties to create such autonomous learning conditions in which students can acquire skills and knowledge while making choices about the process and content of their learning. Likewise, Tudor (1993) suggests that if teachers are to foster autonomous learning conditions, student will be able to get more benefit from the teaching and learning process, particularly in the following areas: (a) more relevant goal setting with the contributions of students, (b) more effective learning enriched with students’ preferences, (c) more benefit from activities, the content of which decided by students, (d) more efficient study program with more student involvement. Learner autonomy is considered as a crucial concept that students actively manage their learning in and out of the classroom. That is, they are independent in terms of selecting their own goals and purposes, deciding on materials, choosing ways of learning and tasks, and opting for criteria for self-evaluation (Eyob, 2008). Besides, autonomous learning can be achieved by certain conditions such as using cognitive and metacognitive strategies, learner attitudes and motivation, self-esteem, and learners’ awareness and knowledge about language learning (Thanassoluas, 2007). Similarly, Cotterall (1999) indentifies learning strategies as one of the most important factors in autonomous language learning. She also claims that the learners will have difficulties in classroom promoting autonomous learning without strategies training. Additionally, Chan (2001) states that “increasing the level of learner control will increase the level of self-determination; thereby increasing overall motivation in the development of learner autonomy”. Therefore, learners need to be self-directed and to determine the direction of their own language learning process. In brief, developing and promoting autonomous learning is vital as the aim of all education is to help people think, act and learn independently in relevant areas of their lives. In this respect, a strategy for developing and fostering autonomy in language teaching will require enhanced cognitive and metacognitive skills, self-awareness to improve motivation and willingness to take charge of learning. 1.2 Problem Statement With this novel concept, learner autonomy, Cambodian students are expected to take more responsibilities to demonstrate a great deal of autonomy in their learning process in order to succeed academically. However, Many English language teachers have become frustrated with investing endless amounts of energy in their students and getting very little response. Most teachers have had groups of students who never did their homework, who were reluctant to use the target language in pair or group work, who did not learn from their mistakes, who did not listen to each other, who did not use opportunities to learn outside the classroom, and so on. These reveal that students are not making efforts in their learning. Moreover, most of them are not likely to be aware of their roles in their learning process, and particularly they lack learning strategies to enable them to excel in their language performance. Regarding this issue, students make slow progress in their learning, performing poorly, thereby affecting their ultimate achievement in English language learning. And to the best of our knowledge, there is little research conducted on assessing learner autonomy in Cambodian EFL context. Thus, the aim of the present work is to identify learners’ perspectives about their learning responsibly and their actual practice of learner autonomy in Cambodian Youth’s Future Institute (CYFI). 1.3 Research Questions: The study on the current practice of learner autonomy is aimed at answering the two main questions and the two sub questions below in order to meet the objectives 1. How do the CYFI students perceive their own and their teachers’ responsibilities in learning English? -Are there any differences in the learners’ perceptions of their own and their teachers’ responsibilities in learning English regarding their gender? 2. To what extent, are the Autonomous learning strategies (inside and outside the classroom) used in learning English by ESL learners at CYFI? -Are there any differences in the learning strategies according to their gender? 1.4 Significance of the study This study is expected to provide empirical support for the identification of factors considered to be significant for the promotion of autonomy in foreign language classrooms and examines the claims made in language learning literature about each of these factors. By exploring them, teachers could also construct a shared understanding of the essential foundation of learner autonomy and obtain considerable insights into what roles they have to play in order to facilitate learner autonomy. Furthermore, it can increase learners’ awareness of how to be in charge of their own learning and inform the learners which learning strategies that they need to learn more and apply in their learning process. Similarly, it will help learners change their behavior by encouraging them to take responsibility for their own language learning, to change their attitudes towards the English class, and to deal with their foreign language learning problems. And finally, it may serve as a preliminary idea for any interested researchers in the area. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW The Literature in this review was found from the Hun Sen Library of the Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP), and by using the websites of Asian EFL Journal, Cambridge, Google Scholar, Oxford and Zunia to identify relevant books, journals and articles focusing on Autonomy in English langue learning. Other reviews was obtained from numerous articles and the list of references by several well-known scholars such as, Beson, , Gardner, Holec, Lee, Little ,Tudor and Wenden. These scholars are long established writers in this field and have written and conducted many researches about this area. The key words used to identify the articles are Lerner Autonomy, Learner Responsibility, Self-regulated Learner and Self-access Learner. 2.1 What is learner autonomy? The definition of learner autonomy seems to interpret in many different ways. Holec (1981, p.3) was the person who first coined the term learner autonomy and defines the term as “the ability to take charge of one’s own direct learning”. Dickinson (1995) characterizes autonomous learners as those who have the capacity for being active and independent in the learning process. While Higgs (1988, p.41) views it as a process, “in which the learner works on a learning task or activity and largely independent of the teacher who acts as manager of the learning programme and as resource person”. In fact, learners attain autonomy depends on a variety of factors, including learners’ ability to take responsibility, personal constructs, teacher support, peer support, availability and flexibility in learning environment (Little, 1990; McDevitt, 1997; Lee, 1998). Even though there is a slightly different interpretation of learner autonomy, those meanings may contribute to the understanding deeply of the term. According to Benson and Voller (1997) there are five categories of the term learner autonomy, including situations in which learners study entirely on their own, a set of skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning, an inborn capacity which is suppressed by institutional education, the exercise of learners’ responsibility for their own learning, and the right of learners to determine the direction of their own learning. However, there is also a great deal of misconceptions about the definition of autonomous language learning. Esch (1996) thinks that autonomy is not self-instruction or learning without a teacher, does not mean that intervention or initiative on the part of a teacher is banned, is not something teachers do to learners, is not a single easily identifiable behavior, and is not a steady state achieved by learners once and for all. 2.2 Why learner autonomy? In fact, the cultivation of learner autonomy is a long process. Teacher should help students develop gradually from teacher dependence to autonomy. As an old Chinese saying goes “Give a man a fish, and you feed him a day; teach him how to fish, and feed him for a life time”. Moreover, the saying “you can bring the horse to water, but you cannot make him drink” can clearly illustrate why we need learner autonomy in teaching learning process. In language learning, a teacher can offer all the necessary tools and input, but learning can only occur if learners are willing to get involved and participate (Scharle