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Impact of the Homelessness Act 2002

Assessing the new homelessness strategies introduced by the Homelessness Act 2002; are the housing needs of the young homeless in the UK closer to being adequately addressed? Abstract: The proposed research will examine the impacts of the Homelessness Act 2002 on homelessness policy and practice throughout the United Kingdom, with specific focus towards the housing needs of those homeless persons aged 16-25. The research will examine the national context within which the Act was framed, highlighting the key motivations for reforming homelessness legislation and examining responses to the proposed changes. The research will then examine the principal provisions of the 2002 Act, and by drawing on the results of contemporary surveys, such as those conducted by MORI polls, and also recent research into youth homelessness, such as those commissioned and produced by NGO’s specialising in issues of homelessness e.g. Crisis, Shelter, the proposed research project will then explore the impact of the 2002 Act on local government youth homelessness policies and practices and on the extent to which youth homelessness is still regarded as a problem. The proposed research will draw on the conclusions made and suggest additional measures that are required in order for the problems in meeting the needs of the young homeless in the UK to be tackled effectively in the future, including changes to the ways by which the performance of youth homelessness initiatives are indicated, monitored and evaluated. Opening Section: The reason that I have chosen the evaluation of the Homelessness Act 2002 as the subject of my proposed research is two-fold: 1] There is a general lack of academic review/discourse regarding the contents of the Homelessness Act 2002, 2] The importance of such a review has recently been highlighted by a government select committee in their report on Homelessness [A recently published government select committee report recommended that the Government conduct “a review of the workings of the 2002 Act to identify the weak spots.” The reasons that I have chosen to focus and limit this evaluation to the housing needs of the 16-25 year old homeless is for the following reasons: 1] This age range forms 25% of the total number of ‘rough sleepers’ in the UK, and as such must be a major target of any initiatives designed to tackle the UK’s homelessness problems, including those contained within the Homelessness Act 2002. A focus on this youth section of the UK’s homeless population, and an investigation into how it has been affected by such initiatives will therefore prove an excellent way of evaluating one of the key tasks of the Homelessness Act 2002. 2] Until recently, the extent of homelessness among 16 to 25 year olds, in England particularly, has been unknown. Research conducted by York University and commissioned by the charity Centrepoint, published in 2004, was the first to actually publish a figure: The research showed that within this age band, up to 52,000 were without housing in England in 2003, 6,700 of these ‘sleeping rough’. These shocking figures brought the housing need of the young homeless to the attention of the media. Whilst the actual figures are themselves merely educated estimates, this increased public attention towards the 16-25 homeless population of the UK is a major reason for my choice to focus my proposed research project to this area. 3] Research which suggests that homelessness amongst 16-25 year olds has been on the increase over the last ten years highlights the importance of this key target area, and warrants an evaluation into whether the 2002 Act is proving any more successful than its predecessor in trying to meet the housing needs of the young homeless in the UK. Recent academic research in the area of youth homelessness includes a study by Smith and Simister of methods of estimating youth homelessness, research by Crisis and the New Policy Institute into the numbers of non-statutory homeless in the UK, an analysis by Douglas and Gilroy looking at young women and homelessness and an analysis of what risks are most associated with youth homelessness conducted by Bruegel and Smith. There is however, as stated above, no current research published which attempts an evaluation of the success of the Homelessness Act 2002 in tackling the housing problems of homeless people aged 16-25 such as the one which I am suggesting in this research proposal. Critical Research Questions Below I will set out the main critical research questions which shall form the focus of my proposed study. I shall also identify several subsidiary questions and issues which shall support the main body of my research. Main pervasive questions to be addressed throughout my proposed dissertation: To what extent does current research suggest that the Homelessness Act 2002 has improved the situation of the UK’s young [16-25] homeless and the problems of their housing needs? In light of the current research, what reforms might be necessary, if any, either to the content or to the underlying rationale of the Act, in order to ensure that the Homelessness Act 2002 helps provide for the needs of the young homeless in the UK in the future? Subsidiary/supporting questions to be addressed throughout the proposed dissertation: To what extent does the statutory definition of ‘homelessness’ as established by the Housing (Homeless Persons) Act 1977 and the 1996 Housing Act and developed by the Homelessness Act 2002, adequately describe all the urgent housing circumstances of young 16-25 year olds in the UK? To what extent do the lack of Monitoring provisions contained within the Homelessness Act 2002 result in the Act being applied by Local Authorities inconsistently, carelessly and in ways which do not achieve the fundamental objectives of the Act in relation to the housing needs of young homeless people aged 16-25? Are the performance indicators employed by the government to assess the success of Local Authority initiatives suitable methods by which to judge whether the provisions of the Homelessness Act 2002 are being successfully implemented? Is the category of ‘priority need’ contained within the Homelessness Act 2002 broad enough to ensure that the needs of all the young homeless are capable of being satisfied? To what extent does the Homelessness Act 2002 recognise that young people have diverse housing needs and ensure that Local Authorities avoid the ‘one size fits all’ approach which in the past has acted to decrease the supply and range of appropriate accommodation? Does the Homelessness Act 2002 give Local Authorities too much freedom with regard to homelessness strategy development and management, resulting in regional discrepancies in performance and application throughout the UK? Does the ‘Supporting People’ system, as introduced in April 2003, successfully complement the main objectives of the Homelessness Act 2002 in regards to meeting the housing needs of homeless people aged 16-25 in the UK? Research Methodology: The primary research methodology employed by this proposed research is a critical analysis of the Homelessness Act 2002, of primary research data [taken from surveys conducted by previous researchers], of secondary literature regarding the rationale of the Act, of secondary literature regarding alternative interpretations of the primary research data and of secondary literature regarding evaluations of local government youth-homelessness policy and practice. Wherever possible, analyses of the primary data will attempt to reach quantitative conclusions, although in light of the unreliable quantified data available in this regard, these conclusions will only be used to support the more generalised qualitative conclusions which will be offered from the respective analyses of the Homelessness Act 2002 and of the secondary literature. It would not be appropriate in the context of my research proposal to attempt to offer anything other than general qualitative conclusions, as my proposed research does not purport to offer any insight into the relationship between specific independent variables; there are so many factors which come into play to influence whether a statute or a resulting policy are successful in meeting the housing needs of the young homeless, that a direct correlation would never be possible. Equipped with the time and the resources, it would be highly desirable to conduct interviews with various relevant parties, such as chairmen of NGO’s and actual young homeless people throughout the UK to attempt to gauge what their perceptions are of the changes introduced by the Homelessness Act 2002, but within the context of this study, such interviews would act merely as a luxury which would add another dimension to the proposed research. Such interviews are neither essential nor practical and for these reasons I have chosen to reject conducting any of my own primary collection of data within this proposed research project. Annotated Bibliography: 1] House of Commons ODPM: “Housing, Planning, Local Government and the Regions Committee on Homelessness Third Report of Session 2004–05” This Report is relevant to my proposed research in that it helps to justify that there is a need for analysis of the Homelessness Act 2002 in order to identify the weaknesses therein: “[we recommend] a review of the workings of the 2002 Act to identify the weak spots [of this legislation].” 2] CRISIS Report: Statistics on Homelessness. (SEU, July 1998) http://www.crisis.org.uk/pdf/HomelessStat.pdf This resource is relevant to my research proposal in that it provides a reliable statistic as to the percentage of young [16-25] homeless people who make up the total number of ‘rough sleepers’ in the UK, which serves as a further illustration of the importance of conducting research focussed at this age range. 3] ‘52,000 youths have nowhere to live, study finds’ John Carvel, social affairs editor. Monday October 11, 2004. Guardian Newspaper. This newspaper article demonstrates how the issue of youth homelessness has received recent media attention, and as such further supports my contention that the topic of this research proposal is one of public interest. 4]http://www.centrepoint.org.uk/spexselfmanagevariables/clientpdfs/4/york research final.pdf This resource contains information about the York University study conducted in 2004, which was the first to attempt an accurate estimate of the number of homeless youths aged 16-25 who were without housing in 2003. This source also asserts and referenced sources which strongly suggest that the number of young homeless aged 16-25 in Scotland has increased significantly over the last decade. In both of the above respects it is useful and relevant to this research proposal. 5] Smith and Simister: “Methods of estimating youth homelessness” 2001, DETR, UK. This source is of relevance in that it provides an example of recent similar research, which again serves to illustrate that other academics are taking seriously the issues of youth homelessness and are of the opinion that such research is necessary and of public interest. 6] Crisis and the New Policy Institute “The numbers of non-statutory homeless in the UK” 2004 Like the previous resource, this source is of relevance in that it provides an example of recent similar research, which again serves to illustrate that other academics are taking seriously the issues of youth homelessness and are of the opinion that such research is necessary and of public interest. 7] Douglas A. and Gilroy R. (1994) ‘Young women and homelessness’ The subject of the above study is more specific than the subject of this research proposal, and the content of the study was designed to address issues of homelessness which are unique to the physiology and behaviour of young homeless females e.g. the relationship between pregnancy and the number of incidences in which that pregnant homeless girl is reaccepted and supported by her family after they have discovered the pregnancy. It is only relevant as an example of similar research to illustrate that other academics are taking seriously the issues of youth homelessness and are of the opinion that such research is necessary and of public interest. 8] Bruegel I and Smith J (1999) Taking Risks. An Analysis of the Risks of Homelessness forYoung People in London. Peabody Trust/ Safe in the City. www.safeinthecity.org.uk The above resource is a comprehensive analysis into the risks of homelessness for young people in London. The conclusions however are not limited to London, but must occur in all cities across the UK to a greater or lesser degree. The conclusions of this study are highly worrying, and serve as a strong example of the importance and immediate need to sort out the housing needs of the young homeless in the UK. In this way, this resource is highly relevant to my research proposal. Conclusions: The target reader of my proposed research is anyone concerned with the future of homelessness in the UK in regard to the housing needs of those homeless persons aged 16-25. More specifically, a legislator might be interested in reading my proposed research as it would be one of the first studies actually conducted into the effectiveness of the Homelessness Act 2002 in combating the housing problems of the young homeless [aged 16-25] and it also will provide some suggestions for reform which a legislator could take on board when planning for new homelessness legislation.

CIA. Operations and Intelligence: A Potential for Conflict? Evaluation Essay

CIA. Operations and Intelligence: A Potential for Conflict? Evaluation Essay. Over the years of its existence, CIA has built a strong and quite threatening reputation. However, because of the clumsy strategies adopted by the Operations Department, the existence of the entire organization can be threatened. As some of the sources claim, the strategies adopted for the CIA operations have, in fact, stayed the same since the times of Eisenhower’s presidency. Meanwhile, the approaches used in the CIA intelligence department, have been regularly updated and, as a result, are up to the highest standards at present, which stands in high contrast to the standards for the operations of the CIA. Because of the lack of cohesion between the strategies used by the CIA intelligence and the ones that are adopted by the CIA Operations Department, the CIA is at the brink of a serious crisis, which might lead to drastic effects and, therefore, pose a threat to the U.S. foreign affairs, making the state extremely vulnerable to the actions of the adversaries. To realize the scale of the threat that the CIA is facing at the moment due to the lack of understanding how covert operations must be carried out in the present-day world, it is necessary to consider some of the examples of how well the modern CIA specialists use coercive methods in the implementations of their strategies. The latest case on CIA operations is a graphic example of how the lack of cohesion between the actions of the two departments affects the results of the CIA work negatively. Mendez offers a classic case of what can happen once there is a lack of cohesion between the actions of the Operations and the Intelligence. As Mendez1 claims, after carrying out the infamous operation in Iran, the CIA adopt the strategy that allowed it remain “on alert” 24/7, and, despite its numerous controversies, remained efficient till the very end of the operation. However, because of its success, the framework of the operation was further on used as the pattern for the rest of the operations, which resulted in the CIA being labeled as the organization that prefers rough actions instead of careful and well thought-out steps, which has been dragged into the present day, since CIA was too lazy to change its approach towards its operations. The given case study shows the effects of poor and, quite honestly, rather dated strategies used by the CIA Operations Department on the overall performance of the organization in general and the quality of Intelligence Department work in particular. According to the case study, the covert actions carried out in an awkward manner not only seem quite deplorable compared to the refined work of the Intelligence, but also affect the latter negatively, threatening the success of several months long work due to a single awkwardly carried out operation. Therefore, things have to be changed in the way that the CIA Operations Department works, and things have to be changed fast; otherwise, the discord between the work of Intelligence and Operations will lead inevitably to the collapse of the CIA. When considering the improvements that the CIA services could undergo in order to run the operation processes smoother and get rid of the reputation of a “rogue elephant,” the organization should consider such approaches as the creation of another organization that could provide the services for covert operations with the staff that would be trained specifically to meet the latest and the highest standards in the given department. The given solution has already been suggested for the CIA services as the possible measure to address the critical situation concerning the “rogue elephant” situation. However, in case CIA decides to create a separate agency that is going to supply the CIA Organization with the human resources for covert operations, chances are pretty high that information leakage rates are going to increase. There is no secret that even with a single headquarters and the old-fashioned strategies, the CIA is suffering from information leaks and the results that it leads to: “Accountability can be damaging by providing a source for possible leaks and by cutting down on the efficiency of the CIA through forcing continuous consultation when speedier action may be needed.”2 Therefore, creating a separate organization, which the CIA will have to share the key information with, is rather risky for the U.S. at present. Another possible way to address the problem of the gap between the Operations and Intelligence Departments in the CIA is to arrange training courses for the staff specializing in Operations. Thus, the CIA will be able to translate the current practices into a more appropriate and by far more subtle manner of coercive methods implementation without restructuring the whole organization and splitting into the headquarters and its affiliate. The given method, however, also has problems, since training the staff in order to change the current practices will doubtlessly take much time. Alternatively, the CIA could recruit new staff that could carry out its mission in the new and more appropriate manner. By doing so, the organization would benefit in changing the mindset of the staff so that the new strategies could be used as soon as possible; however, seeing how the new staff will require even more time for training, learning the rules and gaining the experience that the old staff already has, the given step does not seem to be an option either. Therefore, it goes without saying that the CIA needs an urgent update on its operation strategies. Indeed, seeing how the operations have been molded in accordance with the pattern dating back to the post-WWII era, it becomes obvious that the new principles for the strategies and tactics of the cover operations must be introduced into the present-day CIA services. In addition to their lack of efficiency, outdated techniques can possibly lead to failing the operations, which will most likely lead to serious issues in foreign policy of the U.S. and, as a result, will bring the reputation of the United States among the rest of the world’s most powerful states a few notches down. It could be argued, though, that the introduction of the new strategies will require additional training of the staff so that the latter could follow the new instructions, which will cost a considerable amount of money; not to mention the fact that the transformations in the CIA services will doubtlessly take much time – weeks, perhaps, months, if not years. Therefore, the idea of adopting new strategies for the actions of the CIA operations to be carried out might seem a failure. However, the introduction of the new strategies can be enhanced with the help of an efficient leadership strategy and the introduction of the right information and time management. As long as the CIA services allow for shared information and schedule the training sessions so that the staff could learn the basics within the shortest period of time. With that being said, it must be admitted that the CIA operation strategies can and must be updated in accordance with the newly adopted strategies. As soon as the strategies mentioned above are applied, it can be assumed that each of the elements of the CIA works in chord with its other parts. Footnotes 1. Antonio J. Mendez, “A Classic Case of Deception” (Central Intelligence Agency, n. d.), Accessed from https://www.cia.gov/resources/csi/studies-in-intelligence/ 2. David Canon, “Intelligence and Ethics: The CIA’S Covert Operations,” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 4, no. 2 (Spring 1980): 205. CIA. Operations and Intelligence: A Potential for Conflict? Evaluation Essay

Young Parenthood And Teen Fathers Social Work Essay

java assignment help Young Parenthood And Teen Fathers Social Work Essay. Much of the researches available on young parenthood have focused on the experiences of teenage mothers and mainly those separated from the young fathers. Subsequently, efforts have been made to ascertain the proportional involvement of fathers in various aspects of parenting and the distinctive contributions of fathers (knight et. Al, 2006). There are significant gaps in the provision of service for teenage fathers (Cater et al 2006). Practitioners wishing to offer support for the young fathers face a number of barriers such as the difficultly in finding young fathers, the lack of adequate support for young fathers when they are identified, complicated family issues, educational difficulties and the negative attitudes of individual professionals. Despite the growing research on young fathers, there remains a dearth of research that recognises the wide diversity of young fatherhood and the different needs young fathers may have (e.g. young fathers in care, young fathers in prison, non-resident fathers, young fathers from ethnic minority groups). Young fathers are invisible as a group, yet they are more likely to require support services and be affected by unemployment, poor housing, and a lack of education (Speak et al., 1997). It is therefore not surprising that little is known about the expectations and experiences of young fathers in accessing support and the barriers they face. The study arose from the observation that there is limited information available in current research on the views and experiences of young fathers in Outer London Borough. Much of the research that is available on young parents focuses on the experiences of young mothers. This study sought to establish, from the perspective of young fathers and the organisations that worked with them their expectations and experiences in accessing support and the effectiveness of the support available. Research questions How accessible and effective are the support available to young fathers in meeting their socio-economic needs in Outer London Borough? Aims The aims of my research are: to identify which organisations are offering support to young fathers and how they worked with them; to explore young fathers’ view of support available to them and the obstacles they face in accessing it; to establish, from the view point of young fathers and the organisations that worked with them the effectiveness of the support. Research methodology The qualitative paradigm aims to understand the social world from the viewpoint of respondents, through detailed descriptions of their cognitive and symbolic actions, and through the richness of meaning associated with observable behavior (Wildemuth, 1993). The research would be undertaken using the following qualitative research techniques: Desk scoping. Structured interviews with young fathers and service providers. Case study review of projects and initiatives that provide practical support to young fathers. Desk Scoping Desk Scoping focused on investigating into the existing evidence. This included searching the following sources: An extensive search was made of all relevant databases, libraries and journals for literature sources pertaining to the project issue. In addition a comprehensive review of internet based literature and resources were made. Using the London South Bank University library online resources via http://library.lsbu.ac.uk, ASSIA (Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts), an electronic resource, was searched, 51 results were found using the term young parenthood (search was from 2001 to current), 33 results were found using the term teenage father (search was from 2002 to current to reduce the search result to a manageable number) and 9 results were found using the terms young father and support. ASSIA covers English language journals in applied social sciences and includes health, economics, social issuesYoung Parenthood And Teen Fathers Social Work Essay

Florida International University Management Employment Relations Question

Florida International University Management Employment Relations Question.

Answer the following questions using the below:Summarize the strongest arguments management can make in this case.Summarize the strongest arguments the union can make in this case.If you were the arbitrator, how would you decide each case (provide an opinion, reasoning, and remedy if required)?BACKGROUNDCarol Fern has been employed by Bainbridge Borough for 18 years as a tax clerk. The tax clerk position in Bainbridge Borough is part of the bargaining unit represented by Local 10 of the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME).When Carol Fern and her husband found out that she was unable to conceive, they decided to adopt a child. The Ferns were notified on April 22 that a three-month-old baby girl was available and they could adopt her in three days. However, Carol Fern told the adoption agency that she thought it was unfair to leave Bainbridge Borough on such short notice because April was a busy tax month. Adoption was therefore delayed until May 2.On April 27 Fern requested two weeks of paid vacation for May 2 to May 17. This request was granted. The day before she was to return from her paid vacation, Fern asked for six months of unpaid maternity leave. This request had to be approved by the Bainbridge Borough Council, which rejected the request by a 4–3 vote. However, the council did offer Fern two successive 90-day reasonable purpose leaves (amounting to six months of leave). On June 1 the following grievance was filed:According to Article X, Section 4.A—Unpaid Leaves 5. Maternity on page 13 of the final agreement between Bainbridge Borough and Local Union 10—Maternity leaves not to exceed six months shall be granted at the request of an employee. Maternity leaves shall, upon the request of the employee, be extended or renewed for a period not to exceed six months. Relief or remedy sought: Granting of the just and deserved leave requested.POTENTIALLY RELEVANT CONTRACT PROVISIONSARTICLE X. LEAVES OF ABSENCESection 4.A: Unpaid Leaves1. Reasonable Purposea. Leaves of absence for a limited period without pay—not to exceed ninety days—shall be granted for any reasonable purpose. Extension to be granted with approval of Borough Council.b. Reasonable purpose in each case shall be agreed upon by the union and the borough.…5. Maternitya. Maternity leaves—not to exceed six months—shall be granted at the request of the employee. Maternity leaves shall, upon the request of the employee, be extended or renewed for a period not to exceed six months.
Florida International University Management Employment Relations Question

Effat University Jeddah History & Islamic Civilization Essay

Effat University Jeddah History & Islamic Civilization Essay.

Answer the following three questions by reviewing the lectures so far and submit them on the Blackboard by the due date.You may do this activity as a group or individually, but everyone must submit their answers separately on the Blackboard You may answer in bullet points or by writing a short passage. Questions: Answer the following questions. (Both questions are based on class lectures/discussions. What are the social and political significances of monotheism (tawhid)? Give at least one example for each.How did migration (hijrah) contribute to Islamic civilization? Was the Battle of Badr a planned attempt on the part of the Muslims? Explain your opinion by mentioning which historical interpretation you refer to in this regard. Please see attached the full text of the ‘constitution of Madinah’ in English. You may also find the Arabic version through a quick online search. Review the document and answer the following question. What can you tell about this document if you apply source-critical approach to it (see Lecture 1)? For example, what would you say about ‘when’, ‘who’, ‘where’ regarding this document? Rubric: Format: 15% Clearly formatted text according to the specified number of words with 12 font-size and 1.5 spacing. Coherence: 40% Writing shows clear understanding of the central issue/theme. Presentation: 20% Writing explains the issue with consistency by presenting examples and evidences (examples and evidence can be from your life experiences) Language: 10% Less than 3 errors in either or both, the spellings and the grammar Plagiarism: 15% Not more than 15% of the writing is found to be plagiarized. (30% or above ratio of plagiarism would disqualify the submission)
Effat University Jeddah History & Islamic Civilization Essay