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Impact of the Economic Status on Domestic Violence Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Economic Status of Families and Domestic abuse Link between Childhood and Domestic Violence Role of Poverty in Domestic Violence Annotated Bibliography Works Cited Introduction Domestic abuse, otherwise known as spousal abuse, battering, or even domestic violence, includes expressions of certain patterns of behaviors that are abusive towards one’s partner in a relationship involving marriage, cohabitation, dating, or a familial affair. Domestic violence is acerbated in a number of ways including assaults, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, economic deprivation, domineering, and intimidation among other forms of personal oppression. However, it is also crucial to note that domestic violence is not constrained to actions entailing physical and emotional abuse. It also implies criminal coercion, unlawful imprisonment, and kidnapping. The main reason why domestic violence is acerbated towards a person is principally to acquire a total control of the person. To achieve this goal, abusers deploy tactics of instilling fear, shame, and guilt coupled with intimidation to wear down their targets physically and emotionally. One of the fundamental characteristics of domestic violence is that it does not discriminate various people in the society. It occurs among heterosexual partners, homosexual partners, and among people of varying ages, economic status, and even across all ethnic backgrounds. While women in majority of the situations are found to be the major victims of domestic violence, men also are abused domestically especially emotionally and verbally while not negating physically in some instances. Nevertheless, whatever the source of domestic violence, be it from a woman, a teenager, or a man, the behavior is very unacceptable within a society. Unfortunately, domestic violence is still prevalent among various societies. From this perspective, from a broad approach, the paper finds out if the economical status of families may be connected to domestic violence. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It also seeks to investigate why, and if one’s, childhood may be linked to domestic violence. On the other hand, from an operational approach, the paper scrutinizes how, and if, poverty plays a role in domestic abuse. Economic Status of Families and Domestic abuse Among the many forms of domestic abuse, economic abuse is one of the ways of enabling one person to domineer against another person. It takes place whenever intimate persons take control over other persons to limit their accessibility to economic resources. Essentially, the abusing partners deploy strategies for making sure that their partners have limited accessibility to economic resources. By doing this, the abused partner is incapacitated from having the ability to support him/herself financially. The aftermath is to ensure that the victim is fully dependent on the perpetrator economically in terms of “obtaining education, finding employment, maintaining or advancing their careers, and acquiring assets” (Williams 161). Alternatively, the abused partner may be given some tolerances by the perpetrator who closely supervises how he or she expends the finances “and or may also use the victim’s financial resources without being accorded consent with the chief intent of creating financial debts on the part of the victim” (Krishnan 137). The perpetrator may also make sure that all the savings belonging to the victims are used in totality so that the victim has limited accessibility to financial resources. From the dimension of economic domestic abuse, risks for domestic violence may result from a change of economic status of either spouse. The argument here is that there exists a relationship between economic status of family and domestic violence. We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of the Economic Status on Domestic Violence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, Krishnan et al. argue that changes in spousal economic status “are associated with subsequent changes in violence risks” (139). Basing their study on the Indian context, the authors claim that women increase their risks of being subjected to domestic violence by 80 percent when their economic status changes from unemployment to employment. On the other hand, when men lose their jobs, they are 1.7 times likely to encounter domestic violence perpetrated by their wives (Krishnan et al. 141). In a study conducted in Malaysia by Awang and Hariharan, it is found out that the income status of survivors of domestic violence is a key determinant of domestic violence (459). Therefore, economic factors are critical in examining the factors that may create prevalence of domestic violence among families in various societies. Arguably, the central concern of this argument is that domestic violence may be attributed to economic factors. However, it is also arguable that domestic violence may lead to deterioration of the parties involved in the violence economically. Precisely, “until recently, it was unclear whether victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking were eligible for unemployment insurance if they were fired or forced to quit their jobs because of the violence” (Runge 16). Consequently, in the states where the law has not been amended to give people opportunities to benefit from unemployment benefits when such people are laid off because of reasons related to domestic violence, battering acts as a means of worsening the economic status of the victims. Research on the impacts of domestic violence on the ability of women to work such as the one conducted by Audra and Shannon shows that women who are abused have lesser probabilities of choosing to work than women who have not experienced domestic violence (1119). This implies that battering influences the capacity of women to look for means of bettering their economic status. This has the impacts of making them even more dependent on the perpetrators of domestic violence. In this context, economic independency is a subtle mechanism of reducing the risk of exposure to domestic violence among women. On the other hand, women who suffer divorce due to domestic violence “exhibit an unemployment rate of 20% below that of non abused divorced women” (Audra and Shannon 1120). From these findings, it sounds subtle to argue that working women have lesser probabilities of experiencing domestic violence. Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of the Economic Status on Domestic Violence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the hiked economic status for women resulting from the state of being employed is a key determiner of their exposure to domestic violence. This argument is amplified by Audra and Shannon’s findings, “…out of the sample of women that were abused in the past, 9.4% of women who are currently not working are abused whereas only 8.9% (3.48% out of 39.2% married women abused in the past) of women who are currently working are abused” (1120). The findings indicate that unemployment among women may result to a cycle of exposure to domestic violence. This follows because, the more women are exposed to domestic violence and the more likely they refrain from looking for employment, the higher the probability of being abused. Since employment is directly correlated with the economic status of individual, the argument provides substantive grounds to infer that a relationship exists between domestic violence and economic status of families. Link between Childhood and Domestic Violence Numerous scholars have investigated the impacts of people’s exposure on domestic violence on childhood based on the capacity of such people to result into abusing their partners in adulthood. For instance, Audra and Shannon argue that men who have experienced domestic abuse during their childhood have higher chances of abusing their wives (1119). This experience comes from seeing their fathers abuse their mothers. Nevertheless, employment status also plays central roles in making men abuse their wives. For instance, Audra and Shannon argue, “abusive husbands are also more likely to have experienced unemployment in the past 12 months and are much less likely to have a university education than non abusive spouse” (1119). Education is one of the ways of ensuring that societies are fully aware of the rights of all individuals including the right for not being abused domestically. However, based on the findings of Audra and Shannon, childhood experiences in battering seems like a force that is so strong that it out powers educational knowledge on battering. The contribution of the experiences of children rendering them resolve to intimate partner violence is also noted by Mbilinyi et al. who claim that cognition of domestic violence in childhood has the ability to make people normalize domestic violence in adulthood (171). Amid the above claim, it is also important to consider other counterarguments for the link between childhood exposure to domestic violence and their likelihoods of resulting to engaging in violence activities themselves in adulthood. In this dimension, several scholars encounter mixed findings on the link particularly on incorporation of dimensions such as utilization of contextual barriers in their studies. Such barriers include social economic status and community violence. Nevertheless, Mbilinyi et al. maintain that childhood domestic violence is an indicator and a factor that may help in predicting indulgence in adulthood domestic violence (183). During perpetration of domestic violence acts, children are always caught in between the warring parties. Consequently, they develop certain psychological and behavioral attitudes towards either party. Sometimes, in this interaction process, children end up being physically abused once they intervene in defense of the weaker party. Murrell et al. support this line of argument by further informing, “Many women are abused by intimate partners, millions of children witness such acts, and many of these children are physically abused” (523). Many of such children possess higher chances of portraying violent behaviors during their adulthood. Hence, exposures to domestic violence in the family of origin may act as a subsequent factor that may result to the victimization of one’s partner. Kerley et al. reinforce this argument by claiming, “this relationship holds not only for direct exposure (experiencing violence), but also for indirect exposure (witnessing violence against a parent or sibling)” (337). Arguably, people’s indulgence in domestic violence following exposure to environments dominated by perpetration of battering may be seen as being caused by intergenerational transmission of battering behavior. However, it is critical to note that there is scholarly evidence that the issue of children witnessing or experiencing violent acts being perpetrated to one of their parents by the other parent has probabilities of making such children practice similar behaviors towards their partners later in adulthood. However, the extent to which their violent acts measures up to the threshold of their experiences remains unclear. Therefore, it remains questionable whether other factors such as social economic status serve to increase the abusive behaviors experienced during childhood or these factors act as independent factors that lead to the portrayal of the abusive behaviors. Role of Poverty in Domestic Violence Poverty and battering are essentially interwoven. This implies that any endeavor to run away from an abusive relationship may expose the victim to some economic challenges, which are often too hard to accept as the status quo. Precisely, any attempt to vacate from one place to another in the quest to escape domestic violence would imply losing housing, jobs, accessibility to one’s partner income, and childcare while also not negating quality health care. This argument is amplified Evans who argues that, in Australia, “there continues to be a higher prevalence of domestic violence, and more severe physical injury sustained as a result of domestic violence among population groups living with poverty” (36). In this perspective, where one partner is not economically endowed, chances are that, for her or him to continue with normal life economically, he or she needs to endure domestic violence. The severity of poverty in resulting to exaggeration of acerbating violent acts is exemplified by legislation and other state policies. This follows because the policies and the legislation on domestic violence only provide mechanisms of isolation of the victim from the perpetrator without providing for or guaranteeing long-term financial security to the victim. On the other hand, anti-poverty schemes primarily focus on hiking the accessibility to economic resources without paying attention to and inculcating measures to ensure that an abusive partner does not harm the job of the victim. Poverty exposes women who are battered to minimal options. For those women who have low incomes, they have a high probability of being subjected to discrimination, which has the overall results of reducing their financial security and their safety. For example, some property owners may shun away from renting their houses to women whose rents have been subsidized by their governments. Consequently, it sounds plausible to argue that women who live in low-income neighborhoods are likely to have low economic opportunities and accessibility to employment. Hence, they are more likely to experience battering without escaping away from it. Directly congruent with this argument, Williams further argues that women with low incomes may be compelled to “seek emergency housing whether they reside in domestic violence or homeless shelters” (143). Thus, poverty is critical in making victims of domestic violence to continue persevering maltreatments acerbated by their partners. Mogford supports this argument by further arguing, “The effects of a woman’s status on her likelihood of experiencing abuse depend on the social realm within which status operates” (835). Additionally, the author confirms the prior arguments that poverty and domestic violence are intertwined especially in the context of rural areas. Arguably, poverty results to battering due to increased relationship and familial stresses, which have the utmost consequences of posing a limitation to the victims’ capacity to depart from an abusive partner. For many demographic social groups, nonmetropolitan poverty is normally higher than metropolitan poverty. This truncates into making the survivors of domestic violence living in rural areas have limited means of transportation. Consequently, this makes them unable to free from abusive partners to seek refuge in their friends and or families’ homes located far away from their rural dwellings. The argument here is that poverty leads to making the victims of domestic abuse persevere domestic violence acts perpetrated to them by their partners. Annotated Bibliography Audra, Bowlus, and Shannon Seitz. “Domestic Violence, Employment, and Divorce.” International Economic Review, vol. 47, no. 4, 2006, pp. 1113-1149. The article argues that women are normally caught in between a cycle of domestic violence akin to factors related to the likelihoods of seeking employment having priory experienced domestic violence acerbated to them by their husbands. Additionally, a model for domestic violence is approximated with the objective of determining which party in marriage abuses the other one coupled with determining the manner in which women respond to abuses via divorce and unemployment. It is asserted, “Employment before the occurrence of abuse is a significant deterrent” (Audra, and Shannon 1113). Additionally, the articles claim that men’s indulgence in domestic abuse may be predicted by their encounters of domestic abuse in childhood. Awang, Halimah, and Sharon Hariharan. “Determinants of Domestic Violence: Evidence from Malaysia.” Journal of Family Violence, vol. 26, no. 6, 2011, pp. 459-464. This article scrutinizes the factors that may determine the occurrence of domestic violence in Malaysian context. Its analysis restricts itself to impacts of marital capital and demographic factors on households and the manner in which these factors relate with domestic violence. In making its inferences, the study utilized empirical evidence garnered from case files of Malaysian women’s aid organization. The results indicate that three factors determine domestic violence. These are income status, number of children, and age of the perpetrator. Evans, Susan. “Beyond Gender: Class, Poverty and Domestic Violence.” Australian Social Work, vol. 58, no. 1, 2005, pp. 36-43. Evans argues that it is crucial to understand clearly the relationship that exists between poverty as a form of marginalization and domestic violence. In the Australasian context, the author further suggests that poverty is a central contributor for continued perseverance for people to live with abusive partners. Therefore, the article proposes that necessary efforts for preventing domestic violence needs to encompass the manner in which poverty interlocks with class (economic class) and other factors such as social identities that define the experiences of people in domestic abuses. Kerley, Kent, et al. “Exposure to Family Violence in Childhood and Intimate Partner Perpetration or Victimization in Adulthood: Exploring Intergenerational Transmission in Urban Thailand.” Journal of Family Violence, vol. 25, no. 3, 2010, pp. 337-347. The article uses a sample size of 816 Bangkok women who are married to carry out an analysis of the impacts of their exposure on domestic violence on their capacity to perpetrate victimization and domestic violence on their partners in adulthood. In the words of the authors, their results indicated, “there are indeed long-term and significant effects of childhood exposure to family violence on the likelihood of Thai women’s psychological and physical intimate partner perpetration” (Kerley et al. 337). More importantly, the article claims that there is a direct correlation between childhood exposures to domestic violence and adult battering. Krishnan, Suneeta, et al. “Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.” Social Science
RGA 6207 Reverse Translation Baxdela Writing Project.

In completing Writing Assignment #1 for RGA6207 students will have theopportunity to “reverse translate” an FDA approved product insert and otherdocumentation associated with approval of a pharmaceutical or biologic productback to the information submitted by the manufacturer in Module 1 of an eCTDsubmission. As discussed during Week 3 of the course, the required content for theUS version of Module 1 is described by v2.3.2 of FDA’s Comprehensive Table ofContent Headings (11/1/2018). This document was included in your BlackboardReading Materials folder in Week 3. Specific instructions are as follows:• Search FDA’s available database(s) to identify and select an FDA approvedpharmaceutical or biologic product that received final approval on or afterMay 1, 2017.• Locate the approved product insert, as well as any other regulatorydocumentation associated with the product’s conditional marketing approval• Provide a description of the information that would likely have beensubmitted in the following sections of CTD Module 1, per the instructionsoutlined in v2.3.2 of FDA’s Comprehensive Table of Content Headings(11/11/2018):- 1.14 Labeling- 1.15 Promotional Material- 1.16 Risk Management Plan- 1.17 Post-Marketing Studies- 1.18 Proprietary NamesYour description should summarize the information that you are able toobtain on your conditionally approved product from the FDA website, as wellas from general Internet-based sources. Internet based sources can beparticularly useful to identify promotional materials utilized by productmanufacturers to market the pharmaceutical or biologic product. The FDA’sOffice of Prescription Drug Promotion (OPDP) can often be helpful in thisregard.• From a holistic perspective, please provide an analysis of the riskmanagement issues that might arise from application of FDA pre- and post-market regulations to your product selection. Please include this as part ofyour description of M1 section 1.16.Also, please ensure that your submission includes the following information for yourchosen product1) Date of approval of the product2) A detailed description of the product3) Information regarding any FDA forms used in the marketing of the product4) What competitor versions of the product are available5) A brief synopsis of whether the product chosen is marketed in other globalmarkets (i.e any of the EU5 – Germany, the UK, Italy, France, Spain, Japan,Canada)
RGA 6207 Reverse Translation Baxdela Writing Project

Cypress College The Importance of International Organization in World Project Paper

Cypress College The Importance of International Organization in World Project Paper.

I’m working on a international law project and need an explanation to help me study.

I need an article with the Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion part (IMRAD format) 1. The texts submitted shall be clear and understandable, and be in line with scientific criteria in terms of language and expression. 2. The article submitted shall have 4000 words and a maximum of 5000 words including abstract, summary, bibliography, and footnotes. The article shall be submitted with the abstract no longer than 250 words and five keywords. The abstract and introduction shall include the purpose, method, hypothesis/question, and findings of the article and present the conclusion reached in the article shortly. 4. You may use APA or Chicago reference style. I also attached a copy of the article that my professor shared with me. You should do exactly the same as the attached article. For your references, you have to use 15 to 20 references. You can write a comparison contrast essay. You can compare the UN with African Organization. Or you can compare the two big organization for this paper.
Cypress College The Importance of International Organization in World Project Paper

Humanities Discussion

essay helper free Humanities Discussion.

“Government and the Arts” Please respond to the
following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your
Examine the U.S.
Government’s support during the Great Depression for programs, such as the
Federal Arts Project, the Federal Writers’ Project, and other such efforts.
Determine whether or not such projects were good government investments during
those hard times, and provide two (2) examples that support your viewpoint.
Determine in what ways the U.S. government currently tries to support the arts.
Government and the Arts
Chapter 37 (pp. 1228-1231), Federal support for the arts
Government helping the arts in hard times at
Times.html and
Attached is Chapter 37 (pp. 1228-1231).Humanities Chapter 37
Humanities Discussion

Nursing role and scope

Nursing role and scope. I’m studying for my Health & Medical class and need an explanation.

After reading Chapter 7 and reviewing the lecture power point, please answer the following questions. Each question must have at least 3 paragraphs response and you must use at 3 least references (APA, Times new roman, 12 font) included in your post. This assignment will be submitted through and will be closely monitored for plagiarism.
1. Do you view nursing as a career or a job? What are your professional goals related to nursing?
2. Describe the steps you would take to prepare yourself to interview for your ideal future Nursing role?
Nursing role and scope

GCU SPD 330 AAC Presentation

GCU SPD 330 AAC Presentation. I’m studying and need help with a English question to help me learn.

AAC Presentation

Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems can be used to meet the needs of students with language impairment. There are many forms of AAC and the selection of which AAC to use with a student must be based on their assessment results and discussed with a team of professionals as well as the family.
Design a 10‐15 slide digital presentation appropriate for a schoolwide professional development opportunity on the topic of augmentative and alternative communication systems.
Within your presentation, address the following:

Definitions of AAC systems
The three phases of assessment for AAC based on the participation model.
Features of high tech and low‐tech tools and their purposes in the classroom.
Examples of how to implement AAC to facilitate engagement in learning.
Advantages of multimodal communication.
Characteristics of students who typically benefit from AAC intervention.
Examples of assessment results that indicate students may be ideal candidates for such intervention.
The role of collaboration between IEP team members, administrators, and family members when choosing the appropriate AAC for a student.

Include a title slide, reference slide, and presenter’s notes.
You may incorporate recommendations from Clinical Field Experience B within your presentation.
Support your work with 3‐5 scholary resources


GCU SPD 330 AAC Presentation