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Impact Of The Creative City Theory Cultural Studies Essay

The creative city has become an amazingly popular concept in recent years. Along with the appearance of Richard Florida’s book The Rise of the Creative Class (2002), and Charles Landry’s The Creative City (2000), it seems that every city is developing a creative city policy. At the same time, the creative city concept is under serious debate in the academic world. Nevertheless, a gap exists between the academic literature that discusses the development of the creative city on a conceptual level, and the actual policy development in individual cities. On the one hand, many cities base their policies on limited sources. These include the works of Landry and Florida. On the other hand, cities take over the content of successful creative city policies such as Barcelona or Lille. They update their own policies then with the concept of the creative city (Chatterton, 2000, p. 392). In a similar vein, Russo and Van der Borg (2010, p.686) state that the relation between culture and urban economic remains largely ‘a black box in which cities move like amateurs. Accordingly, creative city policy tends to be ad hoc rather than moving towards the professionalization of creative activities (cf. Jayne, in: Evans, 2009, p. 1011). In the next chapters, firstly, we will summarize quickly academic literature explaining the concept of the creative city in more detail. Secondly, we will review policies of four Dutch cities described by Kooijman and Romein (2007) to find out more about the presence of creative city elements. Finally, we try to find out what the impact of the creative city theory on practice policies really are. In the discussion there are a few critics that have some interesting points of view and we contemplate on the usefulness for my graduation project. Concept of the Creative City Knowledge-based activities are of crucial importance for the growth in modern urban economies. Some regional economists claim that local clusters of linked industries and institutions in specific sectors are essential elements for urban competitiveness. People-based perspectives emphasize the importance of highly skilled and well educated workers as the key to economic success. Although many members of the creative class are high-educated, Richard Florida stressed in his books (Florida, 2002, 2005) the importance of creative talent for economic growth. Following his train of thought, it is primarily the capacity to generate new ideas, new knowledge and technologies, and new forms and content, and the ability to solve complex problems, that determines whether technologically-advanced companies decide to locate and invest in a city. Florida’s assumption is that ‘jobs follow people’, rather than that ‘people follow jobs’. Local economic policy should thus be primarily aimed at attracting creative people rather than business. It is a well-known fact that creative people prefer urban places with an attractive living environment, a good ‘quality of place’. If a city can provide this, creative people will settle, and investment in creative, productive activities will follow. According to Florida, this means that places have driven back companies as key organizing units in our economy. By means of the metaphor of the ‘3Ts’, he sums up the qualities of places: technology, talent and tolerance. Technological capacity is seen as a prerequisite for economic success; flows of talented people are regarded essential, since these are the carriers of creativity; and tolerance is thought of as the crucial magnet, the supply-side foundation upon which creative clusters are built (Peck, 2005, p.746). Besides the ‘3Ts’, there is a broad array of other factors that the creative class takes in mind when making decisions. On the basis of both theoretical and operational findings, Trip (2007, p. 31) concluded that diversity, specific amenities, liveliness and culture are key-concepts that generate a ‘creative life packed full of intense, high-quality, multidimensional experiences’. It can also be assumed that creative talent attaches great importance to the presence of ‘third places which are neither home nor work’, but forms of outdoor leisure and entertainment where information and ideas can be interchanged (Florida, 2002). This is not seen as an activity which is strictly separated from work and only engaged at certain times of the day, but rather as something which interacts with work in a process of personal and social creative growth. It is interesting to note that Florida’s thesis builds on the notion that former ‘established dichotomies such as culture versus economy, work versus leisure, production versus consumption’ (Mommaas, 1999, p. 177) are becoming less relevant in understanding how an increasing number of people live in cities, and how individual cities prosper. Policies in Practice To get a better inside in the implementation of the creative city theory in the policies in practice I will give an explanation of the policies in four largest Dutch cities investigated by Kooijman and Romein (2007). They made a methodological framework using the ‘policy philosophy model’ developed by Vermeijden (2001). In this model there is made a distinction between three major components. The normative core contains the basic principles and guidelines of urban policy that consists of the motivation and legitimation of plans and proposals. The policy core is based on concepts, strategies, themes, programs and policy objectives. It elaborates the normative core into policies. The secondary aspects consist of the practical core of implementation includes the legal, administrative, financial and organisational framework. Amsterdam Economic policy in Amsterdam views as a key concept for economic performance. Currently the city is focusing on both banks of the IJ river and in the Eastern Port Area, by realizing large consumption venues, including a film museum. They are also strengthening the attractiveness of public spaces (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2004a), urban living (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2003a, 2005), and the city as a consumer environment. The city doesn’t exclusively focus on the creative class, nor at highly skilled workers. This because of the fact that the city already more than 50 per cent highly skilled workers. Instead the city aims both to encourage creative talent to settle and tourists to visit. Interesting is that they don’t distinguish different target groups. They claim that if the city is attractive to its inhabitants that it is also attractive to creative talent and tourists. Nevertheless, the last few years they paid more attention to their traditional characteristic tolerance and open atmosphere. Recently the Spatial Planning Department replaced its top-down, supply side, design-focused planning approach. They are experimenting with a more demand-side and the role of the local government as mediator. They are actively searching for target groups, costumers and market players to sort into product-market combinations. Amsterdam sees city and region as belonging together. Amsterdam and Almere have thus recently developed the concept of ‘twin city’. Amsterdam has also focused on strengthening production with the Science Park Amsterdam. This cluster of high-tech industries is an early example of Dutch knowledge-based urban development policy. With regard to creative and cultural industries, since 1999, the city has invested in a ‘broedplaatsenbeleid’. This new policy was the outcome of the clearing large-scale ‘old buildings’ and a boom in the private construction of commercial mainstream developments. Affordable locations for new creative initiatives became increasingly scarce. And several of the initiatives moved to other cities. This made the local government realize that a valuable kind of economic capital was being destroyed. The policy aimed to take abandoned factories, warehouses, and similar buildings out of the property market, and place them at the disposal of small-scale, start-up enterprises in the creative and cultural industries. They did this, to provide affordable working and living spaces. (Van Ulzen, 2007, p. 181). The only other initiative to strengthen creative production has been the creation of an inventory of creative businesses, including characteristics of their production environments. To provide an empirical basis for possible future policies. (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2003b, 2006a, 2006b). Utrecht In Utrecht in the policy there is a focus on consumer environments notable as well. Two documents (Gemeente Utrecht, 203b, 2003c) aim at the strengthening of the inner city as a hospitable meeting place. Hereby there lies an emphasis on the hospitability sector and the leisure sector. The leisure note (2003b) seek to attract more visitors to Utrecht in order to create jobs and revenues. While the Economic Note (2003c) positions Utrecht as a meeting place for talent. This should draw people to live and work in the city. However, this talent could be described rather highly trained than creative. Those two documents reglect an entrepreneurial approach. This is also present in the Memorandum on Culture (Gemeente Utrecht, 2005), where the economic potential of consumer environments is the foremost priority of the policy-makers. The consumption-oriented policy in Utrecht tries to a achieve culture and leisure services in specific areas of the city. The emphasis lies here on the city center. The intention is to create a consumption environment with new shops, catering, cultural services and nightlife activities. The purpose here is to compete successfully with Amsterdam. In addition, area developments have been planned around the central railway station. In the Leidsche Rijn center there is developed a second heart that would generate 80,000 new residents and 40,000 new jobs. These projects include large scale consumption programs. A new music hall, multiplex cinema and a multi-purpose theatre. Finally, large-scale mono-functional retail, sports and recreation projects are planned at the edges of the city. All of these projects reflect the ambition of Utrecht to become a leisure center of national importance. Policy in Utrecht focuses explicitly on reinforcing the cultural and creative production than Amsterdam (Hogeschool voor de Kunsten, 2005). Just like Amsterdam did, Utrecht mapped out its creative sector, but the intention of Utrecht is to use this map actually as tool for strengthening the creative production. The municipal departments of Economy and Culture are attempting to support creative companies by equipping seedbeds and multi-tenant buildings. Utrecht is hereby more explicitly geared towards economic goals than Amsterdam. This is reflected in Utrecht’s explicit intention to improve the quality of cultural and creative entrepreneurship. Of all four cities, Utrecht is the only one that is engaged ina regional platform of municipalities, collaborating on production. The objective of this is strengthening networks of creative and artistic businesses with other institutions and companies like, educational institutes and banks. The city has a close alliance with the Province via the long term cultural program, Vrede van Utrecht (Treaty of Utrecht, 1713). In the years coming to the third centenary of the Treaty, there will be organized many events. Investments in cultural production will be made that explicitly aim to position Utrecht on the international map of cultural destinations. The focus is not limited to cultural and creative industries. The Economic Memorandum (Gemeente Utrecht, 2003c) focuses on other sectors as well. Business and medical services. The latter is an example of knowledge-based urban development. The aim is to strengthen links between educational and research institutes, healthcare services, and industry. The approach is more explicitly entrepreneurial than Amsterdam . There is a finer balance between the consumption and production based policies. Rotterdam The production and consumption-oriented policies in Rotterdam are to be concerned of the grown awareness that the city has about the fact that it lies behind the other three major cities. Due to relatively strong orientation on capital-intensive manufacturing and logistics, lowly skilled labour force, and a low intensity of knowledge (Gemeente Rotterdam, 2004b). The aim of its consumption oriented policy is to improve the city’s attractiveness for residents, visitors, and tourists. This policy has clear economic roots, although the relative strength of the economic perspective differs between local government departments and agencies. The municipal Department of Art Culture’s Cultural Plan 2005-2008 (Gemeente Rotterdam, 2003) puts major social and educational goals forward. The mission statements of the Ontwikkelingsbedrijf Rotterdam (OBR) and the Economic Developmetn Board of Rotterdam (EBDR) are spatial economic in nature. Their consumption oriented policy clearly reflects an entrepreneurial approach. The OBR chaired the inter departmental Working Group that was responsible for developing the vision of the city’s leisure and entertainment provision in 2001( Gemeente Rotterdam, 2001). This vision connected twenty-four locations (mostly in the center and on the waterfront) with ten different leisure themes (shopping, modern architecture, cultural heritage, sports and port, maritime and water related activities. Specific combination of themes was developed for each location. The vision acted as a framework for inviting entrepreneurs form the leisure industry to invest in the city (Gemeente Rotterdam, OBR, 2004c). Like Utrecht, Rotterdam, explicitly aspires to strechthen its leisure economy. And they also acknowledge the importance of large consumption projects in area development programs. Indeed, the building, extension, and renovation of sports facilities, multiplex cinemas, theatres and museums have been features of urban policy since the 1970s. Furthermore, Rotterdam places significant emphasis on large scale, outdoor summer festivals. In 2005, Rotterdam won the ‘National Festival City of the Year’ award for the second time. Rotterdam has developed a policy that focuses directly on encouraging creative production. This is more explicitly than Amsterdam and in a more elaborate way than Utrecht. This is emphasized in the Economic Vision 2020 memorandum (Gemeente Rotterdam, EDB, 2004a). This is even further developed in two policy documents (Gemeente Rotterdam, 2005b; Gemeente Rotterdam, EDBR, 2006). The former reflects the priority assigned to the development of audio-visual expertise in competition rather than cooperation with other cities. Rotterdam makes work of creativity is a more general policy document that denominates four promising creative sectors for further development. The document distinguishes four types of creative zones. Those are areas where designated policies stimulate concentrations of creative businesses. Visibility through clustering is considered as a precondition for a successful creative-sector development. The intention is that the creative cluster, the medical cluster and the portbound industries should create the international profile of Rotterdam in the near future (Gemeente Rotterdam, EDBR, 2004a). For the creative cluster in particular, the local government aims to focus on improving the city’s quality of place.. This in order to attract and retain students and other creative people. However the most policy initiatives concerned the Creative City aim on more on production instead. This includes the upgrading of entrepreneurship and improvement of adjustment of the knowledge infrastructure to creative production (Gemeente Rotterdam, OBR, 2005a; Gemeente Rotterdam EDBR, 2006). The role of the local government in the expansion of these three sectors of local economy is to facilitate the process of cooperation between businesses , knowledge institutes and municipal departments. In some locations, there are policies aiming to improve urban consumption and strengthen creative production are being combined with large scale area redevelopment programs. In the Lloydkwartier and the Kop van Zuid, leisure, residential developments for the new middle class are being developed alongside cultural and creative sectores. The Kop van Zuid had already been designated as a strategic urban development program in the early 1980s (Ter Borg and Dijkink, 1992). Amsterdam’s IJ-oever and Utrecht’s Central Station area are also focusing on area redevelopment, but not so explicitly in support of creative production. The Hague The Hague is a city that attaches a great deal of importance to culture. It seeks to strengthen forms of small-scale cultural production by stimulating these to interlink with consumption. The keyword is integration and the intention is that producers of culture should be more open to the public. Moreover, the intention is that established actors should themselves open up to local producers, to create public for the latter. However, local memoranda (Gemeente Den Haag, 2005a, 2005b) state that no changes are needed with respect to retail policy. Leisure policy is less relevant tot the creative city. It is consumption-oriented, and aimed at larg-scale facilities in general and the business tourist in particular. Two areas in The Hague conspicuously represent this approach. The city center and the Scheveningen beach resort. A notable aspect of the local policy is the potential link between culture an economy. There is a suggestion that previously separate policy areas and social domains could be linked to great effect. Linkage is needed in order to allow different economic sectors to profit from one another. The city is actively using its real estate to implement local policy. The city region of The Hague has perhaps the highest amount of inter-municipal co-operation in the four largest Dutch cities. Comparable with Amsterdam’s proactive approach, The Hague is initiating meeting to answer the interests of cultural producers. A large number of networks are being organized in order to bring the relevant parties together. Producers, theatres and real estate owners (Gemeente Den Haag, 2005c, 2005d). However, discussions exist about the border of the city. Retail and leisure are issues of discussion with secondary cities in the environment (Stadsgewest Haaglanden, 2002, 2006) In addition The Hague is holding talks with Delft about developing the ICT sector. One clear advantage is the location of the University of Technology. The Hague is in discussion with the secondary city of Leiden on the possible relocation of part of the city’s university to The Hague. Knowledge based urban development is and increasingly important field of urban policy making. The Hague is at disadvantage as it is the only one of the four largest cities without an university. The policy discourse is at least as explicitly entrepreneurial as that of the other three cities. Altough the two directions, the stimulation of large scale consumption projects and the stimulation of cultural industries, are present in all the four cities. The policy of The Hague is most openly entrepreneurial due to the formulation of specific product-market combinations. The municipality is looking for big spenders. Tourists or high income workers that not yet live in the city. The city aspires to be ‘business-like’ and a ‘reliable partner'(Gemeente Den Haag, 2005e) Impact of the Creative City theory The four cities have adopted strengthening competitiveness for post-industrial economic growth as a main objective. Just like Florida (2005) they try to attract the highly mobile flow of creative talent. Though the impact of Florida’s work it has hardly impact on discussions on the policy’s normative core. However one interprets Florida’s position on the social aspects of the creative economy, this has played no big role in this debate in the Netherlands. Lastly the plea for an open and tolerant social climate in cities does neither appear to have had a significant impact on Dutch policy. The multicultural harmonious Dutch climate, on the contrary, has changed towards the adjustment of diversity to fit the Dutch cultural values and norms. The debate about social inequality, is an issue in Dutch cities, but is separate from the debate on the value and utility of Florida’s thesis. The policy core aims to achieve a strong competitive position and good economic performance. Regardless of Florida’s aversion on standardized and tightly-scheduled forms of consumption the four cities have planned and developed these new commercial programs anyway. The four cities focus less on improving hard to grasp place quality. Instead they do on direct and explicit support of economic production. One of the tactics of the government is to put old buildings at the disposal of creative producers. The four cities do not have blind faith in the notion that jobs follow when a high quality consumption for the creative class is established. The policies involve small scale production of cultural activities and creative businesses in Rotterdam and the cultural sector in The Hague. However, they pay at least attention to the clusters based on knowledge and the medical clusters in Utrecht and Rotterdam. Moreover, Florida’s most important argument, of the creative class, is not prominent in the current policies. Rather the cities aim at attracting graduates and highly trained professionals, to boost scientific knowledge-based sectors, as well attracting visitors and tourists. One obvious aspect is the cooperative network that links institutions with young talented creative producers. For instance in Utrecht the educational institutes took the initiative over the government. The perspective, however, is more local, and cooperation between different municipalities is limited. The impact of Florida on the organisational framework is very limited because he doesn’t really gives specific details in his books. Conclusion
OC Organizational Needs Critiquing the Entry Phase of A Consulting Scenario Essay.

In this assignment, you will critique the following scenario, according to the directions that follow the scenario.The local mental health center has a high turnover of workers. The county Human Resources officer contacts Mind Consulting Corp (MCC) to do a consultation at the mental health center and arranges an initial meeting with Dr. Sara Gonzalez, the director of the center. Dr. John Lindsey of MCC has been tapped to handle the case. On hearing that there is a large turnover of workers, Dr. Lindsey concludes that employee burnout is the problem. He reviews his material on burnout in mental health centers before the initial meeting with Dr. Gonzalez.Dr. Lindsey appears on time for the first meeting. Hoping to put the director at ease and thinking that, in general, the agency might need some cheering up, he dresses in an office casual style— wearing a bright yellow cotton shirt, khaki pants, and sandals. Dr. Gonzalez is dressed in a dark pants suit and ties her hair back neatly. In the first meeting, Dr. Lindsey works to establish his image by doing most of the talking, discussing the origins and sources of burn out in the helping profession and what he plans to do to deal with this problem.Dr. Gonzalez listens attentively, and then asks for some specifics about the consultation: just how much time Dr. Lindsey would take in consulting, what type of physical support in terms of a space and materials would be needed, and approximately how much they can expect to see their turnover rate drop as a result of the consultation program. Dr. Lindsey replies that these are things that will be worked out as the program develops.Dr. Gonzalez is wary, but because her supervisors in the county office have already decided to deal with MCC, she has no choice but to go along with Dr. Lindsey and his plan. For his initial meeting with the staff, Dr. Lindsey asks her to have the staff come in an hour early so he can address everyone before they begin their daily caseload. The staff comes directly to the meeting room as they enter the building and Dr. Lindsey, in his typical colorful shirt and casual slacks, show them slides on the program and how he expects them to change over the next two months. After that, he joins Dr. Gonzalez for breakfast in the executive break room.For this assignment, critique the way Dr. Lindsey carried out this entry stage of consultation, according to the four phases of entry:Exploring organizational needsContractingPhysically entering the systemPsychologically entering the systemBegin by providing a 1-2 page overview of each phase of the entry stage.Next, in 1-2 pages, critique Dr. Lindsey’s approach according to these criteria.Finally, rewrite the scenario, discussing how Dr. Lindsey might have carried things out better.Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference pages.Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.
OC Organizational Needs Critiquing the Entry Phase of A Consulting Scenario Essay

La Salle University The Character Lavender Analysis.

Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried is written as a series of interconnected short stories. O’Brien is desperate for readers to understand the devastating impact of the Vietnam War on those involved, and to help us understand that, he depicts not just one but a series of “worlds” coming to an end. For your response, analyze the character Lavender , no matter how major or minor, and discuss how, for that character, the events of the Vietnam War were an “end of the world.” You should provide enough information on your chosen character to show and make explicit how that character’s world has ended (you should be more specific than “they went to war”).Then, conduct an analysis of the “end of the world” you’ve presented: What is the significance of the way in which the character’s world has ended? What is being “uncovered” or “revealed” to us by the way in which their world has ended? What is O’Brien trying to show through this specific ending? Is there any symbolism present in that ending? You should include these and any other analysis in your response that you believe is pertinent to a full discussion of the character and ending you chose
La Salle University The Character Lavender Analysis

(1). FORENSIC DESIGN ASSESSMENTS This task relates to a sequence of assessments that will be repeated across Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Select any example of a visualisation or infographic, maybe your own work or that of others. The task is to undertake

(1). FORENSIC DESIGN ASSESSMENTS This task relates to a sequence of assessments that will be repeated across Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Select any example of a visualisation or infographic, maybe your own work or that of others. The task is to undertake. I need an explanation for this Computer Science question to help me study.

Click this link:Data Representation to start the “Forensic Design Assessment” exercise.

First, click Chapter 6 (Data representation) – from the list of chapters;
Then click the “Exercises” link (right side of screen);
Under “Exercise”
Complete: (1) Forensic Design Assessments exercise.

(1). FORENSIC DESIGN ASSESSMENTS
This task relates to a sequence of assessments that will be repeated across Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Select any example of a visualisation or infographic, maybe your own work or that of others. The task is to undertake a deep, detailed ‘forensic’ like assessment of the design choices made across each of the five layers of the chosen visualisation’s anatomy. In each case your assessment is only concerned with one design layer at a time.
For this task, take a close look at the data representation choices:

Start by identifying all the charts and their types
How suitable do you think the chart type choice(s) are to display the data? If they are not, what do you think they should have been?
Are the marks and, especially, the attributes appropriately assigned and accurately portrayed?
Go through the set of ‘Influencing factors’ from the latter section of the book’s chapter to help shape your assessment and to possibly inform how you might tackle this design layer differently
Are there any data values/statistics presented in table/raw form that maybe could have benefited from a more visual representation?

(1). FORENSIC DESIGN ASSESSMENTS This task relates to a sequence of assessments that will be repeated across Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Select any example of a visualisation or infographic, maybe your own work or that of others. The task is to undertake

The Beveridge Report of 1942: Aims and Impact

essay help online free The Beveridge Report of 1942: Aims and Impact. (The Making of the Welfare State, 1942 – 1951) Examine the extent to which the AIMS of the Beveridge Report of 1942 had been achieved by 1951. From the Cradle to the Grave In 1941 the wartime coalition government ordered Sir William Beveridge[1] to write a report suggesting policies that could be implemented to assist people on low incomes in the United Kingdom. In December 1942 Beveridge published his findings in his Report to Parliament on Social Insurance and Allied Services.[2] The Report proposed that people in employment should pay a proportion of their pay into a fund which would then be distributed in the form of benefits paid to people who were unemployed, sick, widowed or retired. Essentially, Beveridge argued for a comprehensive system of social insurance ‘from cradle to grave’. Beveridge reasoned that this system would establish a minimum standard of living ‘below which no one should be allowed to fall’. His proposals proved immensely popular among the British public and his suggested reforms were introduced by the Labour Government that was elected by a landslide vote (after adopting the objectives of the Beveridge Report in its manifesto)[3] at the end of World War II in 1945. The period under discussion in this paper extends from publication of the Beveridge Report to the end of the post-war Labour Government, which was led by Clement Attlee. The principle aims of the Beveridge Report were addressed to counter the five so-called ‘giants’ of illness, ignorance, disease, squalor, and want. The Report considered the broad question of social insurance, contending that social ‘want’ could be met by a state organised system of social security for the benefit of individual citizens. Beveridge proposed the establishment of family allowances, a national health service, a scheme for national insurance and assistance, and lobbied for policies to secure full-employment. The Achievements of the Beveridge Report Attlee’s Government introduced three acts of key significance and others that proved instrumental in pursuing the aims of the Beveridge Report. The 1946 National Insurance Act, implemented the Beveridge scheme for social security creating a comprehensive system of unemployment, sickness, maternity and pension benefits funded by employers, employees and the government. It is submitted that the Act represents a significant reforming achievement on any given set of criteria. By June 1948, prominent Labour Minister of Health Aneurin Bevan had steered the National Health Service Act through Parliament and into force. This legislation provided the British public with free diagnosis and treatment of illness and disease, in hospital and at home, and also made comprehensive dental and ophthalmic services available. Again, it is argued that this Act constitutes an important achievement for the Beveridge agenda, indeed, with the benefit of hindsight and from the full perspective of 2005, it is hard to overstate its significance. The 1948 National Assistance Act was the third of the key Acts inspired by Beveridge. The Act abolished the Poor Law and made provision for welfare services, enacting a raft of measures designed to relieve poverty in the United Kingdom. All three of the above Acts entered into force on the same day, 7th June 1948. The 1948 Children Act was another important reform inspired by Beveridge. This Act established a children’s committee and a children’s officer in each local authority adding, it is submitted, an important perspective to the Beveridge agenda. Full employment also became government policy as a consequence of Beveridge. This goal has never been sustained for any long period, but it is submitted that it is unfair to judge Beveridge by the success or failure of this aspiration, given that so many socio-economic factors impact on the level of employment. Together, the achievements of Beveridge created a welfare state for the United Kingdom: a system of social security guaranteeing a minimum level of income, health and social services for all. Returning to office in 1951 under Churchill, the Conservative Party pursued an agenda of pragmatic social modernity and accepted almost all of the social reforms, including all the key reforms, instituted by the former Labour government. This demonstrates that not only had the Beveridge Report achieved its primary objectives, but also that it had engineered a shift in the political norms and received social wisdom of the country. Concluding Comments Although securing almost one and a half million more votes than the Conservatives, Clement Attlee’s Labour Party, as stated above, narrowly lost the 1951 General Election. However, it is argued that the post war period of Government was by most measures a great success. Vigorous reform based largely around the model established by Beveridge was achieved. The goal of full employment has and will probably remain an elusive one for the foreseeable future, but great strides were taken during the period under review and the social superstructure of the United Kingdom changed out of all recognition and for, it is submitted, the better. It is a testament to the influence and success of the Beveridge Report that some forty years after its publication, Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government – in terms of its political stance poles apart from Beveridge and Attlee – which as a consequence opposed many of the principles behind Beveridge’s work, recognised his report as ‘by any measure a landmark’ in a white paper on social security reform[4]. In summary it is submitted that the British welfare state of 2005 is recognisably the progeny of Beveridge. This grand social system retains all the basic characteristics of the system created by the Labour Government between 1945 and 1951.[5] Thus it can be claimed that the Beveridge Report achieved many of its aims, and, moreover, that those achievements have stood the test of time and proved both durable and effective. Beveridge deserves a place of prominence in the political pantheon of the twentieth century. In terms of his lasting influence on modern Britain, it is arguable that he surpasses even his far more famous political contemporary Churchill. The following quote strikes an appropriate closing note. “The welfare state, arguably the greatest achievement of European civilisation in this century.” Marquand, 1997. p127[6] BIBLIOGRAPHY Report to the Parliament on Social Insurance and Allied Services (Cmd. 6404) London: HMSO, 1942 ISBN: 0108502767 George V. and Wilding P. (1999) British Society and Social Welfare, London, Macmillan. Marquand D. (1997) The New Reckoning, Cambridge. Polity. The National Archives: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ 1 Footnotes [1] (1879-1963). [2] (Cmd. 6404) London: HMSO, 1942 ISBN: 0108502767. [3] It should be noted that the Conservative Party also supported much of the Beveridge Report. [4] See for comment: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/citizenship/brave_new_world/welfare.htm [5] George V. and Wilding P. (1999) British Society and Social Welfare, London, Macmillan. [6] Marquand D. (1997) The New Reckoning, Cambridge. Polity. The Beveridge Report of 1942: Aims and Impact

ECON200 Discussion

ECON200 Discussion. I don’t understand this Economics question and need help to study.

You are an economic advisor to the government of China in 2008. The country has a current account surplus and is facing gathering inflationary pressures. The current account surplus is large, in excess of 9% of GDP.

Additionally, China currently provides a rather low level of government services to its people.

China’s government would like to attract workers from the rural countryside into manufacturing employment and would prefer to soften any negative impact of their policy package on urban employment. Please Advise.
ECON200 Discussion

3 sql queries with relational database

3 sql queries with relational database.

I’m working on a databases report and need an explanation to help me learn.

There are 3 queries I need to learn how to write in SQL1-)For each user, find the percentage of users that have fewer posts than them. Sort the results from high percentage to low, and limit the output to the 30 users with the highest post count.2-)For each user, find the percentage of users that have spent less time on the site than them. Omit users whose first month was the last month in the data. Sort the results from high percentage to low, and limit the output to the 30 users with the highest post count.3-)For each user, find the percentile they’re in for time on site. We’ll define percentile as the percentage of users who spent as much or less time on the site than the given user.
3 sql queries with relational database