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Impact of Technological Developments on Teaching in the Future

Impact of Technological Developments on Teaching in the Future. What emerging technology trends do you think will have the greatest impact on teaching and learning within the next five years? Technology is a widely used tool in the classrooms in the 21st century. Technology keeps growing on a daily basis, as well as learning techniques for students. Everyone everywhere use technology on a daily basis, no matter where you are and what you are doing technology exist in all professions. Educators are trying to get students exposed to the workforce use of technology, this way students do not face any challenges in future workforce and have knowledge to adapt to the growing technology in the world. The most debated topic in education even today is ‘what does the future of learning and technology holds for teachers and students?’ As much as we have seen thus far, classroom have changed drastically from long rows of desk and teacher centered learning to collaboration and makerspace learning. As the technology grows there are many trends that will have impacts on not just students but teachers as well. The top technology tends I believe will be the greatest impact on students and teachers in the next five years are: Gamification/ app innovation, Augmented reality, online learning, and Cloud-based computing. Gamification/ app innovation As Gamification is already trending in education, as of 2015 the EdTech industry has invested over 2.51 billion dollars and plans to be at a 5.5-billion-dollar industry by the end of 2018 as Sam S. Adkins, chief research officer at ambient insight research stated. Well-designed games and apps are providing students with personalized learning experiences while it covers required state lessons and standards. Gamification also allows students to get into the programming language such as coding at an early age. Such apps such as Scratch by MIT developers allows students to use computational thinking and coding to make a small video and growing their intelligence, as well as learning a high computer skill can have great benefits for the future. Several schools are looking into the technology plan for the next five years and the top of the plan is professional development, badging and game-based learning opportunities in the classroom. Richland school district in Texas plans to innovate and use emerging technology to transform teaching and learning through gamification. They also plan to provide teachers with extra learning coaches that are trained in the gamification process, so teachers are not hesitant in using the tools in the classroom to enhance student learning. As some teachers in Texas are already giving the gamification learning a try. Jason Sellers a 10th grade English teacher wanted to give his students motivation to learn writing. His idea was to incorporate, graphics-based games in which users can view graphics and maneuver through the game by using controller buttons, text-based games require players to read descriptions and maneuver by typing commands such as go north or unlock the door with a key. (NETP, 2017) Sellers states that some of his students wanted to play the text-based came and other wanted to create. He allowed the makes to work in groups and collaborate to make the games and the other to play the game. Both sets of students were learning the reading topic by creating and learning from one another. Gamification is a tool that can be used in schools all over the world. All children are in need of play and motivation to learn in new ways. Gamification has been taken global as well. The global gamification market from 2014 is expected to grow to 64.34% by 2019 according to Global education gamification research. “Children are intelligent creatures that have the magnificent ability to absorb and adapt – more than adults can … By promoting gamification in the classroom … we have a unique opportunity to engage children and get them interested in learning through play. Children are usually keen to finish school, go home and play. Mixing play with learning means that we increase the chances that children will take learning into their own hands, and volunteer in the learning process” – Talent LMS. As the quote by Talent LMS states gamification has made a keen difference to learning by providing students the ability to take their own learning into their hands, this gives me a belief in how gamification is a great emerging trend in continuing in the education field for five or more years. Augmented reality (AR) Augmented Reality has become the biggest hype in education as of 2015 (Brown, 2015). The Virtual reality of going on virtual trips to many places around the world from a classroom has been a great impact on socioeconomic students. Augmented reality helps the students easily gain, process, and remember the information. Additionally, Augmented reality makes learning itself more engaging and fun. Augmented reality is not expensive and can be done at any point of time in the classroom. Students are more engaged in lesson with Augmented reality and allows them to be interactively be involved. “A picture is worth a thousand words” this quote is perfect for Augmented reality, this allows students to discover unknown things with their own eyes and as feeling as they here there. 80% of school students own smartphones and allowing them to use those phones in the classroom for learning would create a great learning point. Some student will take the learning outside of the school and use it at home with friends and even younger or older siblings. They would transfer their knowledge to others. Augmented reality is a great tool in the classroom and has great benefits. Although Augmented reality was introduced in in classrooms in 2015, it is highly growing and being more widely used in the classroom (Brown, 2015) AR technology allows students to view and experience from several social perspectives. Research focuses on the potential of AR technology in inquiry-based fieldwork for disciplines in which analysis of change across time is important to promote understanding of how very small changes across long periods of time may add up to very large changes (NETP, 2017). AR learning is not contained within screens or classrooms and that technology can enrich how students engage in the world around them. The AR technology can be combined with several aspects in the classroom from apps like Aurasma where one picture can take you to a video for learning. AR has lots to provide for the future of education and will be part of the education system for several years. Online Learning Online learning has been in the education system for a long time, offered with higher education, allowing students to take one or two classes online. As of 2009, 7.1 million people were taking a online course for their respective colleges. (Kolowich, 2014) The emerging trend of education with online learning/ e-learning is that most college degrees can be earned all online then being physically in school. As school started to get more and more students interested in online learning than being in a physical classroom, flipped classroom trended in early education classrooms. Students from a early age are being exposed to online learning with home schooled online schools and tutors and even full based schools online for degrees. As majority of colleges now offering bachelors and masters degrees online, education is advances day by day and more opportunities are being available to students online. Online learning allows students the flexibility to work at their own paces and be able to help families out if need to work to provide and still being able to go to school online to get a degree. Online learning allows more and more people to get degrees and learn with the continuation of their daily lives. The online learning has changed education but this will not affect regular classroom as they will always remain for those that do not learning particularly well with online school. As teachers in the K-12 are involving classroom learning with blended learning, which is like online eLearning. Teachers are able to put certain portions of their lessons online for students to interact with their technological tools to complete assignments and even watch video that pertain to the classroom learning. Cloud-based technology Cloud-based technology is a new development and has become more well known in the education field. Teachers and students are able to gather their documents and data over the so-called world cloud and be able to access it from anywhere unlike the old times of flash drives and emailing documents. The cloud base world is growing day by day. People all-around the world are on tablets, computers, and phones, and with the cloud base world, less paper is being needed and its environment friendly. One click allows students and teachers to send documents and share things in collaborations with one another. Google drive, the highly used cloud drive, has made it easy for teachers and students to share documents and even collaborate with one another on the same document as group work. Teacher are able backtrack and see what part was written by what students, with the history log. Google cloud has changed the way people do anything. When students work on homework and/ or format pictures on other devices and locations. All the students need to do is upload their pictures to their google account and it can be accessible from anywhere. Google drive in not the only product out there with a cloud base technology there are many more, but in schools many have used google and continue to use google. As the cloud is super helpful for document sharing and keeping documents accessible from anywhere, this emerging technology has really helps shaped education to make it more environmentally friendly. 2. What do you see as the significant challenges to their adoption? Technology is not always the best and there cannot always be positives, there are also negatives to everything. The one big challenge to technology is availability at the moments we need it. Other issue for teachers are always concerned about is the internet access. The internet can be a big problem on a day to day bases in school, some days the internet works great and some days we have technical issues that no one can control. Although there is wifi access to the internet in many places around the world for free or for a small charge, there are other barriers to the internet. Barriers such as high-speed internet which creates great deals of problems in completing one task when the internet is not working in your favor at a good speed. Online learning cannot happen without the high-speed internet. As bring your own device (BYOD) has been in most schools, but many do not have the internet service on their devices and rely on the public Wi-Fi linkage. Efforts to mitigate these issues are necessary to promote full participation, communication, and education within global society. Another significant challenge is the adoption of emerging technology for teachers that have not received the formal training and support in their respective school districts and in teacher preparation programs. Training the upcoming teachers with the best knowledge on using the technology will be a big step in helping the students learn. As teachers are told to attend hours of professional development many teachers focus on other subject training then technology, due to the fact of thinking “what they will get out of it”. Teachers lack the will to try new learning using technology due to personal technology related experiences or stories from other teachers that have tried the use of technology in the classroom. Last but not least, economic disadvantage students not getting enough exposure to technology outside of schools. Some students have not seen the technology that is being available in the schools if such technology is even available at the schools because of funding issues. Finance is a big rising issue in all schools. There is rich well-developed area where the students get all new advantages in learning with new tools. Then there are schools that don’t get any funding in a small area of town and all socioeconomic students don’t get those advantages due to public education funding within the United States. Even if the funding is there and schools get the technology for students to have exposure at home and school with the technology but many students don’t have the internet service or the capability to use the technology at home and than the learning does not transfer from school to the outside environment, but it does give them a chance to be exposed to the great advantages in the classroom. 3. How will the role of teachers be impacted by these trends? The role of teachers will be impacted in two ways. The first, is that teachers will need more professional development and the second, online learning will be more sought of and higher education teachers will be working online with students. As trend have already changed in many places, teachers will be seen as only facilitators rather than center of attention as they have been in the front of the classroom and teaching for many years. Tread have changed but will be more in effect in the coming years as we train the new preservice teachers being facilitators of the classroom rather than the center of attention, this will have a great impact in the role of the teachers. Online learning is highly used, but as more and more online learning is taking place especially at the higher level of teaching, where majority of students are not attending classroom and doing their degrees strictly online with online teachers and faculty. This will have a great change in the role of the teachers were teachers will have to modify the teaching style and have more and more students in their online learning classes. Last but not least professional learning is a big issue and the role of the teacher will be impacted on how they have to teach and facilitate a classroom. Teachers will have to attend great amount of training to learn how to use the technology with the students. This will improve teachers knowledge about the new developments to enhance their learning as well. As well as grow the teacher in making changes to the old style of teaching in the classroom. As trends grow everyone needs to adapt to the new ways and most of the time it’s not easy and lots of work needs to be done to make changes. 4. What changes to teacher preparation programs do you think are needed? “Today’s teachers need to know and be able to do things their predecessors did not. They have to be prepared to educate all of their students to achieve the highest learning outcomes in history. This is a fundamentally different job than that of past generations of teachers,” Arthur Levine, president of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, stated in his 2006 “Educating School Teachers” report. “Research shows that the strongest way to prepare effective teachers is through immersive experiences in schools, but too few teachers are trained this way,” said Dominic Brewer, the Gale and Ira Duiker Dean of NYU Steinhardt. This is a big issue for some teacher prep programs. The more immersive experience you get the better prepared you are to teach. As I have seen in the school of Education, the preparation program allows student teachers to go in the classroom for about 2 years before getting their degrees. The teachers are able to go to the classroom to teach short lessons and get the sense of teaching through small group work and lesson planning. Then teachers are placed in the classroom to teach two eight-week periods. The more exposure in the classroom the better. The other change that need to be made are the professors that are teaching teachers need to have good background in teaching at the schools so they can share their experience. The biggest complain preservice teachers have are that professors have left the classroom several years ago and the education system has evolved a lot since then and those professors are still stuck teaching them about hoe classrooms were. The ISTE study found much the same situation in today’s teacher education programs: most faculty-members do not, in fact, practice or model effective technology use in their classrooms (Milken exchangeImpact of Technological Developments on Teaching in the Future
Case Study 1: Edema Ms. Rand is a 65-year-old woman who spends most of her day sitting on her porch and recovering from a recent surgery involving the removal of suspected cancerous lymph glands in the inguinal area. She is now complaining that her shoes are fitting too tightly, and she has developed poorly healing sores on her legs and ankles. A closer examination also shows distention in her varicose veins. Blood tests reveal a low level of proteins in the plasma. Based on the patient history and the signs and symptoms, identify the fluid imbalance the patient is experiencing, and state the rationale for your answer. Discuss the four general causes of edema and how they apply in the case of this patient. Discuss the swelling, sores, varicose vein distention, and other effects that edema can have on a patient. Additional information: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1NjEoeXU2M Case Study 2: Pernicious Anemia Mr. Alvis, age 57, presented to his physician with marked fatigue, nausea with occasional diarrhea, and a sore, swollen tongue. Lately he also has been experiencing a tingling feeling in his toes and a feeling of clumsiness. Microscopic examination of a blood sample indicated a reduced number of erythrocytes, many of which are megaloblasts, and a reduced number of leukocytes, including many large, hypersegmented cells. Hemoglobin and serum levels of vitamin B12 were below normal. Additional tests confirm pernicious anemia. Relate the pathophysiology of pernicious anemia to the manifestations listed above. Discuss how the gastric abnormalities contribute to vitamin B12 and iron deficiency and how vitamin B12 deficiency causes complications associated with pernicious anemia. Discuss other tests that could be performed to diagnose this type of anemia. Discuss the treatment available and the limitations. Additional information: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtlodYLm8fc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PG2VJzVTrs Case Study 3: Cardiovascular System: Atherosclerosis Mr. Kelly is a 57-year-old man who consulted his physician after noticing marked leg pains while playing golf. He had previously noticed increasing fatigue and discomfort in his legs associated with moderate exercise. When sitting for extended periods with legs dangling, his legs became red, and sometimes his feet felt numb. His history indicates he smokes cigarettes and is chronically overweight. His blood cholesterol and other lipid levels are abnormal, and his physician suspects peripheral atherosclerosis as the cause of his discomfort. Discuss the development of atherosclerosis, including the predisposing factors in this case and the pathophysiological changes. Discuss the complications that might develop in this patient. Discuss the treatments for all aspects of the patient’s condition, including slowing the progress of the atherosclerosis, maintaining circulation in the leg, and treating complications. Additional information: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3kDdg8r6NY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1qifvZnpKjU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_T60pBGcoQU

roject Information: The owner of a small snack food and potato chip manufacturer, California Crunch Company, has asked you Essay

roject Information: The owner of a small snack food and potato chip manufacturer, California Crunch Company, has asked you to investigate a possible issue with the company’s payroll. They have provided you with this year and last year’s income statements and two payroll files. The “HR Master” file gives you important information about each employee. The “Payroll” file detailsthe company’s payroll for the last 5 pay periods of the year. You will be conducting some audit procedures for California Crunch and analyzing the results. Week 1 Writing Assignment Part 1: This project is split into four (4) parts with one (1) part due each week of the course. Based on your readings, use of technology, research of literature, and other sources do the following: Week 1: Review the income statements given to you by the owner of California Crunch Company. Based on the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct prepare a 2-3 page summary of how you plan to proceed to address the owner’s concerns and what specific steps you would take to audit this company.

second PA is another example of how your growing knowledge of how college algebra will serve you in the future.

online assignment help second PA is another example of how your growing knowledge of how college algebra will serve you in the future.. I need support with this Algebra question so I can learn better.

Exponential Functions Project
You will need to:
1. Pick one of the following scenarios:

You buy a new car that cost $25,000. The car depreciates at a rate of 11% per year.
You put $7,500 into an investment account. The account is projected to earn 9% interest per year.
The population of Kensington is currently 120,000 people. It is growing at a rate of 0.35% per year.
The population of Camden, NJ is currently 180,000 people. People are moving out at a rate of 1.2% per year.

2. Write an equation to represent the exponential function of the scenario.
3. Create a table to represent the exponential function

Identify the growth/decay rate on your table.
Explain how the growth/decay rate represents an exponential function.

4. Create a graph to represent the exponential function.
5. Use color to connect and identify “a” and “b” in the table, equation, graph, and scenario.6. Identify the following:
a. Independent variable
b. Dependent variable
c. Domain
d. Range
e. Starting point
f. Growth/decay rate
second PA is another example of how your growing knowledge of how college algebra will serve you in the future.

The Utilitarianism And Principlism Philosophy Essay

Utilitarianism, started by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as the opposition to Christian ethics, is a theory in ethics, which favors the idea of maximizing the greatest pleasure and minimizing the greatest harm. As stated in the book, Utilitarianism, “The sole end of human action is happiness…” Therefore, to achieve this maximum pleasure and minimum harm, which results in happiness, one must apply the four main tenets: Consequentialism, Maximization, A theory of Value, and A scope of morality. Principlism originated as a method of investigation for determining if medical treatments are moral and ethical. Now, this theory is widely used for making ethical and moral decisions in general. The tenets for principlism are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. During the Presidential election on Nov. 6, 2012, Washington, Maryland, and Maine all, by majority rule, approved same-sex marriage. This makes, in total, nine states, including the District of Columbia that has legalized and recognizes same sex marriage. In addition, eight states have legalized and recognized civil unions. This decision has themes of utilitarianism and principlism but there are still several moral and ethical injustices taking place. In this paper, I will use utilitarianism and principlism to show that the banning of same-sex marriage is unethical and immoral. Same-sex marriage is the joining of two individuals, of the same sex, in matrimony. Currently, nine states in the United States recognize same-sex marriage. Eight other states recognize civil unions. The rest recognizes neither and upholds that marriage is a union between, only, a man and a woman. The nine states that recognize same-sex marriage offer some rights that come with marriage. However, the federal government does not offer any benefits or rights to couples in same-sex marriage. The states that allow same-sex marriage may grant some benefits but not all. Civil unions, in essence, are the same as a regular marriage. The only difference is that there is an even bigger limitation on some rights and privileges for the couples. I use same-sex marriage and civil unions interchangeably for the purposes of this paper. Consequentialists believe that, “right acts produce the greatest amount of good consequences, versus motives, for the greatest number of beings” (Pence). This means that right acts, as in doing what is right, tends to increase pleasure and happiness for all. The motives for action, in this case, are not relevant factors. Negating the views of religion, as they have no standing in what is morally and ethically right, legalizing same-sex marriage and granting the full rights of marriage will only cause happiness for all. Maximization states that, “the number of beings affected by a consequence matters; the more beings affected, the more important the result” (Pence). This emphasizes the fact that the larger the number of all relevant people “hurting” the extent of harm is at its worst. On the other hand, the larger the number of all relevant people “happy,” the extent of pleasure is at its highest. The whole goal of utilitarianism is, in fact, to make all relevant people happy while reducing all forms of hurt. Again, negating the views of religion, allowing same-sex marriage, and granting the rights of marriage will only bring about the greatest happiness for all persons. A theory of value refers to “good consequences that are defined by pleasure, what people prefer, or by some other good thing” (Pence). This creates a slippery slope concerning the value of marriage. Is marriage, specifically same-sex marriage, intrinsically valuable or is it valuable because of the thoughts and feelings people project onto marriage? Marriage in general is an institution where two people profess their love for each other. At the very least, being in a marriage acts in favor of the participants’ overall happiness. If anything works to increase pleasure and happiness, then it is intrinsically valuable. It is not valuable because people perceive this to be the right thing to do or because of expectations. It is intrinsically valuable on its own merit. Marriage increases your chances of living longer, “Based on life expectancies, nine of ten married men and women alive at age 48 are alive at 65, while only six of ten single men and eight of ten single women make it to 65. Married men may have better immune systems as well, either from support or from nagging to monitor blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, etc… and may be at less risk to catch colds” (Waite and Gallagher). In addition to living longer, married men and women also have better financial stability, and they are less likely to commit suicide. Of course, with these “side-effects” of marriage, you would first have to be in a union and you would have to have the rights and privileges of marriage. Since these “side-effects are actually beneficial, it would only make sense to permit all wiling people to marry and grant them the rights of marriage, specifically same-sex couples. If you are happier, normally, you will be healthier, and you will live longer. If dying were the greatest harm then life would be the greatest benefit. Therefore, giving people a chance at a happier, healthier life would only be the morally and ethically right thing to do. The last of the four tenets of utilitarianism is a scope of morality. This states that “Each being’s happiness is to count as one and no more and beings who count are to be made explicit, whether these are only humans or all sentient creatures” (Pence). For instance, take the couple Jack and Jim. Jack and Jim are legally married in one of the states that permit same-sex marriages. Jim becomes ill and he does not have insurance of his own. Jack does have insurance, but due to restrictions of same-sex marriage, Jim cannot use Jacks insurance. Where does Jim get the money to pay for treatment? The people who pay taxes provide the funds. Millions of people are currently uninsured, and of those millions, large portions of those people are in same-sex relationships. Allowing people in same sex marriage to have the benefits of using the health insurance of their spouse will be one factor in lowering the tax payments for the uninsured. The couples share health insurance and the rest of America may not have to pay as much for the taxes. This results in the best consequence for all. However, the motive may be selfish; paying less for some taxes, but this would be the right thing to do. Principlism also uses four tenets, which act as criteria for determining the ethicality of certain decisions. These tenets are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. The concept of autonomy, in essence, is free will. Autonomy allows for persons who are informed, competent, and unforced to state their freedom and pursue the maximization of their own individual liberties and values that matter in their own lives. Looking at Jack and Jim again, they both are fully aware of the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of marriage. They both are in great mental health and are mentally competent. They both are also willing to marry each other. They meet the criteria for having autonomy so they should be able to practice this concept. With having the free will that autonomy grants, the both of them feel that being married exercises their freedom and getting married would maximize their own individual happiness. “Beneficence has always had an unclear place, in great part because to act kindly or generously toward others requires that we have some sense about what is actually good for them” (Callahan). The concept of beneficience applied to same-sex marriage can be a slippery slope in that many people try to incorporate religion and how same-sex marriage affects children. Again, religion does not offer concrete rules reguarding morality. Also, you can not apply the morals of religion to those who do not practice a religious faith. You must take the person on their own merit. You must consider, without any bias, what is best for them. If a person can not marry the person that they love, then this will surely cause some discomfort and some harm to them. In this it would be kind and generous for anybody to allow those persons who want to marry become married. “Non-maleficence, for instance, comes down to a right not to have our mind or body harmed by another, to be left intact; and that is a historical variant of autonomy” (Callahan). This concept should include all aspects of harm not just physical harm. It should also not be limited to the interference with a persons freedom, but it should work to protect people from threats to people’s values, political welfare, social relationships, and overall well-being. You should take Jim and Jacks natural right to not be mentally or physically harmed by any action. They should be left with their own autonomy as long as they arent causing any mental or physical harm to themselves or each other. If the concept is to not harm, be it mental or physical, then you should take into account that not allowing marriage will cause some kind of harm. Since harm will be caused by withholding the rights of marriage is not ethical. So you must do the most ethical thing, which is to allow them to marry. “As for justice, I take it that the whole point of treating people justly, or allocating resources to them in an equitable manner, is to allow them to function as autonomous persons, not discriminated against or harmed by inequitable treatment” (Callahan). Here, denying Jim and Jack the opportunity to get married will be unjust and unethical. Since there is and could never be any chance of marriage becoming scarce, there is no reason to withhold marriage from anybody, unless there is a just reason for doing so. This unjust reason may be too many divorces in the past or from trying to see some kind of monetary compensation. If Jack and Jim truly love each other and this can be proven, then there is no just reason to deny them marriage. Consequentialism, Maximization, A Theory of Value, and A Scope of Morality are all components of the theory of Utilitarianism. These tenets act to produce the main thought of utilitarianism, which is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Principlism, another ethical theory, uses autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to determine the morality and ethicality of moral and ethical decisions. Using the theories of utilitarianism and principlism, and their four tenets, I believe that same-sex marriage should be legalized based upon the fact that there is no moral or ethical reason for denying the union. It becomes unethical and immoral when people are denied same-sex marriage.

Immune Responses of Cytokine Adjuvented DNA Vaccine

KOTLA SIVAREDDY Title for the Ph.D Thesis “Study on Immune responses of Cytokine Adjuvented DNA vaccine (genes coding for structural proteins) for FMD delivered by cationic PLG micro particles”. Objectives: To clone gene coding for structural protein of FMDV in eukaryotic expression vector (pC DNA) under CMV promoter. To clone bovine interleukin 18 gene in suitable cloning vector and express the same in Bacterial/yeast expression system for characterization of expressed recombinant protein. To construct a vaccine construct consisting of FMDV P1 (structural), 3C (Viral protease), and Bovine interleukin 18 genes in eukaryotic expression system under CMV promoter (pC DNA). To study the expression of the vaccine constructs in vitro in BHK-21cells. PLG micro particles’ preparation and characterization. To study the immune responses of the DNA vaccine in experimental animals (guinea pigs / cattle). Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) caused by foot-and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an infectious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals, and poses a serious threat for animal health and exacts an economic toll on the livestock industry. FMD viral genome is a positive-sense single stranded RNA of approximately 8.5kb. The viral RNA genome is translated as a single polypeptide precursor that is subsequently processed by virus-encoded proteases 2A and 3C to produce the structural and non-structural proteins required for virus assembly and replication. One of the initial polypeptide cleavages, mediated by the 2A protein, is a co-translational cleavage at its own C terminus to release it from the 2B protein. The viral 3C proteinase subsequently processes the structural protein precursor, P1-2A, into the capsid proteins, VP0, VP3, and VP1, and the non structural peptide, 2A. These proteins then self assemble to form empty icosahedral capsid particles that contain 60 copies of each protein. Immunological studies have identified linear and conformational sites that are present on both empty capsids and virions, and antiserum raised against either form has the same serological specificity. Thus, the structural protein precursor, P1-2A, and the 3C protease of FMDV are desirable immune antigens for new vaccine development. In countries where disease eradication has not been achieved, vaccination plays a crucial role in its control. Although inactivated virus vaccines effectively prevent FMD, they have several limitations like short duration of immunity, incomplete viral inactivation and virus escape from vaccine producing facilities. As a result, alternative approaches are being investigated, including the construction of modified live virus, subunit vaccines, synthetic peptides, naked DNA plasmids. DNA vaccination which offers several promising features i.e., DNA is convenient to manufacture and store, its production is safe, sequences from circulating strains can be easily incorporated in the vaccines, and it also allows the discrimination of the infected from the vaccinated animals. Several reports have shown the efficiency of DNA vaccination to induce protective immunity in the mouse model. However, the primary difficulty with DNA vaccination is its poor immunogenicity in target species. Cytokines are being used as molecular adjuvants by co administering with DNA vaccines to improve the efficacy of the vaccine. Cytokines play an important role both in the development of a functional immune system as well as in the responses of the organism to infection. Interleukin18 (IL18) is a potent interferon γ (IFNγ) inducing factor (IGIF), enhances Th1 immune responses. Recent studies have shown that IL18 also promote Th-2 type responses and increases dendritic cell (DC) number in lymph nodes in mice. In addition, IL18 has been used as an adjuvant to DNA vaccines for classical swine fever virus, pseudo rabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.IL18 was co expressed along with FMDV VP1 in Pichia as fusion protein has enhanced humoral responses and marginally the CMI response in mice. Recombinant fowl pox co-expressing FMDV P1 2A3C and IL18 enhanced the immune responses and gave higher protection in swine Many other studies have shown the positive effect of plasmid encoding the IL-18 as a molecular adjuvant on DNA vaccinations. Efficacy of DNA vaccine could be improved by the inclusion of adjuvants and good vaccine delivery systems. Importantly, cationic microparticle with adsorbed DNA induced enhanced immune responses in comparison to naked DNA and this enhancement was apparent in all species evaluated, including nonhuman primates. Cationic PLG microparticles appear to be effective predominantly as a consequence of the efficient delivery of the adsorbed DNA into DC. Following administration, the micro particles are also very effective at recruiting DC to the injection site, and the micro particles also protect adsorbed DNA against degradation in vivo. A second useful property of micro particles is that they can present multiple copies of antigens on their surface, which has been shown to be optimal for B cell activation. The main advantage of this type of association is the efficient immobilisation of plasmid DNA on the microparticle surface without compromising its integrity. Moreover, after administration, the release of cationic DNA complexes from the surface appeared to facilitate the transfection of cells .At this point, it is not completely understood, whether the adsorption on cationic micro particles can protect plasmid DNA from cleavage through endonucleases after administration in vivo. Nevertheless, release of cationic DNA complexes is expected to provide better protection as compared to release of free DNA. Beside their inherent safety and ease of administration, they improve the DNA capture by antigen presenting cells (APC) and stimulate APC maturation. DNA delivery via PLG has been successfully used to vaccinate against several infections in mice, guinea pigs and even in macaques models. 1. AMPLIFICATION and cloning of gene sequence coding for P12A

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