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Impact of Technological Advances on Law Enforcement

“Technological advances present a greater burden than opportunity for law enforcement. Discuss this statement in relation to either courts/police/prisons or probation” Electronic Monitoring (EM), is frequently used for the observation of an offender throughout pretrial or probation processes to assure public safety (Petre et al. 2016; Lyons 2006; Council of Europe 2014). EM is a generic term that incorporates various forms of monitoring techniques such as; Radio Frequency (RF) commonly used for curfews by submitting a signal to a monitoring box in their designated location and Global Positioning System (GPS) tag which transmits ‘real time’ locations of the offender (Graham and Mcivor 2017; UK Government 2018; Finn and Muirhead-steves 2002). This essay will analyse the opportunities and burdens that EM can bring to a law enforcement agency, such as the Probation Services’ (PS). This will be explored by identifying two key burdens such as; the lack of rehabilitative attributes that EM fails to encompass as a result of privatisation and the recent ‘boom’ of EM sanctioning resulting in the ‘downgrading’ of the PS. Contrastingly, these burdens will be analysed and argued with two opportunities such as; recognising the use of EM in other countries to identify the opportunities that EM can bring and how EM’s strict guidelines and curfews can in reality prevent recidivism. To conclude, this essay will draw together the afore mentioned concepts to provide a conclusion. The expediential growth of EM surfaced in the 1970’s and 1980’s when the growing cost of incarceration and overcrowding was recognised widely in the UK (Paterson 2007; Mair and Nee 1990; Renzema and Mayo-Wilson 2005). With this, the growing pressures led to the Home Office to consider many things such as; Stacey’s (1989) embedding of the Offenders Tag Association (OTA) and how America came to rely on EM as remedy to ‘dealing’ with low risk offenders and prison overcrowding. Resultantly, the UK incorporated EM as a the ‘logical extension of tracking and curfews’ in the UK (Bottoms, Rex and Robinson 2011:228; Burrell and Gable 2008), with yet no research indicating that EM can actually cut crime. When imposing this, EM needed to be regulated. Worrall and Hoy (2005) placed emphasis on the essential requirement of probation officers to adjust to this quiet growth and fulfil this role, as they are integral to the supervision of offenders in society. Yet, over ten years later Worrall and Mawby (2014:350), conducted 60 interviews with current and former probation officers. Finding that the PS’ deemed themselves to be perceived as ‘a caricatured image of a tree-hugging sandal-wearers’ in society when comparing to other law enforcement agencies. This was commonly reasoned by probation officers as a side effect of placing value on establishing a strong importance on the relationship built between the offender and probation officers, that binds the profession into an honourable one (Worrall and Mawby 2014). It can be argued that this suggests that probation officers to be perceived as ‘implicit’ and ‘undervalued’ in society and also in regard to their involvement in EM. EM technology is not directly rehabilitative itself, it can only enhance or assist more overt and direct procedures that are initially there to rehabilitate (Bonta et al. 1999). Therefore, if an offender is exclusively sanctioned to EM by the courts, little to no rehabilitation will be attained. As Nellis (2006) explains, simply confining an offender to the walls of their home and tracking where and when they go cannot and will not achieve rehabilitation. Therefore, the issue is raised, who is supporting offenders on EM to become rehabilitated? The responsibility of EM and the Probation Services in the UK is unclear and blurred, the technology is not regulated by one singular law enforcement agency and therefore, lacks consistency and as a result, credibility. In the financial year of 2011-2012 the Ministry of Justice spent more than ‘£116m on electronic monitoring with the Home Office overseeing a contract that means just two private providers – Serco and G4S – are entirely responsible for service delivery’ (Policy Exchange 2012:11). Signifying the massive increase in privatised providers regulating EM all around the UK (Hall and Canton 2014). This can be perceived as a burden to the PS for many reasons such as; in the same year the Policy Exchange (2012) published a report forensically diagnosing the issues with EM, explaining private companies are more focused on completing the bare minimum of their contract and therefore, not assisting police or probation to find more efficient ways of working and rehabilitating. The reliance on private providers to monitor EM can lead to negative effects on the probation services’, such as the lack of communication and the standard of the communication. This idea can be evidenced in a report by NAPO (2012) generated in 2012, which is based off their members submitting 120 examples of problems that occurred whilst an offender was on EM, there were recognised common themes such as; probation officers complaining about not being told by the tagging company when violations were being made (HMIP 2017), females who are victims of domestic abuse on EM who resided at the same address as their abuser and therefore, having to violate time limitations to seek refuge and most importantly, the highest common problem reported was the high intensity of confusion between probation and private companies and who was responsible for a breach or violation. The challenge identified here is that accountability embedded into private providers of EM is much greater than the PS. Who in contrast with private companies, can aid offenders more on EM through traditional rehabilitative means, suggesting EM can be perceived a burden to the PS as it minimalizes and almost withdraws the PS’ involvement. Demonstrating the unchanged circumstances from the reports generated in 2012, in 2014 Nellis goes on to support this concept further by defining EM as “a modern, twenty-first century criminal justice system without a professional probation service” (Nellis 2014:506). Suggesting the technological advances such as EM can be perceived as a burden to the PS. For the reason that, EM is becoming more and more privatised and as previously evidenced, this can create barriers between the probation services and the offender on EM. Fundamentally, without the Probation Services or something at an equal tier, rehabilitation cannot be attained, and it is commonly known that without rehabilitation, an offender is more likely to re-offend (Stacey 2015). This can be evidenced by Hucklesby and Holdsworth’s (2014) research ‘in 2014, 842 individuals were recalled to prison, 601 as a result of breaching curfew requirements’ and ‘in 2014 three quarters of curfew breaches related to time violations (453) with nearly a fifth (105) resulting from equipment tampers’ (Hucklesby and Holdsworth 2014:9). It can be argued that these statistics are a result of the PS not being able to fulfil their rehabilitative job role. However, Hucklesby and Holdsworth fails to describe the motivation and reasoning behind these re-offences, subsequently meaning it cannot be presumed the reasonings are due to lack of rehabilitation. Nevertheless, to modify this highlighted burden of EM and renovate it into an opportunity, ideas and concepts can be taken from a different country such as Belgium. In Belgium offenders that have been sanctioned to prison sentences of more than three years, must prove that they are eligible for EM (Beyens and Roosen 2016). This is done by evidencing a constructive activity to take part in during their time on EM such as a treatment plan, professional activity or education. All of which, own rehabilitative features (Hedderman, Ellis and Sugg 1999) and therefore, EM has an opportunity to benefit offenders. (Beyens and Roosen 2016). Signifying that EM fails to be a ‘burden’ to law enforcement agencies, as the offender would have had to surpass the strict filtering system to take part in EM, leaving offenders who want to do well. However, it is noted that this is not a requirement for offenders with prison sentences lower than three years. Beyens and Roosen (2016) go on to explain how Belgium attain a high rehabilitative EM service through many foundations which can be drawn from many arguments, which are explained, in some part, by education and the centralisation of their Probation Services. Belgium’s Probation Services have installed its own internal social service to their own Electronic Monitoring Centre, termed ‘Houses of Justice’ and they are responsible for the social follow up of offenders on EM in Belgium. Individually every ‘Justice Officer’ has a master’s degree in Criminology, suggesting that ‘Justice Officers’ will be more equipped to aid the offender’s rehabilitation whilst on EM due to their knowledge in theory and reasonings behind crime. Additionally, justice officers aid rehabilitation in a practical perspective as they contact/visit the offender within the first 48 hours of EM and then proceed to have regular follow up meetings with the offender. Justice Officers are also required to alternate from the setting of the offenders’ home and the office in order to gain a full picture of the circumstances surrounding the offender. As a result, Blokland (2015) analysed Belgium’s penitentiary register with focus to re-imprisonment, discovering that offenders who were sanctioned to EM, were less likely to be re-incarcerated in comparison to those released ordinarily. Taking this into account, through filtering offenders to the requirement of a constructive activity and the centralisation of EM and probation services, recidivism rates were expectantly low. Linking back to the UK, if EM was centralised with its own probation services and endorsed a filtering system, it can be suggested that EM can rehabilitate and observe together, to then ultimately transform EM technology into an opportunity rather than a burden to the Probation Services. When imposing this, EM can be a cost-effective opportunity to incarceration, allowing offenders to stay out of prison yet, still be under surveillance (House of Commons 2018; Belur et al.2017). Thus, creating a ‘penal transformation’ (Nellis 2014) by offering a ‘solution’ to prison overcrowding (Worrall 1997). This is supported by the NAO (2006) stating that ‘ninety days in custody costs nearly five times as much as 90 days on Home Detention Curfew or Adult Curfew Order’. As a result, EM has become widely implemented in the UK (Geogeghan 2011). Further supporting this, the NAO (2006:1) reported that ‘the number of EM cases is rising from 9,000 in 1999/00 to 53,000 in 2004/05’. Signifying the intense growth of EM used as a community sanction and ultimately an alternative to incarceration and in result, the developing reliance placed on this sanction to achieve this. However, as a by-product of this, net widening can transpire. Cohen (1985) introduced and defined the theory ‘net widening’ as the result of the expanding control over groups of individuals by programmes. Thus, with the increase of community-based sanctions (such as EM), the number of offenders dealt with by the justice system (Howard 2000) is growing, as offenders are often becoming sanctioned with EM who may not have been sanctioned otherwise (Belur et al. 2017) for example; before EM the offender could have been incarcerated or sanctioned to hourly community service. Throughout the court process, low risk offenders are more likely to be sanctioned to EM as the public are expected to feel less at risk (Padgett et al. 2006) and EM’s strict guidelines can ultimately act as an opportunity to Probation Services by discouraging the offenders to violate their EM guidelines (curfew, exclusion areas) (UK Government 2018; Belur et al.2017). Roberts (2004) indicates how this can support the offender by providing opportunities that would not be attainable in a prison setting such as employment. This can also be supported in many countries such as America, where Bales et al. (2010:132) accustomed an alternative viewpoint, finding that ‘54% of offenders wanted to follow the rules of the EM programme because they felt like they were being watched’. This statistic can be applied to the UK and suggest that EM does hold rehabilitative factors and therefore, can be perceived as an opportunity to the Probation Services through its rehabilitative factors. However, considering the cost-efficiency and the stringent guidelines that facilitate EM, as opportunities to the PS, the ‘downgrading’ of the PS can be perceived as eventually overriding these. This is further assessed by, the ‘downgrading’ of the Probation Services as it can be tactically linked to the afore mentioned growth of EM throughout the UK. Nellis (2014:177) evidences this by explaining that ‘EM technology was being upgraded at the same moment as the professional expertise of the probation service was being downgraded’, thus meaning with the downgrading and decreasing presence of the Probation Services, the established and meaningful relationships needed to regulate the quiet growth of EM cannot be created (Worrall and Hoy 2005). When comparing EM as a stand-alone probation mechanism to the PS’ it is almost unachievable as it cannot replace the attributes that probation officers hold such as; educative and supportive (Nellis 2017). As a result, EM as a technological advance can be perceived as a greater burden than opportunity in relation to the Probation Services, this can be suggested as the reliance on the Probation Services since the ‘boom’ of EM has significantly diminished. This essay has analysed throughout the opportunities and burdens EM can present to the Probation Services, this has been achieved by identifying behavioural influences such as the impact EM has to rehabilitate and the practical influences such as cost-efficiency and effects of strict guidelines. The exploration into this topic is limited in the UK and largely outdated however, from the afore analysed literature and reports, it is prevalent that there is a need to re-assess EM in the UK with focus to centralising the sanction and incorporating the Probation Services at a larger scale. Although a number of disadvantages are highlighted by the respondents, it can be assumed that the advantages, both for the individuals under EM and the cohabitants, mostly outweigh tdisadvantages. References Bales, W, Mann, K, Blomberg, T, Gaes, G, Barrick, K, Dhungana, K and McManus, B. (2010) “A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Electronic Monitoring,” [online] available from [5th November 2018] Belur, J, Thorton, A, Tompson, L, Manning, M, Sidebottom, A and Bowers, K. (2017) No.13 A systematic review of the effectiveness of the electronics monitoring of offenders [online] available from [28th October 2018] Beyens and Roosen (2016) Electronic Monitoring in Belgium [online] available from [10th November 2018] Blokland (2015) cited in Beyens and Roosen (2016) Electronic Monitoring in Belgium [online] available from [10th November 2018] Bottoms, A, Rex, S and Robinson, G. (2011) Alternatives to Prison, options for an insecure society. Routledge: London. Burrell, W and Gable, R. (2008) ‘From B.F. Skinner to Spiderman to Martha Stewart: The past, Present and Future of Electronic Monitoring of Offenders’ Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. [online] (46) 101-118. Available from [10th November 2018] Cohen, S. (1985) Vision of social control. Polit Press, Cambridge. Council of Europe (2014) Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers to member States on electronic monitoring [online] available from [13th November 2018] Finn, M and Muirhead-steves, S. (2002) ‘The effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring with Violent Male Paraloees’ Justice Quarterly [online] (19) 4. Available from [1st November 2018] Geogeghan, R. (2011) Future of corrections: Exploring the Use of Electronic Monitoring. London: Policy Exchange. Hall, S and Canton, R. (2014) Probation in Europe England and Wales [online] available from [23rd October 2018] Hedderman, C, Ellis, T and Sugg, D. (1999) Increasing confidence in community sentances: the results of two demonstration projects. Home office: London. HMIMP (2017) The work of probation services in courts [online] available from [13th November 2018] House of Commons (2017) Offender-monitoring tags [online] available from [3rd November 2018] Howard, J. (2000) Electronic Monitoring [online] available from [15th November 2018] Hucklesby, A and Holdsworth, E. (2014) Electronic monitoring in England and Wales[online] available from [01 November 2018] Lyons, D. (2006) ‘Where on earth are all the sex offenders?’ State Legislatures. [online] (6) 14-15. Available from <http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF OCEAN FISHERIES IN THE FREE MARKET Fish is a protein that many cultures incorporate into their everyday diets. When resources are poorly managed, and mankind’s selfishness gets in the way, the fisheries and marine environments, in which this protein comes from, are destroyed which consequently affects communities that depend on fisheries for food and income. Many coastal societies have become devastated because of the yields of fish depleting rapidly and the source of food that was once seen as plentiful now is viewed as nearly extinct. Fishing excessively in national and international waters has created many issues for the sustainability and population of the marine environment. There are many causes of the destruction in our marine environments, such as global warming, acidification, and destruction of coral reefs. These factors destroy the aesthetic and leave the fisheries depleted. Of all the factors and/or causes for the destruction of marine habitat, the most destructive and man driven is overfishing. Overfishing is caused by the open accessibility that the free market allows for the large fishermen community. Overfishing causes disturbance in ecosystems, when one fish is overfished it causes the prey of that organism to also reduce and thus sets off a chain reaction. This is a great concern for economists and biologists alike. Marine biologists and economists attempt to figure out ways to minimize how fast the fisheries are depleting while also preserving specific fish by incorporating restrictions. In their efforts to do this, the government implements many approaches to overcome the tragedy that overfishing causes. The effectiveness of the approach used to reduce the destruction on fisheries includes benefits and consequences that need to be analyzed by marginal analysis. This paper will examine how governmental regulation attempts to correct the market failure of fisheries and reduce the overconsumption of fish. This analysis will also include a discussion on how externalities contribute to the inefficiency facing the fish market and how monopolization may occur and how to avoid it. In a market without limitations overfishing is prevalent and comes with many cons. Markets have quotas on what can be fished and when, but this creates a great incentive to fish rapidly (A Rising Tide) for fishermen and makes them feel rushed in having to catch as much fish as possible. To prevent this rushing feeling the system of Individual Transferrable Quotas (ITQ) has been presented as a solution. This system establishes catch limits amongst fishermen to create a sustainable, appropriate catch amount for fishermen that also minimizes depletion of fisheries. Studies have been conducted using this method and the results have been that fisheries are less likely to collapse when this system is incorporated. Another benefit to this solution is that it allows fishermen time to fish so that they do not need to go out on terrible weather days to catch from the low supply of fish. With this solution in mind, it provides an opportunity cost of time as an incentive for fishermen because the ITQs entitle fishermen rights that reduce the hastening feeling that generally results in fishermen fatalities. When we analyze the market before and after the implementation of ITQs we notice changes to both supply and demand. In the market without ITQ we have a heavy demand for fish. This heavy demand leads to overfishing which then makes the supply depleted resulting in a shortage. Fish season operates on a few days in which many fishermen will risk their lives to catch the fish. With such a high demand for fishing but not enough fish, this results in the destroying of fisheries that we have and also creates predictions that fisheries will all disappear very soon. This market can be corrected. Implementing the ITQs creates a long-term right for fishermen and guarantees they will have fish. It also establishes limitation on overfishing which improves sustainability for the future fisheries, resulting in halted collapse rates. In an article written by Clare Leschin- Hoar, a member of NPR, she explains how fishermen benefit from changing the method of fishing during the seasons. She analyzes how the catch-share method changes the market and creates more stability while establishing the benefit that fishermen have a longer window of time to harvest due to the quota system. This is a contrast to the traditional fishery-management that opens and closes during specific seasons and days. The biggest benefit of the individual quotas is that it allows fishermen guaranteed time and supply. (NPR) With this method in use it establishes a long-term equilibrium where supply is satisfactory for the demand. In a marginal analysis in which the three assumptions of humans can be applied, marginal coasts and benefits arise. The three assumptions that an economists must keep in mind when analyzing the marginal benefits and marginal costs of the supply and demand curve of fish markets are: people are rational, people respond to economic incentives, and optimal decisions are made at the margin. When these assumptions are fully understood, the analysis of costs and benefits can be made. The marginal cost in this market would be time- fishermen have to give time and not overfish when the ITQ system is implemented but they are rewarded with the marginal benefit of having a reliable share in which they will be supplied with fish. This trade-off of time for a guaranteed supply allows the market meet equilibrium and halts the collapse rates in fisheries. In The Economist, the benefits of this method are explained by “Fishermen therefore have an interest in good management and conservation because both increase the value of their fishery and of their share in it. And because shares can be traded, fishermen who want to catch more can buy additional rights rather than resorting to brutal fishing tactics.” (A Rising Tide). While many fishermen want to cash out in the present and worry about the long-term effects after the fact, they need to keep the future in mind. If they minimize their harvest in the present, then in the future the yield of fish will increase with the decrease of overfishing. This will then provide more profit for the fishermen. With all this in mind, it proves that the market with ITQ implemented results in equilibrium with supply and demand. Obvious marginal benefits and costs present themselves and prove to be beneficial for the long-term effect of fisheries and fishermen profit. In economics, market failure arises from inequality in supply and demand. From the perspective of the fishing market, this market failure is caused from an increased demand that cannot be sufficiently supplied. in microeconomics the market failures are shown by a state in which the market is at a disequilibrium when quantity demanded, and quantity supplied are not equivalent. (Investopedia) A major issue that presents itself for fisheries is that the demand for fish is so high, especially during the traditional fishing seasons where many fishermen try to catch as much as possible, and this causes a depletion. This destruction is the result of fishermen not having official catch limits and fishing until told to stop. This is known as overharvesting and before the preposition of ITQs was initiated as an approach to overfishing, majority of catch targets were caught at a rapid rate. The severe consequences that are expected in this market failure are the extinction of specific desirable fish, which would eventually lead to a disturbance in the ecosystem- resulting in a destroyed marine environment (Economics for the 21st Century). Whenever there is market failure, positive and/or negative externalities arise. Externalities are the side effects in economics and are the benefits or costs affect those not directly involved in consumption or in production. As Adam Smith explained, externalities are used to explain the social benefits of one’s selfishness. It is a system where if consumers do not have to pay they will not, and if producers are not paid they will stop production (Econlib). Positive externalities are seen as underproduction while negative externalities are overproduction. Figure 1.1 shows how negative externality arises in the overuse of the common resource of fish. Both positive and negative externalities result in equilibrium not being met, so deadweight loss is found. This deadweight loss is caused when the market is not producing at equilibrium. A solution to this issue is proposed by the implantation of ITQs, which guarantee fishermen their rights to catch fish, but also limit and prohibit certain fish. This is referred to as a catch share. These catch shares are introduced to reduce capitalization, protect stocks and improve the overall condition of the market (Buck 1995). The use of these shares aims to allow fishermen to have their own private fishing rights while also allowing this share to be a common resource for fishermen all around. Economists use the ITQs for fisheries that are struggling because as a rational human being with an ITQ there is no reason to “overfish” when you have a right to do it in the future. This implementation promotes long-term sustainability in yields of fish and may even result in increased biodiversity. The quotas propose a system in which the fishermen have the luxury of time when it comes to fishing, and they won’t have to feel like there is some sort of competition for obtaining the perfect fish (Octo). The reason behind ITQs being introduced is because fisheries suffer the consequence of the ‘tragedy of the commons’. This is where the common resource tends to be overused due to being non-excludable and open to the public. When a common good is overused it is generally being used as economically inefficient. The Coase Theorem proposes a solution to this inefficiency and a way to overcome the problem and create economic efficiency. This theorem proposes that when parties negotiate they can find a price that covers the negative externalities and the common resources will not be as easily overused. Due to this suffering from overconsumption and the impact that increased human use had on the marine environment, regulations needed to be put in place and the market had to change from a free market to a market with a few limited restrictions. Government intervention with the implementation of ITQs has been beneficial for the fisheries and is seen as a good approach at using Coase theorem to correct the market failure. Incorporating this theorem internalizes the negative externality by making the benefits for the fishermen equal to that of what is socially efficient and permits for a more efficient use of the resource. Figure 1.2 shows the market during market failure with the deadweight loss present and shows the market after the catch shares are implemented at the socially efficient level. The use of the theorem and ITQs corrects the present market failure of fisheries by reducing the overfishing that occurs because of lower yields of fish and fishermen racing for the perfect catch. It is also useful to analyze this issue of market failure in fisheries by analyzing the Prisoner’s Dilemma, it is a neorealist perspective of how fishermen will respond to the ITQ system. It is believed that “in this case, fishermen may predict that all other fishermen will try to catch as much as they can before the stocks run out.” (EconomicsOnline). As humans are rational, this theory proposes that with multiple interactions, humans will realize that it is in their self-interest to cooperate, so cheating will not be an issue. This also aligns with the realist theory that individuals try to maximize their profits, even if it is selfish. When we use both theories with market failure we see that fishermen will instinctively be opposed to the ITQs and believe that other fishermen will try to “cheat the system”, but once implemented they will realize the long term benefits it proposes and how regulated the system is. The market failure and ITQs will only truly work and correct the issue of overfishing if the fishermen and governments are able to continuously follow and limit the overconsumption of fish. An advantage of the ITQs are that the shares are the ownership of the fishermen and they are able to buy, sell, or trade the shares in any way they want (Ff.org). This is advantageous to many fishermen because those that want to have more shares must purchase from other fishermen and both parties benefit from this mutual agreement, rather than one fishermen getting all the fish and others without. This in turn improves the economic efficiency for the fishery and even encourages some fishermen to stop fishing and lease their ITQs. (Buck 1995) The shares also benefit the safety of fishermen because with time and incentive to wait, they go out with safer weather and tend to steer clear of hazards. A disadvantage of ITQs is that it may result in high-grading, where the fishermen will only retain the best quality of fish, leaving the lower quality fish that count against the quota (Buck, CRS). Another disadvantage is that ITQs may also increase the price of seafood because there will be no race to fish and the fish supply for markets would decrease, but as an advantage the seafood quality would improve. The ITQ property also creates more permanent and stable jobs, but also leads to a smaller work force, being able to complete the tasks more efficiently with fewer people. The government implementation of ITQs shares benefits and consequences but with catch shares the government does correct the market failure and reduces the foreseeable consequences scientists and economists predict. With the integration of catch shares, fishermen have an incentive to abide by the government rules and follow the regulated quotas. While there are evident disadvantages to this solution, the benefits weigh out the cons. With the creation of the ITQ systems, the once open free market becomes a limited entry market that allows for trade and market price fixing. This, however, goes against the antitrust laws that are put in place. These systems also allow for the possibility of mergers. Mergers are the combination of companies or shares to create a single entity. The transferability of the quotas permits fishermen to transfer the ownership of the quota by means of selling. The Sherman Antitrust Act prohibits monopolies and trade with price fixing (Milliken, 44). This creates concern with how fishermen in this limited entry market transfer ownership. It creates an opportunity for a monopoly to be created if one quota holder obtains the vast majority of share. This shareholder, or monopolist, can then fix market prices and use an unfair economic advantage over the other fishermen, and they will always have control over the monopoly. In a monopoly only one single seller exists and controls the price of the goods, this allows complete power to be given to one individual or business. This would have a negative impact on fisheries because it completely violates the antitrust laws put in place and would defeat the overall purpose of the ITQs. They are set up to create ownership for fishermen and equity for every single fishermen in the seas. While there is a foreseeable threat that the fish market could become a power market, there are some possible solutions that can be put in place to minimize the threat. A solution that could prevent monopolization of the fisheries from occurring would be to limit the number of quotas the fishermen can trade between themselves. This would reduce the opportunity for a quota holder to obtain a substantially larger number of quotas and hinder a monopoly from being created. There would be a limit on how many quotas each fishermen could have. This preposition ensures that each fishermen has an equal number of quotas and that no individual obtains superior authority over the fisheries. Another possible solution would be to create zones in the marine environments that are considered “no-fish” areas. This proposes opportunity for certain areas within the fisheries to increase sustainability and biodiversity while the species are permitted to reproduce at a natural rate. As humans, the overconsumption of a good that seems bountiful, cheap and can produce a profit for an individual, it is reasonable to understand why overfishing is a consequence that the markets face now. The use of ITQs in the fish market has proved to reduce the rate at which species become destroyed. The positive aspects of government intervention are that fishermen have entitlement to fishing that prevents their fear of missing out on the best fish. It does require the government and fishermen to be mindful about maintaining the market as free as it can be and not lead towards a monopoly. A monopoly would directly counteract the governmental antitrust laws. The consequences of ITQs are that they are transferable which as stated before can result in an individual or business obtaining superiority over the fisheries and exploiting the fishermen. The main goal of economists and conservationists and other communities that the fisheries impact is to maintain the biodiversity and make sure the fisheries are able to continue on. The economic viewpoint of fisheries is that they are a market that provides income and food for many. For marine biologists and conservationists, they are habitat to a myriad of species. The fishing market has not yet reached the point of equilibrium because the demand for fish will always be greater than the supply. With this in mind however, humans rationally know if overfishing continues fish species will become extinct and marine ecosystems will be destroyed permanently. It is extremely important that individuals attempt to realize the dangers of overconsumption and how externalities affect the market. Since fisheries are a common public good, government intervention is significant in the future success of the fisheries and economic efficiency for producers and consumers in this market. It is also important that the ITQs be used as a system in which fishermen have rights to fish and do not need to engage in overfishing. The intervention of government can be seen as a social benefit in which both consequences and benefits arise, but without suffering the minuscule consequences now, the environment in the future will be far beyond repair. Figure 1.1: This graph shows the fish market with negative externality. (Market Failure) Figure 1.2: This graph shows the free fish market, and shows the efficient market when ITQs are in place. Bibliography Buck, Eugene. Individual Transferable Quotas in Fishery Management. 1995, dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/4515/fishery.pdf. Depletion of Fish Stocks, www.economicsonline.co.uk/Market_failures/Depletion_of_fish_stocks.html. The Economist. Accessed August 27, 2018. https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/2008/09/18/a-rising-tide. The Economist. Accessed August 27, 2018. https://www.economist.com/node/21548240/print. Global Fishery

Corporate Social Responsibility for McDonalds

Corporate Social Responsibility for McDonalds. CSR Report (2015) In this essay I will be discussing the corporate social responsibility of McDonald and the 5 important characteristics. I will demonstrate my understanding of the six core characteristics using McDonald to support my ideas. McDonald is a well-known fast food restaurant with many cooperate social responsibilities such as opportunities for employees to build their career to supporting the community through charities. These are the positive factors that interest me the most within the business which has led me to make a decision on writing about McDonald. I have chosen this topic because I have a wide range of understanding of the business as I have used their service and also perceived large amount praises on their cultural and ethical behaviours. Writing about the 5 characteristics of the business will provide me with a wide range of understanding on CSR and what effects it has on McDonald. (Investopedia, 2018) “Corporate social responsibility means self-regulated” this statement means the law does not say to be socially responsible but the businesses such as McDonald does these favours for the community or the stakeholders regardless of their famous brand and an excellent reputation. (Research Methodology, 2018) McDonald states “we serve and community involvement has always been part of our cultures.” This is to shows the contribution they have towards the community and how they are “ethical and socially active.” They show the impact they are having on the economic, social and the environment factors (CSR wire, 2018). Journal written by Karnini Wall Street (2010) states “large business is not in business just for profit, they intend to serve social purposes so they are sustainable.” This means some businesses may contribute to creating a positive reputation however serving the community will benefit the environment. Businesses such as Mc Donald is a well-known fast food company and known globally, however, they have an excellent CSR strategy which has increased their reputation. Crane. A et al (2008) “These are activities that go beyond those prescribed by the law.” (PrivacySense.Net, 2015) Voluntary is “often without profit as a motive and with little or no government intervention.” This means the law does not force them to be kind toward the community, they do this because they care for the people in need. The values are the decisions we make and not a statement written down for businesses to follow. McDonald has a Ronald McDonald charity which has been helping families since 1974. On Ronald McDonald House Charity (2018) website states the charity is aiming for people to take part in the voluntary work and provide families whose family members are in the hospital a comfortable living place and provide them with the best care. (CSR Report, 2015) The business sends out their employees to also contribute a few hours to serve the public. This shows that business is considerate in the environment by sending their staff and having more employees to perform the service to gain profit. According to Jennifer Elks (2014), these steps toward the community creates a great image and “these sustainable goals are a key to the value chain of the business.” This means the business is capable of achieving and creating long-term visions which will bring a mass amount of success to the business. (CSR report, 2015) The business helps the employees and makes their working environment flexible. They support their employees by providing them with financial support such as retirement support and through various insurances for their welfare. They provide family support such as paid leaves, childbirth and a flexible system for parents to work shorter hours. McDonald provides the employees with regular health check-ups and other various support for employee’s welfare. From special paid leaves to incentives qualifications through the business. This shows they are socially responsible for the actions they undertake and take great care of their employees. It shows the employees are happy at work and also their special needs are being seen as important. Having a lot of incentives means people are willing to take on the McDonald staff roles and creating future plans within the businesses such as serving the customers to controlling the staff through management. Crane. A., Matten. D.,Corporate Social Responsibility for McDonalds

Appreciative Inquiry by Cooperrider and Whitney Report

online assignment help In any organization, organizational leaders continuously tackle a myriad of questions and several analyses as they make efforts towards improving their operational methods. Questions that seek reasons for a down ward turn in productivity, how reduction of wastage at the workplace could be implemented, who needs to be involved in decision making and how to increase revenues, to mention but a few, are a few of the questions that often arise in many organizations. An efficient way of dealing with such questions is to utilize Appreciative inquiry when tackling these questions because it posits that organizations move in the direction of what they consistently as questions about, and that the more affirmative the questions are, the more hopeful and positive the organizational responses will be. It is with this in mind that this paper will tackle the issue of Appreciative Inquiry as explored by Cooperrider and Whitney. Why the article is engaging from a change perspective After reading the three articles, the article that I find most engaging is the one titled “Appreciative inquiry” which is an article published in Holman, Devane and Cady’s book titled “the change handbook.” Given the details contained in this article, it can be said that every executive who is interested in implementing change within his or her organization needs to read this article. The article covers the topic of Appreciative inquiry from different angles starting with its definition and moving on to illustrate how it can be applied to an organization undergoing the process of change. The article is striking because it approaches the process of problem solving by organizations from a different angle. When it comes to tackling problems within organizations, most organizations usually focus much of their attention on the problem or on the things that are not running as they are supposed to and in doing so, they tend to ignore the things that are working well and are not in need of a fix. It is with this in mind that the authors of this article developed the Appreciative Inquiry theory as a way of helping organizational leaders refocus their attention to more optimistic habits and hence become less pessimistic of the processes within their organizations. As noted in the article, the advantages of the Appreciative inquiry theory are numerous the most notable being that it helps in harnessing previously ignored creative energies which are likely to be unleashed once the organizational leaders focus on Appreciative Inquiry particularly, on the success stories of the organization’s workforce. By refocusing on the positive elements within the organization through the process of Appreciative Inquiry, the organization would be path of creating positive changes and setting the best environment for positive forces such as creativity, commonality and pride to flourish. The Appreciative inquiry theory critically argues that individuals are always creating their perceived reality in a process that is heavily influenced by what these individuals believe (Whitney, Bloom

GCC Innovation and Risk Taking Benefits of Organizational Culture Journal Entry

GCC Innovation and Risk Taking Benefits of Organizational Culture Journal Entry.

Rank these values in order according to how important they will be to you in a professional work setting after you finish your degree (from most important to least important): challenge, curiosity, quality (thorough, accurate work), rewarding & supportive relationships with colleagues, openness (being receptive to new ideas or multiple perspectives), understanding/helping/serving others, courage/risk taking, creativity/originality.Then, answer the following in 500-600 words:1) How might the personal values that you ranked in #1 align with organizational culture characteristics (the 7 organizational culture characteristics in the book & “What is Organizational Culture” video/PDF) and why is this important to consider?2) Connect your organizational culture preferences to one of the assigned videos (either the GoDaddy video or the Organizational Design video). For example, why does the organizational culture you prefer tend to be more mechanistic or more organic? Are there aspects of the culture you prefer that are similar or different from GoDaddy’s organizational culture?the video links for the second point:
GCC Innovation and Risk Taking Benefits of Organizational Culture Journal Entry

screening journal (one paragraph) spike lee

screening journal (one paragraph) spike lee. Need help with my Film question – I’m studying for my class.

These journal entries are informal pieces of writing that illustrate completion of the screening, relation to Spike Lee’s work more generally (in stylistic, thematic, or cultural terms), and response to the film (either in a review form or a critical comment). Show key things that proves that you viewed the film.
Ganja and Hess, Four Little Girls, Clockers, Chi-Raq total of 4 paragraphs, 1 paragraph for each movie.
screening journal (one paragraph) spike lee

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