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Impact of Social Media on US Political Campaigns

Impact of Social Media on US Political Campaigns. Mass Media as a Representation of the First Amendment in Hillary Clinton’s Current Campaign In a recent video, Hillary Clinton has declared that she will indeed run for presidency in the year 2016. And while her usage of mass media is not unique to her presidential campaign, one could argue that hers is by far the one with the greatest reach — internet users around the world grow by the thousands each day (Internet Society Global Internet Report) and is a perfect representation of how mass media has played an important role in her political campaign. The media, as you will see, can influence politics both foreign and domestic. Political figures, such as Hillary Clinton, use mass media as a tool to promote desired agendas in a presidential campaign. As the First Amendment states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibit the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances” (Kluwer XXXV). In many ways, social media, and mass media as it is consumed today is a 21st century version to this foundational law, as it provides a platform for people across all social classes to interact and share their opinions, virtually and vicariously assembling without having to physically come together. She is certainly not the first, but Hillary Clinton’s usage of mass media epitomizes the representation of First Amendment in modern day society as a foundation to their campaign. Mass media is a diversified technology made to reach a large number of people by mass communication. Such technology is used to convey information electronically through a number of devices, for instance television, radio, recorded music and film. As well, Social media attribute to web-based technologies that provide platform for individuals and community to share, exchange information, ideas, and pictures/videos in virtual communities like Facebook and Twitter. Politics has grown to be integrated with mass media since the development of one of the first successful newspapers ever, (Boston Newsletter) which was created over a century ago by John Campbell in the year 1704 (Baran). This was the beginning of an inevitable change in global communication. Since then, other media friendly devices have cemented their spot in the industry such as the television, the radio, cell phones and social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Youtube). It is with these tools, protected by the First Amendment that people peek into what is going on in the world around us, from business to warfare, from sports to political events. One of the most renowned political events in history happened to be televised. “The great debate of 1960” between John F. Kennedy vs. Nixon on September 26th (Matthews). It was in this classic debate that both the world and all political figures had realized the importance of telegenics. Americans nationwide had a front row seat to the tremendous transformation of both society and politics and its cohesive relationship through television broadcasting (Baran). “Richard Nixon did not understand the power of television” (Matthews). Nine out of ten American families had a TV set in their homes by 1960 (Matthews). His misunderstanding led to his lack of personal preparation. It was documented that Kennedy rented out the top two floors of Chicago’s Ambassador East Hotel and studied homemade note cards filled with probable questions put together by his staff (Matthews). On the contrary, Nixon who is well known for his debating skills chose to sit and wait until the day of the debate. Moments before the debate, one of Nixon’s trustees, Henry Cabot, warned him to “avoid being his own Herblock caricature, the swarthy bully of Alger Hiss and Helen Douglas. “Erase the assassin’s image!” (Matthews).” Sources say that this was the final blow to Nixon’s defeat. As millions of Americans watched from the comfort of their home, his persona was shot down, what made Nixon the great debater, was now watered down into a spitting image of Kennedy’s gentlemen-like behavior. According to sources, Nixon’s angry focus is what might have been the missing ingredient in order for him to win over Kennedy and his TV friendly tactics (Matthew). Minor things like Nixon’s notorious 5 o’clock shadow might have been overlooked by the public even though it gave him a distinctively negative look as opposed to Kennedy’s clean cut nonchalant mien (Matthews). This debate was seemingly equal in verbal content but the favoring persona belonged to Kennedy because of his telegenic preparation. It is not only about how one looks on television, it is also about what is said, how one says it and how everything is presented before the public. Hillary Clinton, unlike Nixon, is not ignorant to the importance of appearance positioning before the public through mass media. She uses television mass media and print media, such as the New York Times, to her advantage. Focusing even more on appearing confident and qualified for the presidential position. Hillary Clinton announced her official presidential candidacy on Sunday April 12th, 2015. John Podesta, a long time ally to Clinton also sent an official email to her supporters, then she launched a YouTube video to promote her campaign ad to the public (National Public Radio). This is the major relevancy of mass media and its recipients. The evolution of media has brought forth the bridge between the people and politics. Hillary Clinton’s campaign sets her strategy to further progress her public image and to improve her perception in the eyes of the public through social media among other public mediums. Clinton’s presence in the media, however does not begin during her presidential, and even her secretarial position in Congress. Born in Chicago, Illinois on October 26 of 1947, Hilary Clinton is the daughter of Hugh Ellsworth Rodham and Dorothy Emma Howell Rodham (National First Ladies’ Library). Her parent’s firm emphasis on the importance of status and prestige, but most importantly, appeal and charisma before the public complemented her collegiate excellence at her various universities, particularly leading her to graduate as Senior Class President from Yale Law School and was an active democratic supporter (National First Ladies’ Library). She found a breath of inspiration in her early years to work in public service because of a speech delivered by reverend Martin Luther King (National First Ladies’ Library), a perfect representation of the First Amendment. In 1974 after the Nixon Presidential term was over she became a staff member of the University of Arkansas Law School where she met her future husband Bill Clinton (National First Ladies’ Library). She was later married to the 42nd president of the United States, Bill Clinton and became the 67th U.S Secretary of State between 2009 and 2013 (BIO). Although Hillary has had a colorful past in her career and in the public eye, she endured a taste of media publicity that most people would have rather left hidden. In 1998 the spur in the news about the Monica Lewinsky Scandal involving then president Bill Clinton and his affair with the 21 year old at the time was certainly not advantageous to her position in the public sphere. The media was engrossed and in and particularly at fault for the escalation of the events that had taken place. In addition to political media, it correlates with the First Amendment. “Protection of civil liberties and civil rights is perhaps the most fundamental political value in American society”(American Government). The ability to speak freely under minimal legal boundaries is a right known as Freedom of speech. This is one of the most protected liberties since it gives leeway for individuals to communicate their ideas. These ideas can be delivered through the various platforms described in earlier content. Prior to the construction of this amendment there was a limit to freedom of speech which suppressed people from becoming informed and spreading their ideas and involving their opinions in politics. “It was until the 18th century that freedom of speech was recognized in America as a shield against despotic government” (Germani). This was a step towards the right direction and a perfect example of freedom to petition. This includes the United States “ethics reform” bill which was intended to enable “grassroots lobbying”. This generally means a movement to enable members of the general public to communicate on matters dealing with the government or inspire and influence the other members of the general public to do the same. Mass media is playing a great role to bring about fulfillment of freedom of petition as a First Amendment. It achieves this by enabling citizens to focus government attention on unresolved issues in society; provide information through appropriate media channels about common policies, expose corruption, misconduct, incompetence and popular frustrations without harming the public order (Newton). This was the era mass media had established itself and it is evident when colonial newspaper publisher, John Peter Zenger, used his journalism to speak against the oppressive New York governor William Cosby (Germani). The First Amendment and freedom of speech has become imperative not only to the political world today but also to non-profit or third sector organizations because they allow people to prepare, speak freely and operate within wide limits. Hillary Clinton uses media to express her freedom of speech and appeal to many people especially the youth. The media helps her display her agenda to the public. A video released on Youtube Sunday 12, 2015, reveals Clinton’s plans to bring about new improvements in America involving the middle class portraying a positive image to her viewers. The Youtube video featured a black couple expecting a child, a young American-Asian woman and two men claiming to be getting married. This media platform in relation to freedom of speech helped her to bring about her main agenda. These individual rights come together to express, pursue, and defend our ideas. Mass media plays a great role in bringing about freedom of assembly through social media, television and radio. If we take a closer look at the political world in America, we see just how influential the media can be in creating awareness and perception that lead to critical evaluations by the public for public figures such as Hillary Clinton. In continuation, this freedom applies to all not only public figures, in which it could be manipulated into the reputable comedic parodies created by John Stewart and The Daily Show and their ability to portray Kate McKinnon as Hillary Clinton without punishable action or consequence, for example, or Tina Fey as Sarah Palin. These are the same rights that enable an individual to make complaints or have the sovereignty to deliver such a message without fear of reprisals. In Hillary Clinton’s recent presidential campaign, she addressed all group of people regardless of their religion. Some societies find it difficult to appeal to voters across different religious lines but this is completely different in America where it includes all people in political process, whether they are members of large. Powerful religious groups, religious minority or subscribe to no religion. Therefore through media, voters are encouraged to make their decisions based on their personal assessment, integrity and ability of an individual to lead people in an appropriate manner across the nation without bias based on religion. The candidate for election plays a great role in setting a great tone and example to be a leader of America through non biased religious campaign. History displays a restriction of freedom of assembly that limited people to be able to pursue and influence ranging groups of people; but with constant pursuit of the constitution and liberties covering mass media, there has been a significant change allowing individuals to gather and associate with any group of interest. Additionally, according to the records of colonial assemblies, there were no freedoms of petition until the period when mass media was reformed to address the issue. In the past, petitioning was in form of public dialogue but with the development of the constitution and media; the First Amendment has been adopted to enhance public views. In her current political campaign, Hillary Clinton addressed the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people around the world. She had also addressed the same issue in her “Free and equal in dignity and rights” speech during the international human rights day at the United Nation’s premises in Geneva on December 6th, 2011. Therefore she will be running the presidency as a pro-LGBT rights candidate. In this attempt to be the face of this new, up and coming era in gay rights, the public will provide analytical feedback through today’s modern technology like never seen before (Chahal). The inevitable accumulation of analytical data serves as a representation of how far media has taken us in politics and how social media has fortified Hillary Clinton’s popularity in her current presidential campaign. In less than 24 hours after launching her Facebook page, on Sunday, 12 2015, she was able to accumulate more than 600,000 page views and 2 million video views. This is one of her campaign strategies used since she had earlier mentioned on the importance of social media and data in the 2016 general elections. According to observations made over time, social media and its massive interconnected sources, also known as “big data”, influence election decisions. For instance, “social data drove the 2008 general election and big data drove 2012 general election” (Chahal). Therefore, the “marriage” of the two data is expected to be the drive of 2016 general election (Chahal). To conclude, mass media plays a very important role in the election process, since most candidates who embrace technology and mass media, especially in a presidential campaign, normally have high chances of winning the election. There is a great change in the society with the innovative advancement of mass media to give rise to social Medias like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube which provide great platform for freedom of speech and assembly. Actually, politicians running for any kind of election no matter locally, statewide or nationally should plan their campaign properly by setting appropriate media devices to disseminate information and reach all people across different social classes and religion. As well, media plays an essential role in communication with voters; therefore, the media should represent standards by which people can evaluate political candidates. Finally, the First Amendment plays a great role in enhancing the freedom of press and media in the process of distribution of information. It has opened a way for people to understand how the political world works hence election of sound and competent leaders. Whether Hillary Clinton successfully wins her presidential campaign relies heavily on her preparation before the public eye – media being the sensory vehicle used to connect with her — it’s the closest thing one has to shaking hands. Works Cited American Government. “Liberty and civil rights.” 1 June 2014. ushistory. 16 April 2015 . Baker, Gerard. “The Clinton Affair: Gerard Baker Explains Why the Allegations over Monica Lewinsky Present Such a Threat to the US Presidency:: [London Edition].” Http:// 17 Jan. 1998. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. . Baran, Stanley J. Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Literacy and Culture. New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 2014. Print. Chahal, Gurbaksh. “Election 2016: How Big Data Social Data Will Determine the Next President.” Election 2016: How Big Data Social Data Will Determine the Next President. 26 June 2013. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. . First Lady Biography: Hillary Clinton. Hillary Clinton Biography. The National First Ladies’ Library. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. . Former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton to Deliver Keynote Address at BIO International Convention.” Former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton to Deliver Keynote Address at BIO International Convention. 14 May 2014. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. . Germani, Steve. “Learning to Give, Philanthropy Education Resources That Teach Giving and Civic Engagement.” Learning to Give. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. . Hillary Clinton To Announce Presidential Bid On Sunday. NPR. NPR, 10 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. . Internet Society Global Internet Report. 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 23 Apr. 2015. . Kluwer, Wolters. “The First Amendment.” The First Amendment. Fourth ed. NY: Wolters Kluwer Law and Business in New York, 2012. 799. Print. Matthews, Christopher. “GREAT DEBATE NIXON AND KENNEDY STAGED THE FIRST TV PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN DEBATE IN 1960 – AND CHANGED POLITICS FOREVER.” San Francisco Examiner April 28 1996. ProQuest. Web. 21 Apr. 2015 . Newton, Adam. “FREEDOM OF PETITION,PETITION RESEARCH.” 10 October 2002. firstamendmentcenter. 17 April 2015 . Thomas, Ken. “Hillary Clinton Announces Her Second Run for the White House.” PBS. PBS, 12 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015. . Impact of Social Media on US Political Campaigns
make forth normal form. I need support with this Business question so I can learn better.

Exam 2 Part 2 (15 points)

Take a look at the following report and normalize it to the 4th normal form. (make sure that you indicate the primary keys and foreign keys)
Consider the following relation that keeps track of the sales of a wholesale dealer in trousers: Normalize the relation to the 4th normal form. (make sure that you indicate the primary keys and foreign keys)
Take a look at the following report and normalize it to the 4th normal form. (make sure that you indicate the primary keys and foreign keys)
Consider the following relations and normalize them into the 4th Normal form.(make sure that you indicate the primary keys and foreign keys)
Consider the following relations and normalize them into the 4th Normal form.(make sure that you indicate the primary keys and foreign keys)

Patient bill

Patient #: 12345
Date: 7/20/08

Patient Name: Mary Baker
Date admitted: 7/14/08

Patient Address: 300 Oak Street
Discharge date: 7/17/08

City-State-Zip: Boulder, CO 80638

Cost Center
Cost Name
Date Charged
Item Code
Bal Due

Room & Board
Semi-prv room


Semi-prv room

semi-prv room







X-ray chest



Balance due


TrousersSold (customerID, customerName, model, size, day, numberSold, price)
Suppose the following functional dependencies hold on the relation:
customerID ->customerName
customerID, model, size, day ->numberSold
model, size ->price
model, price -> size
Z5Z 6G6
TAX (8%) 4.32

Shipping (ShipName, ShipType, VoyageID, Cargo, Port, Date)
Hint: Date is the date the ship arrives in the given Port
With the functional dependencies:
ShipName-> ShipType
VoyageID-> ShipName, Cargo
ShipName, Date -> VoyageID, Port
STORE_ITEM (SKU, PromotionID, Vendor, Style, Price)
With the functional dependencies:
SKU, PromotionID -> Vendor, Style, Price
SKU -> Vendor, Style
make forth normal form

Project Ideas.

This Discussion will be available from Day 1 through Day 7 of this week. You are required to submit your initial post by Day 3. You are encouraged to post early. Once you have submitted your initial post, start responding to your colleagues. You must begin responding to your colleagues by no later than Day 5 and should continue to interact frequently with your colleagues through Day 7. Part of what makes a discussion a discussion and not a lecture is the back-and-forth, in-depth, animated interaction of at least two people. If you start a topic and none of your peers are responding to your post, consider what you can do to get the conversation going. Include something that would elicit further thoughts and different opinions from peers. Validate your opinions with references and links to the sources you used so that your peers can read them for themselves. See your Discussion Rubric in the Course Information Tab for specific grading requirements.A grant can be a powerful tool for achieving what might otherwise be impossible, or at least very difficult, to accomplish. What are some project ideas you have in mind for addressing a specific problem or need? If you were to apply for a grant, what would you pursue? What might your organization pursue?With project ideas in mind, read the literature and familiarize yourself with evidence-based practices associated with the problems you are seeking to address. Determine what is currently being done to solve or mitigate these problems. This step is extremely important in determining how or if to proceed with your own project idea.For this Discussion, critically think through your project ideas and concepts, as well as the literature, and select one to further develop for your grant proposal. Use the Process Development Template, located in this week’s Learning Resources, to organize your ideas with regard to the purpose of the project and to the research you have conducted.Note: Use the Process Development Template as an iterative and cumulative worksheet for keeping notes and ideas about the different elements that will be addressed in your grant proposal. While this document will not be submitted for grading, it will inform assignments that are submitted. You are encouraged to use this template as both a guide for and record of the work you are doing.By Day 3Post your project idea, explaining the needs it will meet. Explain why this project might be attractive to potential funders, and distinguish it from others that have addressed the same problem.
Project Ideas

Need Nursing Expert to Complete Discussion (WALDEN). I don’t know how to handle this Health & Medical question and need guidance.

Discussion WK4 NURS 8210
HIT Projects and Decision MakersA nurse leader sought to implement greater security in the children’s wing of the hospital by installing a new alarm and monitoring system. Due to budget constraints, the CNO rejected the proposal, stating that current security methods were sufficient. Shortly after this failed proposal, an individual did in fact breach the children’s wing security and abducted a young child. Thankfully, the child was found and returned to her parents; and the CNO quickly found the money to install the new security system.Not all HIT projects have such high-profile stakes. The main takeaway from this example is the importance of getting key stakeholders and decision makers on board when planning a new HIT project.To prepare:

Bring to mind a HIT project implemented in your organization. Which leaders identified the project? Which stakeholders and decision makers helped moved the project forward?

Consider methods that were used to garner the support of stakeholders and decision makers to move the project forward.

By Day 3 post a cohesive response that addresses the following:

Describe an example of a HIT project implemented at your organization and analyze how that project was identified and moved forward.
Evaluate the impact of key decision makers on moving the HIT project forward

Need Nursing Expert to Complete Discussion (WALDEN)

MATH 114 Liberty University Mortgages Discussion

MATH 114 Liberty University Mortgages Discussion.

Post replies of at least 100 words each to 2 of your classmates’ threads.Student # 1 S K DB Forum 13. I struggled to make a decision between a 15-year mortgage and 30-year mortgage.I can afford to pay the monthly payment for the 30-year-mortgage, however, the 15-year-mortgage is burdensome. 30 years extends farther than retirement, while 15 years can be paid off before retirement. The 15-year-mortgage has less interest than the 30-year-mortgage, but as the monthly principal repayment increases, the actual monthly payment will be bigger than the 30-year-mortgage. However, I decided on 15 years, because I think it is worthwhile to live a bit more modestly and pay a little more monthly payment.4.The Bible neither explicitly prohibits nor allows borrowing of money. The Bible warns against debt and praises the virtue of not being indebted, but it does not prohibit debt. The Bible speaks of attitudes toward lenders and debtors ( Luke 19:23). In the society in which we live, it is difficult to prepare a house where families can live without a mortgage loan. Loans can benefit debtors and creditors if Christians have a stewardship mission and adhere to the principles of the Bible. However, it cannot be the glory of God for the purpose of speculation or.for the purpose of living a luxurious life. If the debtor makes a loan taking into account his or her income level, safety, and ability to repay debt, and as a follower of Christ, taking responsibility for our decisions and actions, and if creditors invest for the public good, not just for their own interests in supplying resources,it will be a desirable loan that will benefit the debtor and creditor. Student # 2 S DMortgages: 15-year vs. 30-year3. Analysis DiscussionThe advantage of having a 15 year mortgage is less to pay overall between principle and interest payments. You pay the loan off in a shorter amount of time.The advantage of having a 30 year mortgage is less to pay per month. You can afford to buy a more expensive house. This may be an advantage to a larger family.I believe that having a 15 year mortgage is the wiser choice, because it is less money for you to pay overall. The more years you add, the more money is required to pay off your mortgage. Take the amount of money from 30 years of paying and compare it to 15 years and it’s a significant amount more. Imagine investing the difference of $125,000 over 15 years rather than paying somebody else that amount of money.4. Biblical applicationI believe that this verse is valid. When you borrow money that is not yours, you are at the mercy of the lender who can decide anything. If you do not meet the terms of the lender, that person has the power to remove you from your home, no questions asked. This is very much a slave/master relationship. That being said, the average person most likely does not have enough money to buy a home with cash, so the only option is to get money from a mortgage company to assist your home purchase. On one hand you have the Bible and Dave Ramsey’s teaching of not going into debt but on the other hand, if you neglect to get a mortgage, you will never own property. Part of owning a home is building an investment. Historically, home prices tend to increase in value. The price of that investment for the average person is a mortgage. It seems like the wisdom would be that if you are looking to buy a home, do everything you can to get a 15 year mortgage. This means that you’ll have to do with less but in the long run is more profitable. The Bible is very correct in this instance. Mortgages are a slave/master relationship.
MATH 114 Liberty University Mortgages Discussion

Bosch Siemens Home Appliance: Organizational Behavior Report

python assignment help In the contemporary business environment, building a sustainable competitive advantage requires a detailed analysis of the organizational behavior (OB) in the corporate setting. Seeing that the quality of interactions in the workplace defines the level of the employees’ performance and, therefore, the organization’s efficiency in the target market, focusing on OB is crucial to create the premises for a company to succeed in the designated environment. By using the concept of tolerance for success as the foundation for its OB framework and the tool for increasing its KPIs, the company has managed to not only succeed but also thrive in the excruciatingly competitive environment of the global economy. The issue of multiculturalism is, perhaps, the essential point of company’s assessment. Indeed, in the environment of the global economy, there is a consistent need in communicating on a multicultural level. Consequently, it is crucial that an organization should develop a flexible corporate strategy that would reflect corporate values by acknowledging the employees’ unique cultural background. At BSH, the Mixing Blow framework is clearly viewed as the means of managing the cross-cultural relationships among its members. By definition, the identified strategy implies that the leaders of an organization should not only acknowledge the unique cultural characteristics of the employees but also create a sustainable environment in which they could feel valued as individuals and accepted as such (Prescott, 2016). BSH, in its turn, promotes the active integration of cultures in the context of the organization, thus, making successful communication a possibility: “BSH is today successful, and intends to remain so in the future. To achieve this it needs clear orientation – to guide its external dealings towards customers and partners and for internal activities involving its workforce” (“What we stand for,” 2017). As a result, the organization can explore the opportunity of meeting the needs of employees from any cultural, social, or ethnic background. Furthermore, the chances of creating the environment in which the staff members are motivated and enthusiastic are quite high at BSH. However, developing an understanding of the employees’ needs is only the first step toward improving their performance and building prerequisites for enhancing their loyalty. Apart from a detailed analysis of the factors that contribute to the design of a comfortable workplace environment for the target team, the BSH Human Resource Management (HRM) team has been exploring the chances of improving the quality of communication in the company, particularly, as far as the collection of feedback from the personnel and its further processing is concerned. Indeed, communication specifics must not only inform but also define the tools used by the company to enhance the performance of the employees. A lot of attention is paid to the communication process and the tools used to enhance it in the BSH environment. For instance, instead of using a single form thereof, the managers of the company use a clever combination of verbal and nonverbal elements, therefore, making the message more palatable. In BSH, interpersonal communication is used to address the issues related to the quality of the staff’s performance, as well as the efficacy of the company’s processes, in general (including the stages of production, logistics-related concerns, etc.). As a result, appropriate roles and responsibilities are assigned to the staff members. A combination of verbal and nonverbal communication elements is utilized to convey the message and help the employees connect emotionally to the problem. As a result, the levels of engagement are increased substantially, and the personnel remains invested in the success of the company’s operations. Finally, written communication serves primarily as the means of monitoring quality (i.e., submitting reports about the successes and failures of specific operations), as well as the tool for analyzing the efficacy of the organization (i.e., corporate statistics, charts, graphs, facts, figures, etc.). A balanced approach toward information management combined with the usage of the latest technological innovations, including network tools, serves as the foundation for building an impressive competitive advantage. Indeed, the speed of data processing for which BSH’s framework allows makes the organization outstandingly efficient in the target market even by the global standards (Niehaus

S-corporation DB5

S-corporation DB5. I’m studying for my Accounting class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

There is a lot of news about how large corporations evade taxes. Businesses commit tax evasion the same way individuals do: they under-report income, overstate deductions, claim too many tax credits, and sometimes hide money through laundering or illegal accounting schemes.
The Tax Gap is the difference between how much the IRS should collect and how much it actually collects; in 2010, the Tax Gap was $458 billion.
However, small business owners are actually the largest single contributor to the Tax Gap. Before the recession, a quarter of sole proprietors reported losses; among those, 70% were estimated to be noncompliant.

Under-reporting of business income and self-employment tax by small business owners accounts for $190 billion, or 41% of the $458 billion Tax Gap.
Corporate under-reporting accounted for $41 billion or 9% of the Tax Gap.
Large corporations (whose assets exceed $10 million) accounted for $28 billion, or only 6.1% of the $458 billion Tax Gap.

In summary, small business owners and the self-employed under-reported $190 billion, over six and a half times more than the $28 billion under-reported by large corporations!

After reading these statistics, do you find it surprising that small businesses are under-reporting income so much more than large corporations?
Explain why these figures may (or may not) surprise you.
Why do you think small business owners are under-reporting so much more than the large corporations?
Address these requirements with no less than 450 words.

S-corporation DB5

Natural and Artificial Selection in Cosmos TV Series Essay

When the original version of Cosmos first came out it at once caught the interest of public. During thirteen episodic series, Carl Sagan told about the Universe and an origin of life on the Earth. The project was very popular. Its popularity was predetermined by the fact that having a scientific nature the things revealed in the movie were easy for understanding. Carl Sagan managed to create a successful project, which aim was to shed a light on novel scientific achievements in the sphere of astronomy. He told about different aspects of this science from the evolution theory and to the geology of Mars. More than thirty years later, there appeared a new version of the project with the new name Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey. The new anchorman of the scientific TV series is Neil deGrasse Tyson, who is a famous American astrophysicist. In spite of numerous cases of criticism, especially from religious organizations that are frustrated by the mere scientific approach of the Universe creation revealed in the project, the new series may be considered as a success. It goes without saying that the modern information technologies and technical abilities in cinema industry have given a lot of opportunities to the authors of the new project. From the very beginning of this scientific film, it is possible to observe beautiful visual effects. We can see different variations of space landscapes, the shining of the rings of Saturn and circulatory galaxies. In comparison with the original version, the use of the modern technologies in Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey makes it brighter and more persuasive. At the same time, the general narrative style of the project is saved. The difference between the two versions may be illustrated by the way of explanation of such phenomenon as natural and artificial selection. In the original version, Carl Sagan tells a dramatic story of a war between two samurai clans in ancient Japan. From the very beginning, it may seem that this legend has nothing to do with the notion of the artificial selection. Nevertheless, Sagan manages to connect these ancient events with this phenomenon and to find the scientific explanation of it. The existence of crabs with crusts looking like human faces he explains from the point of view of the artificial selection. Then he broadens this rather specific example and to all the existing surrounding. Sagan states that all domestic animals as well as cultivated plants have been created artificially due to the processes of human activity (Sagan). In order to explain the same notion Tyson uses the example of wolves and the origin of dogs. The main activity of ancient people was hunting. During a process of hunting, a primitive man needed an assistant, which had to be quick and strong. The best choice for such a role was a wolf. However, as Tyson explains it wolves have natural aptitude to avoid human beings. Those species of wolves who were smart enough to understand the benefits of the coexistence with humans later on were evolved into dogs (Tyson). The behavior of these wolves, who were able to relinquish their nature, was explained by a definite set of genes. Later on in the process of human activity, those species who corresponded to the demands of a person were bred, while other animals were killed. In such a way, the wolves with the necessary set of gens had the advantage of the wild ones. It seems to me that the example provided by Tyson is more vivid and demonstrative. It gives a viewer the better understanding of the nature of the artificial selection. On the example of wolves, Tyson explains the processes of the domestication of wild animals. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The diversity of species is explained by Sagan and Tyson as a process of the natural selection and evolution. Both of them sound rather convincing. At the same time Sagans explanations have a definite resemblance with a scientific lecture, while the Tysons arguments are provided with picturesque illustrations. This fact makes Tysons version more interesting and easily perceptible. Both version have scientific character of narration. At the same time, the usage of such fantastic things as the cosmic calendar or the spaceship, in which the journey is realized, are saved in both versions. In order to recall mind to a subject both Sagan and Tyson use different interesting facts which may seem strange and surprising for an audience. For instance, Tyson emphasizes the fact of the resemblance between a set of genes of a human and a gene pattern of any other organism on the planet. In spite of the critic of the new version of Cosmos, it must be admitted that its authors have made a good attempt to popularize science. Cosmos is a good example of a scientific film, in which bare facts are represented in an interesting and fascinating manner. Every version of the film has its own benefits, but it seems to me that the mere attempt to renew the project is worthy of respect. Works Cited Sagan, Carl. “Carl Sagans Cosmos. Episode 2.” Online video clip. YouTube. 2015. Web. Tyson, Neil. “Cosmos A Space Time Odyssey. Season1. Episode2.” Online video clip. YouTube. 2015. Web.