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Impact of Satellites on Cyber Threats

Impact of Satellites on Cyber Threats. Technology has experienced an exponential growth beyond the imaginations of most of us. It’s part and parcel of our daily lives. This evolution has led to an even heavier dependence on space assets, such as satellites, ground stations, space crafts, navigation ad meteorological satellites. Our critical infrastructure depend on these assets as well. Unfortunately, these assets are either unprotected or have minimal protection against the war waging against us; cyber-war. For example, even though several of our Department of Defense constellations rely on encrypted transmissions emanating from the ground-control segment to the spacecraft, they are inadequately protected. Defense-in-depth is non-existent. Need to know or least permissions, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, and recovery, should an attacker manage to circumvent the encryption are not in place. The most prominent potential ingress for a cyber-attack against such a system is the ground-control station. Non-governmental space activities use cutting-edge technologies and produce valuable data and are, thus, targets for cyber espionage, including economic cyber espionage, and cybercrime. Cybersecurity and space security are intimately linked. With the up-rise capabilities and growing dependence on satellites, their vulnerability is fast becoming apparent, although they have been overlooked for years. This paper discusses cyber threats associated with space assets with an emphasis on satellites; the importance of satellites and cyber threats faced. “As if we don’t have enough threats here on Earth, we need to look to the heavens — threats in space,” – Daniel Coats, the director of national intelligence Space systems can be defined as “the devices and organizations forming the space network.” (King, et al). Some of these are satellites, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), ground stations, space infrastructure, spacecraft, user terminals, launch systems, space surveillance tools and computer systems. Without space systems, satellites will not be able to orbit the earth at different altitudes and angles, global communications, airplanes, maritime, financial services, weather, environmental monitoring and defense systems will not be a reality. U.S. military forces will have a substantial reduction in operations in country and across the globe. Law makers will not be able to make informed decisions about issues surrounding our nation’s security, financial, economic, civil, and communications standing. In our world today, space is the new platform to carry out research and find answers to questions and issues we have left unanswered for decades. Exploration by spacecraft and robots have been this a reality. “Our space capabilities are a source of national pride and an investment in the science and research and development needed to maintain U.S. global competitiveness.” (“Space Systems – Aerospace Industries Association,” 2017).Without a doubt, space assets are vital assets! The many fundamental systems on which our way of life depends and function. Compromising these systems could spell immediate disaster for the entire universe. Space assets have been classified as the main warfare deterrence to keep the United States, its allies and foes relatively peaceful and prosperous. Furthermore, space systems help in the execution of vital information and keep our 16 critical infrastructures coordinated. In the financial sector, stock market transactions are synched to facilitate global trade. Added to the above, “global navigation services, such as GLONASS and GPS that are used for trans-oceanic shipping and in daily civilian travel depend on these vulnerable assets.” (Hutchins, n.d.).Space systems, such as the Air Force Satellite Control Network, and NASA’s Deep Space and Near Earth Networks comprise a space segment and a ground segment, respectively. The former generally consists of satellites in orbit. The latter is a set of geographically distributed stations with powerful satellite communications equipment that sends and receives command and control telemetry data. This rapid evolution of technology has made it almost impossible to have a timely response in place for threats. To an extent, millennials utilize digital gadgets in ways that make it challenging for generation X and baby boomers to keep up. With a majority of our decision makers being in the latter category, they are having a hard time understanding the scope of the threats. Digital ageing is at war with legacy systems. An attacker can compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of a satellite through vulnerabilities in its mobile and stationary ground segment components (satellites must accept communications including command and control information from the ground segment), compromising the ground segment may enable an attacker to take control of a satellite completely. This threat is particularly potent if there is a single bus architecture type for all types of telemetry received by the satellite, where different components are linked by one bus. Why the need to defend and protect our space assets? Cyber defense of space assets is considered a top priority by the United States military. Space assets for a long time, have been left bereft of security measures against cyber-attacks. The focus of security in space assets is most of the time based on strong boundary protection in the ground segment with encryption in place to protect communications with the satellites. Space assets in general are designed with few if any cyber defenses. If an adversary were able to gain access to the ground segment, there are often few or no protections to prevent them from directly controlling the asset. Moreover, given the remoteness and lack of physical access to space assets, the domain represents one of a kind challenge. For instance, satellite firmware updates that may require more than a single fly-by can only be done when the satellites are visible to ground stations. A firmware update that should be directed to several satellites may end up being beamed to a single satellite across various passes over a ground station, before eventually being transmitted by that satellite to others. It has been noted that security is rarely considered and incorporated into the build of satellites, which further compounds the issue. Closely linked to this, many of these aging satellites contain legacy code from a time before security was taken as seriously as it is today. The tasks of securing outer space and cyberspace are converging. Our online activities depend on space-enabled communication and information services. The operation of satellites and other space assets relies on online connectivity. According to Les Johnson, in his book “Sky Alert! When Satellites Fail,” It is difficult to find a realm of modern life that is untouched by GPS. Modern satellite reconnaissance is used for all aspects of military information gathering – detection and imaging of adversary command, mobilization, and training areas; tracking of ground forces, ships, and aircraft; and intercepting communications. Satellites have made it possible to monitor global climate patterns and changes using satellite remote sensing. Everything we have learned and continue to learn about the cycles that drive our climate change and our impact on the global ecosystem has come from observing satellites. Space agencies, the satellite industry, cybersecurity researchers, nongovernmental bodies, and intergovernmental satellite organizations show increasing awareness of the space cybersecurity challenge. Josh Hartman, a former senior Pentagon official and Air Force officer, argued before the satellite industry’s first cybersecurity summit held in 2017 that, on cybersecurity, “most of the space community . . . has their heads in the sand.” The “attack surface” of space activities is expanding, but governments and industry are not taking adequate action (Digital and Cyberspace Policy Program, 2018). The benefits of satellites have advanced and extended into several application areas. Satellites have not only given us accurate information on earth’s resources but have also given us accurate information to remote, isolated and deprived locations. In our healthcare industry, satellites are being used to teach and educate medical students in very remote areas. Distance learning is a reality anywhere and everywhere. In Razani’s book titled “Information, Communication and Space Technology,” he notes that satellite communications offer a distinct benefit over “terrestrial alternatives by being universal, versatile, reliable, seamless, fast expandable, and flexible.” (Razani, 2018, p. ) Protecting space activities requires understanding the particular cyber vulnerabilities that arise in various space operations. For example, satellite cybersecurity encompasses the satellite itself, transmissions to and from earth, and ground stations. Meteorological and observation satellites are used to observe weather as well as land and waters; communication and broadcasting satellites are used for the Internet and broadcasting; and positioning satellites are used to navigate aircrafts and ships. Our military are actively involved in outer space activities and utilize a variety of satellites. There is no concept of national borders in outer space, meaning that the utilization of satellites enables them to observe, communicate to, and position any area on earth. In January 2007, China conducted an Anti-Satellite (ASAT) test to destroy its aging satellite with a missile launched from the Earth’s surface. The resulting space debris3 was spread across the satellite’s orbit, which was noted as a threat against space assets such as satellites owned by countries. Since existing frameworks, including the “Outer Space Treaty” that prescribed the peaceful use of outer space, do not have provisions on avoiding the destruction of space objects and actions triggering debris, among others, in addition to threats posed by anti-satellite weapons and space debris on space assets. Geopolitical competition among nations stimulates the militarization of space, this in turn spurs them on to devise cyber espionage, interference, and attack strategies against rivals’ space operations. China is suspected of engaging in cyber operations against U.S. satellites. Research has shown Chinese military writings emphasize the need to target U.S satellites to “blind and deafen the enemy.” In 2016, General John E. Hyten, commander of the Air Force Space Command, briefed Congress. He stated that “adversaries are developing cyber tools to deny, degrade, and destroy” U.S. space capabilities that support war fighting, critical infrastructure, and economic activity. The assets possessed by the United States of America are so destructive they could render vast portions of the earth uninhabitable for centuries. Unfortunately, with this power comes the onus of a responsibility to ensure that these assets are always available, that they are without any issues, and most importantly, that they are never in danger of unauthorized use by a malicious attackers or nation states with ulterior motives. Consider this: “The Iridium satellite network consists of 66 active satellites in low Earth orbit. Developed by Motorola for the Iridium Company, the network offers voice and data communications for satellite phones, pagers, and integrated transceivers around the world. The largest user of the Iridium network is the Pentagon. The major problem, ‘isn’t that Iridium has poor security. It’s that it has no security.” -J. M. Porup, It’s surprisingly simple to hack a Satellite. The Iridium satellite network was developed in the 1980s but unfortunately was already obsolete by the time it was launched. For a very long time, satellite developers believed that satellites in space would be too difficult to hack, regardless of the software capabilities of an adversary. It was hard to grasp what has today become a part and parcel of our lives. Research has shown several industrial groups across continents are seeking to perform interesting space science experiments. The Department of Defense is looking to employ massive fleets of small, inexpensive satellites for space situational awareness, as well as orbital debris tracking and cleanup. The concern always with these is that security is an afterthought. In today’s competitive environment, where being the first to market usable innovative technology means the difference between surviving and caving in, security concerns are often brushed aside. In the rush to get products to market, designers and manufacturers often skip or pay only passing attention to important security controls. This is already causing immense concern for machine designers, manufacturers, and insurance companies. With the impending proliferation of small satellites and the importance of the missions for which they depend, this could mean a disaster that affects the lives of people as well as the safety of other space assets, which may be a combination of expensive, irreplaceable, vital to national security, or vital to quality of life. Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) are most often used to exfiltrate vital information from a business or government target over a long period of time. In the space domain, NASA has been a primary target over and over again for APTs aimed at cyber espionage. Given NASA’s status as the most advanced space program in the world, certain specific foreign governments have strong motivation to steal intellectual property from NASA. Stealing these highly valued intellectual property prevents a county from spending billions of dollars for research and development. Consequently, Red October and Cloud Atlas hackers are hard at work developing cyber espionage APTs. Of note, Chinese hackers have used such remote access toolkits to steal the plans for advanced US weapons systems, including: the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the FA-18, the Patriot Missile System, RQ-4 Global Hawk drones, the P-8 Poseidon Reconnaissance Aircraft, the UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter, the littoral combat ship, the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, and the Army’s Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Missile Defense System. They have also used these APTs to attack the United States Transportation Command, one of the ten unified commands of the Department of Defense responsible for moving US troops and military equipment around the world. In its FY2018, SOC audit report, NASA indicated some of its shortfalls, one being it was not well positioned to meet current and future needs. NASA drove home the direness of the situation in their FY 2012 Security Audit Report. (“Audit of NASA’s Security Operations Center,” n.d.) Cyber threats for space-based systems in general and satellites in particular take many forms. While one attack might involve jamming, spoofing, or hacking of communications or navigational networks, another might target or hijack control systems or specific electronics for missions, shutting down satellites, altering their orbits, or “grilling” their solar cells through deliberate exposure to damaging radiation. Still another might strike at satellite control centers on the ground. As in other areas of cyber conflict, players and motivations abound. States or non-state actors could use such attacks to create military advantages in space prior to or during a war. Government agencies or corporations with sufficient computing power to crack encryption codes could use cyber-attacks on satellite systems to steal strategic quantities of intellectual property. Well-resourced criminal organizations could steal significant amounts of financial information and funds. Groups or even governments could initiate catastrophic levels of satellite run-ins with space debris, perhaps even causing a cascade of collisions, known as the Kessler Effect. This could be used to deny other nations the use of space. Perhaps the most worrying vulnerabilities involve satellite-enabled navigational systems. Many such systems have been developed, but the most widely used is the Global-Positioning System commonly known as GPS. Much of the world’s infrastructure relies on this system, yet it was not originally intended for civilian use, and therefore not designed with security in mind. A successful spoofing cyber-attack could introduce erroneous timing signals, which are used for determining precise locations. This has been making the news headlines lately. For instance, if aimed at a power grid, this type of attack will result in calamitous overloads, leading to cascading equipment failures and even major blackouts. In 2016, “ when 15 satellites accidentally broadcast signals that were inaccurate by 13 microseconds, telecom companies using Chronos GPS services were hit with 12 hours of thousands of system errors.” (Lewis,Impact of Satellites on Cyber Threats
The Observational Learning Have Four Main Processes Psychology Essay. In the Banduras Social Learning Theory, we know that it was focus on the observational learning and also personality. However, Rotters Social Learning Theory is not only a trait theory, it was also a “process” theory that was focuses on single dimension of personality. (Johnson et al.) The violence behavior is always caused by long term repeated exposed to the violent media or people who react violent. (Anderson, 2000) Violence behavior is the behavior that people react in violence from his daily behavior. The violence behavior tends to have the violence tendency. Children will have tendency to become violent himself is because he have been hurt in the past. (Solter, 1989) In addition, a person who has the tendency of violence has the high percentage of the unpleasant childhood. (Solter) He had been kick, spanked, hit, beaten, and threaten will make him become more violence. (Solter) Moreover, the physical abuse is the violence behavior that categorized into social learning theory. The violence behavior had been showed by a 27-year-old laundry shop owner, John Paul Encinas. (Carvajal, 2012) He was splashing water on the lady cashier and throwing emptied bottle at her. (Carvajal) In addition, he was yanking her shirt by the collar till she hit the counter. (Carvajal) After that, he went to the other side of the counter and tried to stuff peso bills into a men’s mouth. (Carvajal) In this case, John Paul Encinas had showed that he had the violence behavior and he also had tended to physical abuse. Furthermore, a 24-year-old man, James Holmes who had murdered 12 people, and injured 58 more. (Malley, 2012) He was telling everyone that he was The Joker, the villain of the Batman films with his flaming red-orange dyed hair. (Malley) James Holmes was observe, imitate and modeling the behavior that had been showed in the Batman films. This kind of violence behavior that he react was observe, imitate and modeling the Batman films. The aggressive behavior will increase immediately in the short term when exposed to violence. (Anderson, 2000) Brink (2001, p.6) stated that “aggressive is always a consequence of frustration.” “In more specifically, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour always presupposes the existence of frustration and, contrariwise, that the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression.” (Brink, p.6) In real life, sometimes the aggressive behaviour of a child was learned from their parents. Parents always become the models of their children. Besides that, in the Bandura’s classic experiment with the ‘Bobo doll’, he showed that “not only new behaviour can be learnt and also how the vicarious punishment had only blocked the performance of the new response not its acquisition.” (Sheehan, 2008, p.8) This can be the main implications for aggression viewed on TV and films. (Sheehan) In addition, children always exposed to actors who commit crimes and although they are caught, the children have still probably learnt about criminal behaviour and hence may model this type of behaviour later if it is necessary. (Sheehan) This is a central feature of observational learning, the observer does not response the behaviour immediately but it is in order for it to be learnt. (Sheehan) The classic experiment of ‘Bobo doll’ had showed observing violent behaviour will make viewers more likely to become violent. (Johnson, McCannThe Observational Learning Have Four Main Processes Psychology Essay
2 page essay on “Before the Flood”.

Instructions: After watching the documentary “Before the Flood” write a paper (minimum 2 pages, times roman, 12 pt. type, double spaced) and in your own words answer the following questions. Provide a well thought out justification for each of your answers.What evidence is given in this documentary that confirms that climate change is real and is happening.Why are the effects of climate change happening way ahead of the scientific projections, 15 or 20 years ago?Describe the significance of the conversations that Leonardo DiCaprio had with Barack Obama and the Pope through to Elon Musk and Piers Sellers.List all the areas that LD traveled to describe the effects that climate change is having on each. Expand upon sunny day flooding in Miami beach.What is a carbon tax and in your opinion, is it a good way to curb climate change? What information made you come to this conclusion?In your opinion does corporate money influence politics in the United States or is it vice versa? Do you think that public opinion tends to sway the political opinion of our leaders or is it vice versa?What are some specific changes that citizens can make to combat climate change?Do you think that the general public has a good understanding of climate change and do you think that climate change education is needed?If you need to watch the documentary a second time you can do so at
2 page essay on “Before the Flood”

The Understanding Of Knowledge Influence Human Resource Development Education Essay

The importance of interpretive sociology is renowned in this Anne Fearfull’s piece of research. Clerical skill and knowledge, and the role of the clerical function within five organisations are explored using qualitative research, mainly in-depth interviews. The study also focuses on the concept of ‘common sense’ in order for clerks to become “efficient or effective in their work”. Moreover, in her study, Fearfull concluded that the skills and knowledge of the clerks can easily play an important role with regards to the success of a particular organisation. Additionally, interpretive methodology serves to create new perceptivity in the investigation of skills and knowledge amongst the workforce. Such research aims at the discovery of more opportunities. How might the understanding of knowledge as proposed by Fearfull (2005) influence human resource development policies? Various features constitute human resource development, including training, performance management and career growth. These attributes aim at the development of the employees’ knowledge. Organisations should understand what knowledge is needed in order to be easily explained to their workforce. In Fearfull’s research, the difference between the experienced (“older”) and the inexperienced (“younger”) clerks, is remarked. As a human resource development policy, organisations can explore the possibility of engaging more experienced employees in delivering the training programmes to the newly recruited and less experienced employees. This can take the form of job mentoring whereby new and/or less experienced employees absorb knowledge from the experienced ones in order to have greater opportunities at succeeding in their position. Research indicates that when newly employees experience mentor relationships, they are more likely to be retained and immersed more quickly into the organisation’s culture. By this type of relationship, the mentor also benefits since it provides the opportunity to re-evaluate his/her skills and knowledge and provide areas for improving them. Provide a brief example which demonstrates your understanding of the key points outlined in the article. Throughout my University life, I had been engaged in various practicum placements as part of my undergraduate course. These placements have helped me to acquire knowledge through hands-on experience, understanding theories through practice. Additionally, during my first weeks of my employment, I had been engaged in an induction programme, whereby experienced employees provided training to the new recruits, including myself. I had the opportunity to become more knowledgeable of the organisation’s procedures and acquire the skills needed to function effectively in my new post. Despite this, the induction programme did not aid in accelerating the process of getting to know the underlying procedures which established employees employ in the day to day running of the service. Such procedures may be viewed as becoming part of the job’s ‘common sense’ reasoning, which employees acquire after a considerate amount of time in the post. This was something that I have learnt by time. But this problem had been solved by having a mentor in the first four months of my employment. I consider myself as very lucky since my mentor invested trust in my abilities and was always available when needed. This was a truly learning experience whereby knowledge and work skills have been transferred from an employee who had already lived through the same experience. Lastly, I believe that the secret of the organisation’s success is the total and unwavering dedication of every worker, from the lowest to the highest designations. Accomplishment is the result of a collective effort from each and every employee. Reflective statement on the use of Blackboard: This is my first time I ever used Blackboard as a means of virtual learning environment. To be honest, I have never heard of it prior commencing my studies with the University of Leicester. In fact, I even had to perform some research before writing this reflective note on the use of Blackboard. At first, I thought it was quite a complicated tool but after spending some time navigating, my views on the software have changed completely. Blackboard is a system whereby students find useful resources about different subjects (depending on the course one is reading). It offers an excellent alternative to the traditional school / University classroom-based method of learning. Students can have the opportunity of sharing their ideas on a particular subject and even posting assignments and other useful resources online. Although Blackboard might be seen from some people as a means of killing face-to-face interactions, I am quite sure that when using Blackboard, it is going to turn out as a positive experience. Lastly, by looking and analysing at what my other colleagues have posted on Blackboard, I am indirectly increasing my knowledge and level of understanding about the subject. I strongly believe that everybody’s effort and input is relevant since a broad subject like Human Resources is a not a topic that entails a one-good answer. AWS Portfolio Exercise 2 Identify one key argument that Garavan makes. In no more than 500 words, summarise the main argument and critically evaluate the respective strengths and weaknesses of this argument. One of the main arguments identified by Garavan (1997) in his article ‘Training, Development, Education and Learning: Different or the Same?’ is that training, development, and education should be integrated together by the concept of learning. This implies that the three components are all involved in the process of learning and complement each other to better the “human potential or talent” (1997: 42). Although the four concepts represent different meanings, they all can be incorporated together resulting in a more competitive and efficient organisation. From a human resource development perception, the relationship between the four may be considered as largely related, with each component facilitating the other (Garavan et al, 1995). Work and education are no longer separated as were in the previous years. “A more integrated model” (Garavan, 1997: 47) is needed to the process of knowledge expansion amongst employees. This process should continuously be practiced as it will enhance the effectiveness of the organisation. By training employees, both the trainees and the organisation will benefit and research has shown that trained employees have a higher retention rate in a particular organisation (Umiker, 1994). Garavan (1997) also argues that the concept of management education is an important stage in “an employee’s career” (1997: 48), entailing an “opportunity to test understanding and organise knowledge in a competing environment” (Association of Management of MBA/MMS Institutes, 2009). The above goes hand in hand with the concept of talent management which in my opinion is an important aspect of human resource management. It refers to the employee’s skills and knowledge which ultimately drive their business success. Various resources, including training opportunities, offering competitive salaries, and being able to attract and recruit qualified staff, helping employees achieve their full potential. Investing knowledge, development and education amongst employees, is a way of putting an organisation into a more competitive environment and its chances of survival are quite higher than the others’ organisations. This is the reason why talent management is becoming an important feature in the strategic plan of an organisation. Thus, these three integrated concepts of learning are vital in an organisation because employees are giving the chance to advance in their future and career. They all motivate employees to be more efficient and more creative so that the organisation will in return provide them with a better salary and more skills. These concepts can also provide a range of challenges to a particular organisation. Such challenges include: If training is given in a short period of time (let’s say in the beginning of his/her employment), the employee can be overwhelmed with lots of information. This challenge can be overcome if organisations provide training and development opportunities throughout the employees’ careers and not only during the first phase of their employment. The possibility that the employee leaves the organisation to a better or more exciting workplace, after the organisation invests so hard on the development, education and training of the employee. Successful organisation depends on the level of support given at all levels and its exposure of shared knowledge and information amongst all employees (Nayab, 2010). Lastly, training, development and education increase knowledge, skills and abilities in each employee. In order to avoid having the situation of no talented employees within a particular organisation, training, education and development must work together and be more involved in the strategic plan of the organisation. The three components together act as strategic partners aiming towards the organisation’s success (Kustoff, 2011). Bibliography Garavan, T. N. (1997) ‘Training, Development, Education and Learning: Different or the Same?’, in CLMS (2011) MSc in Human Resource Management and Training. Reading 103. Garavan, T. N., Costine, P. and Heraty, N. (1995) Training

Kraft Foods Inc Company Analysis

essay writer Kraft Foods Inc., the world’s second-largest food company, said second-quarter profit increased as improved performance in Europe and emerging markets offset weaker-than-expected sales in North America (Bloomberg, 2010). Kraft’s Corporate Strategy As stated in the Corporate Website, Kraft Foods Inc. aims to set their sights on becoming a global snacks powerhouse and unrivaled portfolio of brands people love. The complementary nature of Kraft’s portfolio is at the heart of the three strategies that will drive its growth: Delight global snacks consumers. Consumers around the world are pressed for time and are looking for on-the-go options. They’re also looking for simple indulgences and healthier options. And there’s nothing better than a delicious snack, like LU biscuits, Planters nuts, Trident gums, and Cadbury or Milka chocolates to satisfy those desires. Unleash the power of our iconic heritage brands. Our iconic heritage brands are loved by consumers worldwide. Roughly 80 percent of these heritage brands hold number one or number two positions in their respective categories and are household names. Whether it’s regional brands, like Philadelphia cream cheese in Europe and Tang powdered beverages in Asia Pacific; or local favorites like, A-1 sauces in the US and Vegemite spread in Australia, we make delicious products for billions of consumers every day. Create a performance-driven, values-led organization. To win in the market, we need to win with our customers and consumers, and with our colleagues, communities and suppliers. We’ll do this by living our values: We inspire trust; We act like owners; We keep it simple; We are open and inclusive; We tell it like it is; We lead from the head and the heart; We discuss. We decide. We deliver. Delivering on these strategies will put us in the top tier of our peer group and provide our shareholders with top-tier returns on their investment: Organic revenues growth of 5 percent or more… Mid- to high-teens margins… And EPS growth of 9 to 11 percent. This report will further elaborate and analyse its strategies, to provide recommendations for continuous improvement. Competitive strategy is concerned with gaining a competitive advantage in each of an organisation’s business units. According to Porter (1985), an organisation’s relative position within its industry determines whether an organisation’s profitability is above or below the industry average and the fundamental basis of above average profitability in the long run is sustainable competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is a company’s ability to perform in one or more ways that competitors cannot or will not match (Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, 2007, p182). Thus, how to obtain the competition advantages for the organisation will be the key print in strategic planning and development. As the Michael Porter’s theory, there are three different business-level strategies, namely, “overall cost leadership”, “differentiation” and “focus” (Gerry J., Kevan S., Richard W., 2008, p224). According to the different customers’ demand, this theory can be interpreted as five competition strategy options. They are price-based strategies, differentiation strategies, hybrid strategy, focused differentiation and failure strategies (Gerry J., Kevan S., Richard W., 2008, p225) Kraft’s second strategy highlighted its aims on brand strategy The role of the corporate brand is to give credibility in cases such as communication with government, the financial sector, the labour market and society in general (Urde, 2003 referred in (Xie

TM 105 Arab Open University Introduction to Programming Worksheet

TM 105 Arab Open University Introduction to Programming Worksheet.

1. The indices of elements in a single dimensional array named arrElem are from 1 to
2. The following statement creates and initializes the 2-dimensional array values:
short values[][] = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50};
3. A ragged 2D array is a 2D array in which each row may contain the same number of
4. do … while repetition statement gives full control on the code block to be repeated.
5. All binary operators except for the assignment operators are evaluated as user intention.
6. In Java, source code is translated to byte code by java interpreter.
7. Each row in a single dimensional array could be dealt with as 2-dimensional array.
8. Any Variable declared primitive real-value type couldn’t be promoted to any other data
type in Java.
9. In Java, method overloading means that a program may contain more than one method
with same signatures. Each column in a 2D array could be dealt with as 1D array.
10. In Java, once a variable is declared in a method as local variable, it will be visible and
could be used anywhere in the program.
TM 105 Arab Open University Introduction to Programming Worksheet

University of Central Arkansas Quality Satisfaction and Corporate Social Responsibility Discussion

University of Central Arkansas Quality Satisfaction and Corporate Social Responsibility Discussion.

This critical thinking assignment inquires you to discuss/debate on the issues relating to quality satisfaction and corporate social responsibility.Student should visit the website and read the following suggested items prior to completion of this assignment.Read course textbook (Westcott), Chapter 4 ASQ code of Ethics, and visit the ASQ website As a professional, it is important to learn and practice code of ethics from your professional association.Visit the Ethics Resource Center (ERC) to learn more on steps to ethical decision making, common ethic code provisions, and other related topics:• Seven steps to ethical decision making• Common Ethic Code Provisions• Ten things you can do to avoid being the next Enron • National business ethics survey of the US Workforce (NBES 2013) If these above links can not be opened, please copy the link and open them in another window.To complete Assignment Three, you will discuss/debate and construct answers of these 2 parts.Part 1: after visiting the above suggested website, together with your knowledge/experience, explain your believe on ethics, quality satisfaction, and social responsibility. As a good and effective quality director/manager, what is your working philosophy? Write 2-3 paragraphs, not exceeding 300 words.Part 2: Answer questions and express your thought from these 2 activities: 1) An ethical dilemma, and 2) Have we spoiled customers? Your writing should be between 500-900 words (single space, Times NW 12), or not exceeded 2 pages. Post your writing into the Discussion Board, under forum “Assignment Three – Quality Satisfaction and Corporate Social Responsibility”.> find the attachment to answer the questions
University of Central Arkansas Quality Satisfaction and Corporate Social Responsibility Discussion