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Impact of Mixed Ability Classrooms in Catholic School

“A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers”(Taylor, P.1). In this chapter, my purpose is to convey what knowledge and ideas have been established by others in my research field. I would discuss the literature which would help me answer my research questions: What is the impact of Mixed Ability Classrooms in a Catholic School since its implementation in 2005? Did low achievers ability grouping strategy of GCS have a significant impact on academic school achievement? Could Mixed Ability Classrooms and Ability Classrooms continue to coexist in the future? The literature reviews what international body has found on Mixed Ability and Ability Grouping and how it has impacted since implementation, as well as its implications in Mauritius especially for GCS. This chapter is schematically structured as follows: Mixed Ability – Mauritian definition v/s others Mixed Ability – Learning, Teaching and Assessment Strategies which could be applicable but are not used in the Mauritian context Mixed Ability – Disadvantages Ability Grouping – Definition and which one is adapted to GCS. The pros and cons of Ability Grouping Ability Grouping v/s – Conclusions of other literatures on the correlation existing between grouping School achievement and achievement 2 Mixed Ability Mixed Ability is first defined before its implication in the Mauritian context is considered. Mckeon (2004) defines Mixed Ability Classroom as a group consisting of able, average, and children with learning difficulties in the same class. (cited in Bremner, 2008, p.2). Ireson and Hallam (2001) reinforce the idea of Mixed Ability classrooms as those catering for diverse “learning styles” and “preferences”. (cited in Bremner, 2008, p.2). These two definitions are consistent with what is found in the Mauritian context. In 2005, the BEC changed the corporate aim of all Mauritian Catholic Schools in adopting the Mixed Ability Policy. This was translated by a change in the intake criteria of these schools for Form 1 students. Admission criteria, under BEC aegis, for Form 1 students since 2005 are as follows: Aggregate of 15 to 20 units at the Certificate of Primary Education Zoning: The Secondary School where application is lodged should be in the same zone as the Primary School attended Social Cases: on Humanitarian grounds Individual results in English, Mathematics, Science, French or History/Geography (in that order) will be used for candidates with the same aggregate Aptitude tests/Interviews/Random selection if there are too many successful applications (Source: BEC, 2003) Thus the Form 1 classrooms in Catholic Schools had a diverse group of students since 2005. This situation harmonises itself with the Catholic Education mission which is to: “humanise education, pedagogies, methods, means for students, teachers, parents to be more human…A human education is a collaborative and creative approach to learning” (Bishop Piat, Le Mauricien, Jan. 2006). Mixed ability classes in catholic schools of Mauritius therefore are made up of low, middle and high achievers within the same classroom. This concept is acknowledged by Dauguet (2007) that in Mauritius “Mixed Ability is related to performance-based groupings” (p.58) and Merven (2005) “where students with different academic levels will be in the same classroom” (p.36). It is understood that Mixed Ability is related to differentiation since “diversity means differences” (Tileston, 2004, p.13). The concept of differentiation can be defined as “meeting the individual needs of each learner, of customising instruction to help students learn” (Fogarty, 2005, p.2). . Rose (2009) compared a Mixed Ability Class with an elevator. The class is a lift, and everyone needs to get into the lift. Some will get on while others have to be dragged in. Some will travel to the top while others may stop at the 3rd floor, others may only reach the first floor but everyone would have travelled successfully somewhere. (English Teaching Professional, p. 3). This story is in line with Mixed Ability philosophy where every student can leave the classroom feeling that they have been challenged and that they have achieved something. Teaching, Learning and Assessments are ingredients used as tools to make a Mixed Ability class effective. 2.1 Learning, Teaching and Assessment Strategies in Mixed Ability Classrooms GCS Mixed Ability Classrooms have features which are characteristics of both the differentiated classroom as well as the traditional one. (Appendix..). In my study I aim to find out whether Mixed Ability Classrooms at GCS were consistent with what is said on the topic in the international literature. Thus Teaching, Learning and Assessment strategies which are used currently under Mixed Ability Policy would provide material for comparative analysis in my research. Tomlinson (1999) suggested that an educator in a differentiated classroom would use as their planning basis, the students’ differences. The learners on the other hand would be guided to make learning choices based on their interests. In this context the learners would be provided with an array of learning profiles such as readiness, interest and their attitude to learning which would shape instruction. In a mixed ability classroom there is the possibility that students help their co-learners in difficulty as well as their teachers in finding solutions to problems. Furthermore students work with the educator to institute embracing whole-class as well as individual learning aims. In the same line of thought, the Mixed Ability approach expressed by Harris and Snow (2004) would make students become more effective learners and the use of learner-centred strategies would give them the choice of content as well as learning style. (cited in Bremner, 2008). Bremner (2008) acknowledged that Mixed Ability Classroom success depends on students learning as an individual rather than having a whole class teaching. The teacher in developing its teaching strategies would focus on multiple forms of intelligences found in diverse classroom as stipulated by Tomlinson (1999). She further advocated that in this context educators will make use of many instructional arrangements as well as multiple teaching materials or resources. Thus this would lead to multiple perspectives on ideas and events. In this way, the teacher/facilitator enhances student’s skills in view of making independent learners. The GCS educators in the study were concerned about the lack of resources. The scarce resources could be circumvented (Bremner 2008) by Educators teaching learners to be effective. This should be done by setting achievable goals, by making use of available tools and keeping those in good running conditions, and by managing effectively their time allocated for work. To reinforce the key factors which would make a Mixed Ability Class successful, Moutou (2006) advocated that resource person should have a well planned and organised lesson plan. The teacher should make provision to cater for individualised needs. In order to accommodate various students’ needs, it should be supported by multi tasks for one lesson. This scenario is more challenging for the teacher dealing with multi level class than a single level class. Similarly, this view is consistent with GCS educators who found Mixed Ability Classrooms challenging. This challenging attitude is reflected by the following quote from Hubbard, Jones, Thornton and Wheeler: “Teacher’s attitude, their willingness to create, a sense of community in class, and a genuine desire to help, there can be progress at all levels” (1983, p.318, cited in Moutou, 2006, p.1). This challenging attitude is contrasted with teacher centred approach where teaching emphasis is on text book context and very few activities thus breeding poor lessons. This situation is further reinforced by insufficient collaboration in groups as well as inadequate differentiated tasks in class. (HM Inspectors of Education cited in Bremner 2008). GCS Educators have been challenged by the new policy to seek new ways of teaching and to make use of available materials. Thus, training and resources are important tools to make a Mixed Ability class effective. This links well with what Corbel (1989) said: “Professional development occurs naturally in Mixed Ability Classes. These are classes that compel us to find better ways of setting up routine tasks. They are the classes that make us think, create and grow as a teacher”. (p.4). Learning, teaching and assessments are part of the student life. Thus, Tomlinson (1999) advanced that a classroom assessment is “ongoing and diagnostic” (p.16). He further acknowledged that various types of assignments should be used in Mixed Ability Classrooms. To be in harmony with a learner’s need time flexibility should not be a constraint. Differentiated/Mixed Ability instruction and assessment work together (Tomlinson 1999, Chapman and King 2005). Marzano (2000) suggested aims of assessment and instruction as follows: “Assessment should focus on student’s use of knowledge and complex reasoning rather than their recall of low level information” “Instruction must reflect the best of what we know about how learning occurs.” (cited in Chapman and King, 2005, p.) Fullan (1998) reflects the above in stipulating that “assessment has to drive the educational change agenda around learning and student achievement” (cited in Chapman and King, 2005, p.). Assessment is therefore part of instruction and has to be ongoing and embracing the learning process. Its aim is to provide teachers with information on students’ profiles: “skills, interests and learning strategy”(Tomlinson, 1999, p.). Teachers in differentiated classroom (Tomlinson 1999) saw assessment not as a tool that come at the end of a chapter or unit where it examined what has been learned rather it views assessment as a way of changing instruction strategy. Differentiated assessment should be used to collect information on the students’: “needs, skills, prior knowledge, way and speed at which they process new learning, and of demonstrating progress” (Chapman and King (2005) p.). When sifting through the literature it is observed that varied means of assessment directs learning and instruction. In this context Formative Assessment which is ongoing before, during and after instruction provides feedback on effective student learning (Chapman and King, 2005). Diagnostic assessments, as acknowledged by Dryer (2008) are done during the learning process. They tried to detect learning difficulties in students and this has to be attended to. Assessments, as defined by Dryer (2008) occur at the end of the ‘learning cycle or phase and measures achievement’ are called Summative. The results (p.17) are used as acknowledged by Chapman and King (2005) as ‘evidence for a grade, for reporting to parents, to identify award recipients or to make placement decisions’ (p.). Differentiated Assessments are contrasted with traditional assessment still in use in Mauritian schools. Puhl (1997) reflects on traditional assessment which has as purpose summative tests that forces learners to study. Traditional assessment focus in on memorisation and teacher centred strategy and encourages instruction as a product. The resulting feedback on summative tests is final and usually these tests are written work. Mauritius, whose examining body is external – UCLES, is a proponent of summative examinations. As it is an island and depends on export and imports for its survival, it has to compete. This overall competition brings forward an elitist society where Education follows the trend. The Mauritian education system allows for ‘star or national’ schools where the best performing student is recruited, laureates (top ranked students at Higher School Certificate who benefits from a scholarship), and the parallel education – wide tuition based. All this encouraged the elitist system to proliferate. As only final score counts in such system, summative examinations are adopted throughout the Mauritian school system. Although since the 70’s in England, and under the different Education Mauritian policy papers, Mixed Ability philosophy has been encouraged, such classrooms have encountered problems. Salli-copur (2005) reported that it is difficult for a teacher even for a small group to follow each learner. Due to individual differences students react differently to text book which can be enjoyable for some and boring for others. There is also the fact that, students who feel confident voice out their answers quicker and more often than the shy ones. GCS Mixed Ability Classrooms are large. As a result of complaints from GCS Educators encountering difficulties in managing and instructing Mixed Ability Classrooms, Low Achievers Ability Classroom was formed. 2.2 Ability Grouping As a result of Mixed Ability Policy implemented in the Catholic School under investigation in the research, the low achievers ability grouping was formed and used as a strategy to promote learning and strengthen academic achievement. As stipulated by George (1988) the ability grouping practice at GCS is aimed at: increasing academic standards compared to what it was in a mixed ability environment, the students which could embrace a good feeling/attitude towards schools and also in their input as a learner, reinforcing teachers’ effectiveness. In perusing through the literature, it was discovered that the ability grouping is also known as: setting, banding, streaming, tracking. This is reflected in the following quote: “The controversy of arranging students in classes by achievement levels, called ‘setting’ or ‘streaming’ in Scotland and ‘tracking’ or ‘ability grouping’ in the United States is over 100 years old”. (Gamoran, 2002). Thus ability grouping is defined as: “Ability grouping is the practice of dividing students for instruction on the basis of their perceived capacities for learning” (Balanced View, 2002, Vol 6, No.2). The Balanced View (2002) makes the distinction between “within class grouping” and “between class grouping”. The former group separates students of same ability into smaller groups while the latter allocate students to different classes based on achievement. GCS has adopted the later system. Smith and Sutherland (2003) offered a rationale for ability grouping in the sense that teachers would feel not only more at ease with a smaller range of ability but also it could be a way of separating students with behaviour problems. Such a class would motivate students and learners to learn better than in a Mixed Ability one and thus have a chance in improving their results. (cited in the Journal of Research in Special Education Needs, 2003). GCS criteria for Ability Grouping would be consistent with Barker-Lunn (1970) idea that “Teachers, faced with a Mixed Ability class, will group the pupils according to their abilities; in other words, they will solve the problems presented to them by the unstreamed school by streaming within the class” (Cited in Kelly, 1978, p.96). Kelly (1978) further added that there is a direct correlation between achievement and grouping. The students with same working pace and past achievements would be grouped together. The practice in GCS is analogous to what is described by Oakes (15
​Assignment 4: Persuasive Paper Part 3: Possible Disadvantages, Answers, with Visuals.

Assignment 4: Persuasive Paper Part 3: Possible Disadvantages, Answers, with VisualsDue Week 10 and worth 230 pointsUsing feedback from your professor and classmates, revise Parts 1 and 2, and add Part 3. Plan to include visuals to illustrate the advantages of your proposed solution.Write an eight to ten (8-10) page complete paper in which you:Provide Part I: Revision of A Problem Exists (3-4 pages)Revise your Persuasive Paper Part 1: A Problem Exists, using feedback from the professor and classmates.Provide Part 2: Revision of Part 2: Solution to Problem and Advantages (3-4 pages)Revise your Persuasive Paper Part 2: Solution to Problem and Advantages, using feedback from the professor and classmates.Develop Part 3: Possible Disadvantages, Answers, with Visuals (1-2 pages, for 7-9 total pages)State, explain, and support the first disadvantage to your solution and provide a logical answer. This should be one (1) paragraph.State, explain, and support the second (and third if desired) disadvantage to your solution and provide a logical answer. This should be one or two (1-2) paragraphs.Include one or two (1-2) relevant visuals that help illustrate an advantage. Note: You must include a minimum of one (1) paragraph explaining the relevance of the included image. The responsibility of the author is to justify the inclusion (not to let the reader “figure it out”).Use effective transitional words, phrases, and sentences.Provide a concluding paragraph to summarize the proposed solution, its advantages, possible disadvantages, and answers to the disadvantages. Repeat or paraphrase your thesis statement. Develop a coherently structured paper with an introduction, body, and conclusion.Use one (1) or more rhetorical strategy (ethos, logos, pathos) to explain claims.Support disadvantages and answers with at least two (2) additional quality relevant references. Use at least eight (8) total for Parts 1, 2, and 3. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as academic resources.Your assignment must follow these formatting guidelines:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
​Assignment 4: Persuasive Paper Part 3: Possible Disadvantages, Answers, with Visuals

Care for the Pregnant Patient.

Description:When caring for a pregnant patient, it is essential to differentiate between normal and abnormal assessment data. In this assignment, you will respond to a pregnant woman’s assessment findings and her questions regarding what signs or symptoms would indicate a need to notify the health care provider.Tasks:Case Study:Your 36-year-old patient is expecting her first child. She is 24 weeks pregnant and her maternity health checkups have been within normal limits. She excitedly mentions, “My baby is moving around a lot more lately!” You notice this physical examination states that her weight has increased substantially and her Blood Pressure (B/P) is 152/94 (previous visit indicates that the B/P was 132/76). She is asking questions related to how to know if she is having any problems with the pregnancy.Based on your own experience and from your readings in this course, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, address the following:Based upon the data you have, what other assessments should be completed at this point (including questions to ask and/or additional diagnostics)?How will you determine that the patient understands her current condition and other potential complications?What resources might be helpful to this patient?Are there any recommendations for follow-up for this patient? Please explain.Submission Details:Write your initial response in a 1- to 2-page Microsoft Word document.Your response should be thorough and address all components of the discussion question in detail. Include citations of all sources, where needed, according to the APA style. Demonstrate accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Use this APA Citation Helper as a convenient reference for properly citing resources.By the due date assigned, copy your response from your document and paste it in the Discussion Area. In addition, post your Microsoft Word document as an attachment. Through the end of the module, review and comment on at least two classmates’ responses.Do the following when responding to your classmates:Read your classmates’ responses.Provide substantive comments by doing some or all of the following:Contribute new, relevant information from course readings, websites, or other sourcesBuild on the remarks or questions of othersShare practical examples of key concepts from your professional or personal experiencesRespond to feedback on your posting and provide feedback to your classmates on their ideas.Make sure your writing:Is clear, concise, and organizedDemonstrates ethical scholarship in the accurate representation and attribution of sourcesDisplays accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation
Care for the Pregnant Patient

Adaptation is the survival mechanism of civilizations in the course of evolution. It is the emergence of a trait that will enhance species viability in an existing or new environment. Conversely, byproduct is the unintentional consequence of adaptation. Humans due to their great capacity for ‘generalized learning’ have consequently achieved a distinct capability of constructing and imparting culture (Parsons, 1964). According to Biologist Alfred Emerson (1956) within the realm of adaptation the ‘gene’ has now been replaced by the ‘symbol’. Thus it is not just the genetic constitution of human beings that affects the process of evolution but also their cultural practice. Societies subsist within complex social environments (e.g. raw materials, reserves and constraints and limitations) and they adapt to such intricacies. It is thus inevitable that societies reorganize and reform themselves over time in the face of social change. The study of society and social change has taught us that the social order of civilizations changes over time and reorganizes itself to appear as something different from its ancestral form. As a society, we have organized our everyday lives around former and existing situations. We are accustomed to standard and regular conditions and may be sensitive to extremes that fall outside of this array. The stages of evolution as discussed by Morgan (1877) and Tylor (1871, 1881) are as such: savagery, barbarianism and civilization. According to them every society and culture has or will go through these stages of evolution in this order. French philosopher Auguste Comte (1876) advanced the “law of three stages”. According to this human societies progress from a theological stage, which is governed by religion, through a metaphysical stage, in which theoretical speculative assessment is most important, and onward toward a positivist stage, in which empirically based systematic scientific ideas are most dominant. It has been argued that society has evolved by way of small steps that have led to increased complexity of society. Herbert Spencer (1887), a British sociologist argued that societies themselves are life forms. He attempted to extent Darwin’s tenet of the survival of the fittest to human civilizations and said that society has been steadily moving ahead towards an enhanced state. He claimed that western societies had persisted and evolved because they were better at becoming accustomed to the challenges of life. Emile Durkheim (1933) singled out the basis of societal evolution as a society’s increasing development of more complex social interactions. Durkheim viewed societies as changing in the direction of immense demarcation, integration and oppression under the demands of increasing moral density. Durkheim supported that societies have evolved from a comparatively self-sufficient state with little incorporation, where intimidation and domination is required on a social structure, with a kind of cohesion called mechanical solidarity to a more distinguished social structure with maximum division of labor where specialization and collaboration is extensive and interdependence and assimilation give rise to an organic solidarity. Julian Stewart (1955) constructed the multi-linear theory of evolution where he stated that societies change due to their adaptation to changing environments. A more recent view by Bloomfield (1993) suggests that society is in a state of equilibrium and when change takes place a transition results in a consequent stable but more complex society. The human race has shown a tremendous potential for adjustment and change. We have seen many forms of social change over the years. Human civilization has been witness to some foremost structures of transformations such as Industrialization, Globalization, World War II, Civil Rights Movement in United States, Indian Independence Movement, Gay Liberation Movement and Women’s Rights Movement among many more. In this paper we shall reflect briefly upon the evolutionary perspective of the Women’s Rights Movement and put forward certain questions as is the Movement a form of adaptation of the society? Or it is the byproduct of adaptation? ‘Nothing can be more absurd than the practice that prevails in our country of men and women not following the same pursuits with all their strengths and with one mind, for thus, the state instead of being whole is reduced to half.’ (Plato, 428-347 B.C.; Saxonhouse, 1976). In The Republic Plato proposes that an ‘ideal’ state is one in which women are given the same opportunities as men in areas such as education and participation in activities of the state (Saxonhouse, 1976). He is considered to be the first feminist although his concern is not about the rights of women but about their usefulness (Craik, 1990). Feminism aims towards social change by focusing our attention upon the issues of women and how we can go about empowering women and improving their quality of life. Feminism can be seen to have a transformational function to society. Competing for resources is the basis for evolutionary theory. This notion that has enabled our species to survive has an important implication in feminist theory. The feminist movement has consequently emerged in a patriarchal society as an amendment in the course of evolution. In Evelyn Reed’s book ‘Women’s Evolution: from Matriarchal Clan to Patriarchal Families’ (1975) she mentions that social structures were initially based on mother-child relationship and were considered matrilineal clans long before the patriarchal family tradition began. Men were not part of the child birth process and were prohibited from eating women’s food. She also notes that in most areas the essentially reliable sources of food were that of the gatherers (vegetables) and not hunters (animals). It was later that these matrilineal clans transformed into a patriarchal society. ‘In the broadest sense, evolution is merely change, and so is all-pervasive; galaxies, languages, and political systems all evolve’ (Futuyma, 1986). Accordingly evolution can be presumed as a process of the development of a characteristic of society from its primitive state to its present or specialized state. Change comes about through the competition of resources and the circulation of favorable innovations in thought and action. Human nature is habituated by communication, which establishes what resources are available (Cooley, 1897). Arnold Toynbee (1987) postulated that civilizations transform from a stationary state to an active one. A more recent perspective on change was hypothesized by Thomas Kuhn (1996) where he talks of the concept of a paradigm. A paradigm is a set of values and beliefs about reality that allows a people to form theories about reality and solve problems. The central feature of a paradigm is its own etiquettes and principles. A paradigm remains popular and influential as long as it justifies most observable phenomenon and resolves most problems but it yields as new paradigms rise and begin to challenge it. Thus, long phases of “normal” science are pursued by short periods of “revolutions” that entail essential changes in prime theoretical presumptions. A good example here would be the androcentric assumptions that hard as well as social sciences tend to have embedded in their core and the recent shift towards a feminist paradigm where such assumptions are being questioned and alternate ideologies are being presented. This general idea is reinforced by Fritjof Capra (1997), who maintains that ‘a single person can have a worldview, but a paradigm is shared by a community.’ The paradigm impression demonstrates the scope of social change as a turning point on the state of mind of individuals. History confirms that changes in society occur not because of great wars or authoritarian governments but because a significant amount of people started to change their mind, even if only a little (Harman, 1998). Contrary to the impression that innovative ideas are the efforts of a handful of elites like scientists, philosophers, artists and religious leaders, sometimes new ways of perceiving life in a significantly meaningful way progresses from ‘the great mass of the population’ (Yankelovich, 1982). Another model of social change helps to explain the transformation of feminist societies was presented by Anthony Wallace in 1970 in his book Culture and Personality. Change is seen to present itself when intense individual strain leads to a shift away from cultural harmony. Initial response of society as well as the individual is that it is a distinct personal problem, but as these individual problems begin to come together in the form of a group, they result in unstable social foundations and society in turn has to recognize it as a problem on a larger scale. Once this happens it is essential for society to endure a process of recovery and transformation to return to the state of balance. This process of renewal depends upon characteristics such as formulation of a code, communication, organization, adaptation, cultural transformation and routinization. We attempt to integrate the evolution of feminism into this model. Feminism has formulated a code in the sense that it has a ‘goal society’ in mind. It is one that contrasts the patriarchal society and insists upon a tradition of equality among sexes and envisions a liberated future for women. Communication in the feminist tradition has been one of prime significance. Consciousness raising groups were established by New York Radical Women and Women’s Liberation groups. These meetings enabled women to share their stories and shed light on how their personal problems were in fact more common than recognized (Sarachild, 1973). Women’s organizations exist in most countries that have been set up to address the issues of women and work towards globalized incorporation of solutions. The evolution of feminism has required the inclusion of many new viewpoints and the adaption of older ones. For example the radical feminist notion that ‘women are superior to men’ has now been substituted for a more holistic idea where women and men are considered as equal and no one sex is better than the other. The Women’s suffragettes have been able to attain women’s voting in most parts of the world and this has led to a cultural transformation to the perception of women and their basic rights and privileges. The war on patriarchy is still ongoing but the movement has won many battles amongst. The vision of an egalitarian state is still very much alive. Routinization for many element of the movement are yet to happen as ‘goal future’ is far from within our grasp. History illustrates that women have suffered many dreadful fates at the hands of persons, in the form of rape, female infanticide, sati ritual, honor killing, bride burning, female genital mutilation, sex slaves, etc. Data shows that between sixty to more than one hundred million women and girls are considered ‘missing’ from numerous populations and are likely to have survived if gender discriminatory practices like sex-selective abortions, infanticide and inadequate care based on gender were absent (Seager, 2003; Sen, 1990; Klasen and Wink, 2002). Studies show that one in every five women have been forced to have sex, beaten or otherwise abused in their lifetimes and the perpetrator is usually a member of the family or an otherwise known person (Heise, Ellsberg, Gottemoeller, 1999) and about 69% of female homicide victims are killed by their male partners (Krug, et. al., WHO, 2002). Available data implies that in some countries nearly one in four women confirm sexual violence by an intimate partner and equal to one-third of adolescent girls report that they were forced into sexual acts for the first time (Ellsberg, et al., 2000; Mooney, 1993; Hakimi, et al., 2001; Matasha, et al., 1998; Buga, et. al., 1996). Sexual cruelty is more evident in places where attitudes of male sexual rights and entitlement are intense, where gender roles are inflexible, and in countries where there is an occurrence of other types of violence (Bennett, Manderson, Astbury, 2000; Gartner, 1990; Smutt, Miranda, 1998) In the 1994 genocide in Rwanda it was reported that between 250,000 and 500,000 women, or about 20% of women, were raped (De Brouwer, 2005). In 1992, during the five months of conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, about 20,000 – 50,000 women were raped (Ashford, Huet-Vaughn, 1997). In India, deaths attributable to dowry are estimated to be 15,000 per year and typically they are kitchen fires made to like an accident (Jethmalani, 1995). Close to half of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS are women. Social elements that lead to female exposure to HIV-1 include poverty, presence of gender inequality, cultural and sexual customs, violence and lack of education (Quinn, Overbaugh, 2005). Between twenty to seventy percent of women opened up about their abuse for the first time when they were interviewed for a survey by WHO and have not old anyone before that (WHO, Geneva, 2002). Recent studies have shown that there is no significant rise in the reported rape cases since 1990 (Wolitzky-Taylor, et. al., 2011). Keeping in mind these statistics it is no surprise that the feminist movement has emerged as a medium of social action against the oppression of women. Such atrocities against women are not a recent problem. What is remarkable is that such matters are finally receiving international attention due to the political power that women have acquired that we are now able to place the issue of accountability for gender-based cruelty on the international agenda. Women are taking advantage of opportunities, allocating resources, reconstructing social realities, envisioning a better, holistic and an overall more agreeable future and energizing a new generation of supporters (both female and male). Dissatisfaction among women is a reflection of evolutionary changes within the movement that aims for an integrated society. As is with all social movements, the women’s rights movement too has gone through many changes and reorganizations in its evolution due to climate changes, internal and external conflicts, changes in social values and philosophical progress. The records of the history of feminism are mentioned briefly and represented as an overall picture of the struggle. Many attempts were made to highlight the inequalities between the genders such as the work of 15th century writer Christine De Pizan, who was the first woman to write about the relationship of the sexes (Brown-Grant, 1999), 17th century writer, Margaret Cavendish, 18th century writer, Mary Wollstonecraft, who is often said to be the first feminist philosopher and the works of Jane Austen, that focused on the restricted lives of women of the former part of the century (McCarthy, 1994). Although efforts were made by women such as Caroline Norton, who helped in changing the situation of married women and child custody in England ((Yalom, 2002; Perkins, 1989) and Florence Nightingale, whose belief was that women had all the aptitude of men but they had none of the opportunities (Bostridge, 2008), 1848 was the year that marked the beginning of an organized Women’s Rights Movement. The first wave of feminism was between the 19th to the early 20th century. Here attention was given to issues such as women’s education, better working standards, right to vote and running for office. Women’s suffrage was extremely significant to the women’s rights movement as it eliminated the overtone of them as being second-class citizens (Cott, 1989). What came after is commonly known as second wave feminism and lasted for the duration of 1960s to 1980s. During this time issues such as gender inequalities and discriminations were brought into awareness (Freedman, 2003). The third wave of feminism commenced in the 1990s and emerged to resolve the criticism that second wave feminism received. It dealt with issues of queer politics, reproductive rights, inclusion of race related subjectivities of minority communities (Henry, 2004). It also addressed concerns for a global feminism where matters such as First World vs. Third World feminism, the intersectionality of gender repression and inter-subjugation based on gender, race, sexual preferences (homosexuality), class, nationality, etc., defining feminism, birth and population control, identifying the central aspects of feminism against the political aspects, the gap between researchers and the grass roots, female genital mutilation and the degree and extent of political concerns affecting women have received attention. Women’s Rights movement, as all social movements, evolved and adapted (and still is) to societal changes.

Cal Poly Pomona Call Strategy for Customer

Cal Poly Pomona Call Strategy for Customer.

I’m working on a marketing Presentation and need guidance to help me study.

Part 7—Preparing your call strategy for your customer
In this section you will learn to think through the solutions you will present to the client. Your job here is to do the research on
possible products/services to solve these problems. You can do this either by visiting the businesses that sell these products
or by searching the internet. In either case, you must provide prices for these solutions. You may not make up a
company to represent.
Once again, you may not represent a marketing firm, a consulting firm or an advertising agency.
You will type up the following in outline format as below. Your maximum length is two pages.
Cal Poly Pomona Call Strategy for Customer

Moraine Valley Community College Mobility Through Sport Discussion

cheap assignment writing service Moraine Valley Community College Mobility Through Sport Discussion.

For this assignment you must create a 400-600 word arrival review using a article and template(which I will provide).One paragraph should summarize the key concepts, thesis, and main focus of the article. A paragraph about the findings or what the article adds or contributes to our understanding of sports communication. And a paragraph of comments, insights, and implications that demonstrate your understanding of the article. Additionally, you will need to prepare 2 discussion questions about the topic or article that you can pose to the class before you share the article so the class can engage in discussion
Moraine Valley Community College Mobility Through Sport Discussion

Gender Norms and Equity Powerpoint Presentation

Gender Norms and Equity Powerpoint Presentation.

Make a powerpoint about the paper you wrote. Your slides must contain the following:Title SlideBackground SlideThis should introduce the topic and present what you’re specifically interested in understandingBody SlidesThese slides should give some thematic focus. You will give short summaries on the slides and lecture over them, going more in-depth to guide your audienceHypothesesSince you’ve read literature to help you understand your topic better, generate key hypotheses that you’d build from this literature.This highlights your ability to apply the literature you’ve read abstractlyConclusion SlideA summative point and idea on what you’d want to expand the literature toReferences SlideFull citations for all references in APA format
Gender Norms and Equity Powerpoint Presentation

Health Sciences homework help

Health Sciences homework help. i need an input of this program. ÿanything good or bad. ÿwhat could be changed, what you may like or dislike about it. ÿonly one paragraph.// newTetris.cpp : Defines the entry point for the console application.//#include “stdafx.h”#include #include #include #include #define GAME_INTERVAL 20#define DIR_DOWN 2#define DIR_LEFT 4#define DIR_RIGHT 6#define DIR_ROTATE 5using namespace std;class TetrisShape {public:char shapeArray[4][4];int shapeTopLeftX = 6;int shapeTopLeftY = 0;void populateShapeArray(int shape);void rotate();template void setShape(char(&shape)[rows][cols]);TetrisShape(int shape) { populateShapeArray(shape); };TetrisShape() {};};void TetrisShape::rotate() {char _shapeArray[4][4];_shapeArray[0][0] = shapeArray[0][3]; _shapeArray[1][0] = shapeArray[0][2]; _shapeArray[2][0] = shapeArray[0][1]; _shapeArray[3][0] = shapeArray[0][0];_shapeArray[0][1] = shapeArray[1][3]; _shapeArray[1][1] = shapeArray[1][2]; _shapeArray[2][1] = shapeArray[1][1]; _shapeArray[3][1] = shapeArray[1][0];_shapeArray[0][2] = shapeArray[2][3]; _shapeArray[1][2] = shapeArray[2][2]; _shapeArray[2][2] = shapeArray[2][1]; _shapeArray[3][2] = shapeArray[2][0];_shapeArray[0][3] = shapeArray[3][3]; _shapeArray[1][3] = shapeArray[3][2]; _shapeArray[2][3] = shapeArray[3][1]; _shapeArray[3][3] = shapeArray[3][0];for (int _x = 0; _x < 4; _x++) {for (int _y = 0; _y < 4; _y++) {shapeArray[_x][_y] = _shapeArray[_x][_y];}}}void TetrisShape::populateShapeArray(int shape) {switch (shape) {case 1:shapeArray[0][0] = ' '; shapeArray[1][0] = ' '; shapeArray[2][0] = ' '; shapeArray[3][0] = ' ';shapeArray[0][1] = ' '; shapeArray[1][1] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][1] = ' '; shapeArray[3][1] = ' ';shapeArray[0][2] = ' '; shapeArray[1][2] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][2] = ' '; shapeArray[3][2] = ' ';shapeArray[0][3] = ' '; shapeArray[1][3] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][3] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][3] = ' ';break;case 2:shapeArray[0][0] = ' '; shapeArray[1][0] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][0] = ' '; shapeArray[3][0] = ' ';shapeArray[0][1] = ' '; shapeArray[1][1] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][1] = ' '; shapeArray[3][1] = ' ';shapeArray[0][2] = ' '; shapeArray[1][2] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][2] = ' '; shapeArray[3][2] = ' ';shapeArray[0][3] = ' '; shapeArray[1][3] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][3] = ' '; shapeArray[3][3] = ' ';break;case 3:shapeArray[0][0] = ' '; shapeArray[1][0] = ' '; shapeArray[2][0] = ' '; shapeArray[3][0] = ' ';shapeArray[0][1] = ' '; shapeArray[1][1] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][1] = ' '; shapeArray[3][1] = ' ';shapeArray[0][2] = ' '; shapeArray[1][2] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][2] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][2] = ' ';shapeArray[0][3] = ' '; shapeArray[1][3] = ' '; shapeArray[2][3] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][3] = ' ';break;case 4:shapeArray[0][0] = ' '; shapeArray[1][0] = ' '; shapeArray[2][0] = ' '; shapeArray[3][0] = ' ';shapeArray[0][1] = ' '; shapeArray[1][1] = ' '; shapeArray[2][1] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][1] = ' ';shapeArray[0][2] = ' '; shapeArray[1][2] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][2] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][2] = ' ';shapeArray[0][3] = ' '; shapeArray[1][3] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][3] = ' '; shapeArray[3][3] = ' ';break;case 5:shapeArray[0][0] = ' '; shapeArray[1][0] = ' '; shapeArray[2][0] = ' '; shapeArray[3][0] = ' ';shapeArray[0][1] = ' '; shapeArray[1][1] = ' '; shapeArray[2][1] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][1] = ' ';shapeArray[0][2] = ' '; shapeArray[1][2] = ' '; shapeArray[2][2] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][2] = ' ';shapeArray[0][3] = ' '; shapeArray[1][3] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][3] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][3] = ' ';break;case 6:shapeArray[0][0] = ' '; shapeArray[1][0] = ' '; shapeArray[2][0] = ' '; shapeArray[3][0] = ' ';shapeArray[0][1] = ' '; shapeArray[1][1] = ' '; shapeArray[2][1] = ' '; shapeArray[3][1] = ' ';shapeArray[0][2] = ' '; shapeArray[1][2] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][2] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][2] = ' ';shapeArray[0][3] = ' '; shapeArray[1][3] = 'X'; shapeArray[2][3] = 'X'; shapeArray[3][3] = ' ';break;}}int score = 0;int currentShape = -1; ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ // this is going to represent the shape that is currently in play.bool isDropping = false; ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ // global that defines if a piece is currently falling - mainly for gameTick currentTick = 0;template void generateBucket(char(&bucket)[rows][cols]); ÿ ÿ ÿ // Creates a slightly pre-filled bucket.void generateShapeStream(); ÿ// Generate a stream of shapes.void dropShape(); ÿ ÿ ÿ // Draw the shape top/center.bool moveShape(int direction); ÿ ÿ ÿ // Move the shape in the spec. dir.template bool gameTick(char(&bucket)[rows][cols], char(&perm_bucket)[rows][cols]); ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ // Handles what is going on in the game every second.template void landShape(char(&bucket)[rows][cols]); ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ// What to do when the shape hits the bottom.template int checkScore(char(&bucket)[rows][cols], char(&perm_bucket)[rows][cols], int tempvar, int score);template void drawBucket(char(&bucket)[rows][cols]); ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ// Draws the current contents of the bucket.template bool canEnter(int direction, char(&bucket)[rows][cols]); ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ// Checks if the shape can enter the space it is trying to drop getUserInput(); ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ // gets the key pressed from the user.void setCursorTo(int x, int y);// Move the cursor to the appropriate positionint previousX = 6, previousY = 0;int shapes[256];template int check_bucket(char(&bucket)[rows][cols]);template void set_bucket(char(&bucket)[rows][cols], char(&perm_bucket)[rows][cols]);TetrisShape activeShape;int main() {// Two bucket arrays, one shown on the screen, the other with the permanent contents of the buckets (walls and any non-moving shapes)char bucket[12][25];int score = 0;int tempvar = 0;char _bucket[12][25];int shapes[256] = {};int shapeIndex = 0;bool gameOver = false;generateBucket(bucket);generateBucket(_bucket);generateShapeStream();drawBucket(bucket);while (!gameOver) {gameOver = gameTick(bucket, _bucket);Sleep(50);checkScore(bucket, _bucket, tempvar, score);cout [supanova_question]

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