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Impact of Ethics on Social Psychology Research

Do strict ethics make good research in social psychology impossible? Introduction A long-term argument have lasted for a long time about the ethics in psychology. Some call it protected the human right and some call it delayed the knowledge’s grow. The ethics in psychology are widely used in order to protect the public and express clear ethical principles (The British Psychological Society, 2009). But some may claim that the ethics make the research and experiment harder to process since it gives much pressure and limit to the experiment and these limitation may violated the spirit of science. Nowadays, the ethics are widely used and seen as the very first thing to consider about the experiment. But then, what is the definition of the ethics of psychology? From the British Psychological Society, the ethics of psychology are set as the highest standards of professionalism and it wants to provide the ethical standards to all. These ethics gives four main principles to all psychologist, which are: respect, competence, responsibility and integrity (The British Psychological Society, 2009). The American Psychological Association’s ethical principles is also one of the widely-used ethical principles. Within the code of conduct, the APA claimed that the ethics have to consider about 10 part, which is: resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keepings and fees, education and training, research and publication, assessment and therapy (American Psychological Association, 2010). Through these ethical principles, we can see some common part between these principles. They are both consider about the trust between experimenter and participants, harmless to the participants and representative. To give a brief define of ethics in psychological, it is a guide to every experimenter to consider if the experiment can meet these three points. The field of social psychology have risen at 20th century since more and more psychologists recognized an individual is born to have a society role (Lewin, 1939). The society role would form into difference group and there are particular behaviour within these group. The emotion, behaviour, morality and character within society from the group are the social psychologists consider about. The definition of social psychology is simple, it looks into the interaction between people and find the reason of people’s reaction. This psychology, addressed the social problem by observing the impact from group to individual and explore these impact by the influence and perception (R.Goethals, 2007). For now, the field of social psychology have been developed to study different aspect of society, such as career, religious, race. These aspect are important part of the society since every people should find their identity within these group and these group will affect their society role as well. For example, a butcher can also be a Buddhist and vegetarian at the same time and he may have different behaviour within these different field or group. He kill the animal, or at least he dismembered the animal body as his job, but he pray for the animal soul and is a vegetarian. The contradiction between the job, belief and regions is the social psychology consider about. Such behaviours, are affected by the group the people in. Within the ethics of psychology, the social psychologist have to beware of the process of the experiment. However, we all know there are many famous social psychology experiment are lack of the ethics support, for example Little Albert to Stanford Prison Experiment. These experiment are unethical but seem to give us enormous information and gain a place, no matter the reputation, in the social psychology field. Are these experiment showed us a ugly fact that ethics factors are getting in the way of finding the truth? No is my answer. The strict ethics do have their place within social psychology experiment and it is important for every social psychologist to consider at the first place. A strict code of ethics in experiment is important because it gives us a great representative and it protects the human right. These code show us the society’s advancement. Content A research gives us findings by doing different kind of experiment on the participants and observe the reaction from them. We can think that a good research should give us great findings and it must fulfils the aim of the research. But is it the only consideration of a good research? A researcher of a good research, for me, should beware they are also a human-being. The human right should apply on both researcher and participant. A researcher should not unscrupulously fulfil the aims of the research. They should remember a men never impose on others what they would not choose for yourself. From the professional level, a good research should have clear statement of research aims, clear instruction of research content, good methodology, an unbiased fashion, good resource and professional researcher (White, 2006). It is a government saying of good research. And from others opinions, a good research should tell the truth about the research, openly report the methods and results, do not steal others research, build the research in order and fair assessment of others research (Bengt Gustafsson, Goran Germeren and Bo Petersson, 2006). From these thought on good research, we can easily find that the common point on the definition of a good research. First, a good research should be conducted in a neat order. The research should has a clear aim and well methodology. Second, it should be widely open to the public and clearly introduce everything within the research. And third, it should be conduct in a fair environment. No one should be treat differently because of the race, religious, age, sex, etc. These point of the good research are both match the ethics of a research and it seems to make the argument of “ethics make a good social research impossible” to an end. But we have to consider some points of the argument. Violation of the sprite of the social science, getting in way of the research process and different explanations of ethics, these are the points that we should consider about. Social science, is a kind of science looking forward to find a breakthrough of human norm. It want to give us an advanced society and make us more willing to accept others. But the ethics code make it becomes complicated. For example, the most eyes-catching and shocking news would be the suffering of others. And “the chamber of despair” would be a great example of it. Dr. Harry Harlow conducted an experiment of isolation. By isolating some infant monkeys from its mothers, his team want to find out the isolation do to the monkey. The infant monkeys are both coming out the chamber with mental illness and never recover. The experiment show that the early isolation can make monkey, or even human, become lack of social skills and have no ability to learn these skill (Maggie, 2008). This experiment has given us a great result that isolation can do to a species. But this experiment have do serious damage to the monkey. The ethics of research actually to animals. By APA, the laboratory animals deserved well care and housing. Also, these animals should be treated as they are human being. The experimenter should use as least laboratory animals as possible and the species should suitable to the aims of the experiment (American Psychological Association, 2012). Within the experiment of infant monkey, we can see an important problem, which Dr. Harry Harlow never treat the infant monkey as human being but only some experiment subject. Although his team have already got enough information of isolation do to the monkey, they still keep the experiment going for a year. It does un-recoverable damage to the monkey. We all claimed that monkey and human are close relative and it is a good selection of experiment species, but it goes against the right of the animal. They actually have the right to grow in an appropriate environment. Some may claimed that human are the paragon of animals. Human have higher right than other species. “Some animal are more equal than others” – Animal Farm This famous quota has made a clear statement of these thought. Equal, is to provide a better environment, right to those who have less power. There are no “more equal” animal in the natural. Within the field of research and experiment, we have to prove an equal right environment to the laboratory animal since we have used to force, or their life, to find out the effect of an assumption. It is about doing no harm and build up a non-bias, equal place to the research participant. The public deception research are also one of the hot topic about research ethics. Take “Piliavin and Piliavin Experiment” as an example, this research was conducted duo to the violent crime of Kitty Genovese. Piliavin and Piliavin want to see if the public would help a drunk one in a more accurate way. Then they conducted a research that a one who act as drunk and observed about how many people are willing to help. In the result, most of the participants, who never know they were being observed, were willing to help the actor (Shuttleworth, 2009). It comes two research-ethics problem – the acknowledgement of the participants and the time base. The research conducted after the case of Kitty Genovese was widely reported and the citizen were afraid of someone was hurt duo to their ignorance to help. What more, the participants never found out they were being observed, which go against the ethics code that the participants have to be well-informed and participle at will. Both problem lead to ethic problem and accuracy problem. The researcher used deception to rise the accuracy but it goes against the ethics code of research. At first, we have to consider that “Is there another way to conduct the same research?” and “What will happen if the participants acknowledge they are being observed?”. It would be hard to the researcher to know the actual response if they informed the participant at the first place. The participants may think it is just a test and act differently. As researcher, it is not a result we want to see. The use of deception is hard to balance and we have to put effort to reduce the possible harm do to the participants. For now, most of the public deception research will give be given a debriefing to the participants to inform them they are being observed. The identity of the participants will not be wide-open to the public. And about the use of the deception, the researcher have to consider that “Can the use of deception is avoidable?” and “Is other reasonable method would be equally effective?” (University of California , 2014). Conclusion The strict ethics in social psychology is a long term agreement. The argument are mostly centre around the ethics do to the research and the correctness of the ethics. From content above, I would say that the ethics is important and it really helped to do a good research. Nowadays, the human right is followed with wide interest. The un-ethical research cannot gain great representative and it would be doubt about the accuracy. It is fact that the unethical research in past have given us great result in the field of social psychology. A good research is not only concern about the result, but also the exemplification of the human society. An advanced society should beware of the human right and the equality of every species at the first place. We know that the ethics code is not perfect and we know it has to be improve. We accept things cannot be avoided and look forward to do minimise harm to the participant and researcher. Using deception as the example, the deceptive techniques should be used in a very careful way. It can be only use when other method is not possible to be as effective equality and it should not cause psychology and physical damage to the participant (Behnke, 2009). We learn from the argument and we improve ourselves. It is the spirit of human society and social psychology – acceptation and will of norm breaking. We know that the strict ethics of psychology is only a guide line and we can follow it at own will. But the ethics do helped the researcher to conduct, to improve their research and make it a good research. We have to know, a good research is not only about great outcome and result, but also the will of improving human life. (2072 words) Reference American Psychological Association, 2010. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Second Edition Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association, 2012. Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Animals in Research, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Behnke, D. S., 2009. Reading the Ethics Code more deeply. Monitor on Psychology, 40(4), p. 66. Bengt Gustafsson, Goran Germeren and Bo Petersson, 2006. Good Research Pracitce – What is it?. First Edition Bromma: CM Digitaltryck. Lewin, K., 1939. Field Theory and Experiment in Social Psychology: Concepts and Methods. American Journal of Sociology, 6(44), pp. 868-896. Maggie, 2008. ListVerse. [Online] Available at: http://listverse.com/2008/09/07/top-10-unethical-psychological-experiments/ [Access date: 10 11 2014]. R.Goethals, G., 2007. A Century of Social PSychology: Individuals, ideas and investigations. In: M. A. H. a. J. Cooper, The Sage handbook of Social Psychology. London: SAGE Publications Ltd , pp. 3-19. Shuttleworth, M., 2009. Deception and Research. [Online] Available at: https://explorable.com/deception-and-research [Access: 10 11 2014]. The British Psychological Society, 2009. Code of Ethics and Conduct. First Edition Leicester: The British Psychological Society. University of California , 2014. CPHS HUIDELINE OF DECEPTION AND INCOMPLETE DISCLOSURE IN RESEARCH, Berkeley: University of California . White, T., 2006. Principles of Good Research and Research Proposal Guide, Richmond Upon Thames: Policy, Performance and Quality Assurance Unit of Richmond Upon Thames.

University of California Irvine Trauma Doctrine Cold War Era Discussion

University of California Irvine Trauma Doctrine Cold War Era Discussion.

A. Discussion Instructions:
After reading the Additional Learning Content page, write a post of 250 words or less that addresses 1 of the following 3 topics. Also, critically respond to 2 peers. One of these responses needs to be a topic different from your own. You will not be penalized for going over or under the word count. Content is more important than length. Please try to stay in the ballpark. Yours posts must be based on the reading and module only.
Your answers need to be primarily in your own words. Your answers must be based on the reading and module only. Be sure to include a Chicago Style footnote when using someone else’s words and ideas. A bibliography is not needed in this discussion. Use a quote as evidence in your answer. Do not use a quote alone as an answer; points will be deducted if you do. Be detailed in your answers. When you bring a point up explain the point thoroughly. Using an example is a good way to further clarify a point. Write in complete sentences. 
Topic 1:
a. Explain the Truman Doctrine. Why is this significant? What is its impact?
b. What were the major initiatives of Truman’s domestic policies? Be sure to explain the policies. Why were they created, and what did they accomplish? Why are they significant? 
 

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Read Chapter 23, with special attention to pages 707-709 “The Roots of Containment” and “The Truman Doctrine”, pages 718-722 “The Truman Presidency,” and “The Anticommunist Crusade” pages 722-732.

2. Read Documents 1 and 4, and learn a little about Jackie Robinson in the collection of images.

3. Answer 1 of the following 3 topics for this week’s discussion.

“As American as apple pie, baseball in the 1940s reflected the reality of racism in America: the sport was strictly desegregated, and only the white leagues were celebrated and glorified as “America’s national pastime.” There were Negro Leagues as well, in which some of the finest athletes played and in which black America took considerable enjoyment and pride, but they were not part of the national identity as were the so-called “Big Leagues.” In 1947, Jackie Robinson integrated perhaps the most important social institution in the nation. And he did it without fighting back at the taunts and physical assaults he endured in the process, including the famous spike from North Carolinian player Enos Slaughter, who created a seven-inch gash in Robinson’s leg. Between 1949 and 1954, Robinson hit for an average of .324, batting over .300 all six of those years. He was selected as the National League’s Most Valuable Player in 1949 and in 1955 helped lead the Brooklyn Dodgers to a World Series victory.

But Robinson’s job, his role in life, was not merely to be the best ballplayer he could be. His standing in the national spotlight provided an opportunity for the part of him that was a committed civil rights activist to shine. In a preview of what became known as Martin Luther King Jr.’s nonviolent direct action against oppression, Jackie Robinson maintained his cool in the face of angry and ugly behavior from baseball fans and fellow ballplayers. His skill on the field and his character on and off of it spoke volumes, and moved America. If the national pastime could become integrated, perhaps there was hope for America as a whole. As Robinson once said, “I’m ready to take the chance. Maybe I’m doing something for my race.” *

DOCUMENTS

Document 1 is a passage from a speech by former Brooklyn Dodgers owner Branch Rickey on breaking the color line and hiring the first Big League player of color, Jackie Robinson. This document provides a glimpse into one of the two key players involved in the historical event of the desegregation of baseball.

Document 2 is an image that reveals Jackie Robinson’s athletic prowess as a quarterback for UCLA.

Document 3 is footage of Jackie Robinson stealing a base, something he was famous for and a common element of play in the Negro Leagues of the time.

Document 4 is a link to the New York Times article from the day that Jackie Robinson was signed to play with the Brooklyn Dodgers.

Document 1

Branch Rickey, The Right Man On and Off the Field, 1956

Now I could talk at some length, of course, about the problem of hiring a Negro ballplayer after an experience of twenty-five years in St. Louis–where, at the end, I had no stock at all in the club and no Negro was permitted to buy his way into the grandstand during that entire period of my residence in St. Louis. The only place a Negro could witness a ballgame in St. Louis was to buy his way into the bleachers–the pavilion. With an experience of that kind in back of me, and having had sort of a “bringins up” that was a bit contrary to that regime–milieu, in St. Louis, I went to Brooklyn.

Within the first month in Brooklyn, I approached what I considered the number-one problem in the hiring of a Negro in professional baseball in this country. Now that is a story and that could be a fairly long speech. Namely–ownership. Ownership must be in line with you, and I was at that time an employee, not at that time a part-owner of the club. And when ownership was passed, then five other things presented themselves. This is not my speech. I am just giving you this as a preliminary. But I want to get out of the road of this thing, and have you say that– well, I wish he had talked about that thing.

The second thing was to find the right man as a player. I spent 25,000 dollars in all the Caribbean countries–in Puerto Rico, Cuba–employed two scouts, one for an entire year in Mexico, to find that the greatest Negro players were in our own country.

Then I had to get the right man off the field. I couldn’t come with a man to break down a tradition that had in it centered and concentrated all the prejudices of a great many people north and south unless he was good. He must justify himself upon the positive principle of merit. He must be a great player. I must not risk an excuse of trying to do something in the sociological field, or in the race field, just because of sort of a “holier than thou.” I must be sure that the man was good on the field, but more dangerous to me, at that time, and even now, is the wrong man off the field. It didn’t matter to me so much in choosing a man off the field that he was temperamental–righteously subject to resentments. I wanted a man of exceptional intelligence, a man who was able to grasp and control the responsibilities of himself to his race and could carry that load. That was the greatest danger point of all.

A man of exceptional courage, and exceptional intelligence, a man of basically fine character–when somebody, somewhere, thinks in terms of a local athletic club not playing some other club because of the presence on the squad of a man of color. I am thinking that if an exhibition game were to be played in these parts against a team on whose squad was Jackie Robinson–even leaving out all of the principles of fair play, all the elements of equality and citizenship, all the economic necessities connected with it, all the violations of the whole form and conceptions of our government from its beginning up to now–leave it all out of the picture, he would be depriving some of the citizens of his own community, some wonderful boys, from seeing an exhibition of skill and technique, and the great, beautiful, graciousness of a slide, the like of which they could not see from any other man in this country. And that’s not fair to a local constituency.

Character is a great thing to have in an athlete, a team. It’s a great thing. And when I wonder if there is any condonation, any explanation, anything that can be done to make an extenuating circumstance out of something that violates the right of a part of our citizenship throughout the country when I know that the Man of 1900 years ago spent His life and died for the sake of freedom–the right to come, to go, to see, to think, to believe, to act. It is to be understood, but it is too profoundly regretted.

Education is a slow process. It may solve it. It is inevitable that this thing comes to fruition. Too many forces are working fast. This so-called little Robinson– we call it the “Robinson Experiment”–tremendous as it will be for Jackie to have so placed himself in relation not only to his own people in this country, but to his whole generation and to all America that he will leave the mark of fine sportsmanship and fine character. That is something that he must guard carefully. He has a responsibility there.

This group here like this– these groups throughout America of all colors. That existence in this country will bring it about surely and faster than people know.

The recognition of the moral stature of all men, that all humans are equal. This thing of freedom has been bought at a great price. That all men are equal in the sight of God. That all laws must recognize that men are equal– all humans are equal by nature. The same pains, and the same joys, and in our country the same food, the same dress, the same religion, the same language, the same everything. And perhaps quite as questionable an ancestry civically in this country on the part of the black men as we can trace many of the forbearers in the white race of the other settlers of this country.

These things I mention will work, I think, in due time with a sureness that will make possibly the very next generation wonder and look back, with incredulity upon everything that was a problem to us today in this country, and will wonder what the issue was all about. I am completely color-blind. I know that America is–it’s been proven, Jackie–more interested in the grace of a man’s swing, in the dexterity of his cutting a base, and his speed afoot, in his scientific body control, in his excellence as a competitor on the field. America, wide and broad, and in Atlanta, and in Georgia, will become instantly more interested in those marvelous, beautiful qualities than they are in the pigmentation of a man’s skin.

Source: Excerpt from speech by Branch Rickey for the “One Hundred Percent Wrong Club” banquet, Atlanta, Georgia, January 20, 1956. Broadcast on WERD 860 AM radio.

(Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Branch Rickey Papers)

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/robinson/b…

Jackie Robinson as quarterback at UCLA; he was the college’s first student athlete to earn varsity letters in four different sports.

Source:

Document 3

Jackie Robinson Steals Home (video)

It was the first game of the 1955 World Series between the Dodgers and the Yankees. Trailing 6-4 in the top of the eighth inning with two outs, Jackie Robinson risks 270 feet of progress on the base paths with a daring steal of home, beating Whitey Ford’s pitch to the plate.

Access footage of Jackie Robinson stealing a base at

Document 4

New York Times, “Dodgers Purchase Robinson, First Negro in Modern Major League Baseball” by Louis Effrat, April 11, 1947

Jackie Robinson, 28-year-old infielder, yesterday became the first Negro to achieve major-league baseball status in modern times. His contract was purchased from the Montreal Royals of the International League by the Dodgers and he will be in Brooklyn uniform at Ebbets Field today, when the Brooks oppose the Yankees in the first of three exhibition games over the week-end.

A native of Georgia, Robinson won fame in baseball, football, basketball and track at the University of California at Los Angeles before entering the armed service as a private. He emerged a lieutenant in 1945 and in October of that year was signed to a Montreal contract. Robinson’s performances in the International League, which he led in batting last season with an average of .349, prompted President Branch Rickey of the Dodgers to promote Jackie.

The decision was made while Robinson was playing first base for Montreal against the Dodgers at Ebbets Field. Jackie was blanked at the plate and contributed little to his team’s 4-3 victory before 14,282 fans, but it was nevertheless a history-making day for the well-proportioned lad.

An Inopportune Moment

Jackie had just popped into a double-play, attempting to bunt in the fifth inning, when Arthur Mann, assistant to Rickey, appeared in the press box. He handed out a brief, typed announcement: “The Brooklyn Dodgers today purchased the contract of Jackie Roosevelt Robinson from the Montreal Royals.”

Robinson will appear at the Brooklyn offices this morning to sign a contract. Rickey does not anticipate any difficulty over terms.

According to the records, the last Negro to play in the majors was one Moses Fleetwood Walker, who caught for Toledo of the American Association when that circuit enjoyed major-league classification back in 1884.

The call for Robinson was no surprise. Most baseball persons had been expecting it. After all, he had proved his right to the opportunity by his extraordinary work in the AAA minor league, where he stole 40 bases and was the best defensive second baseman. He sparked the Royals to the pennant and the team went on to annex the little world series.

Robinson’s path in the immediate future may not be too smooth, however. He may run into antipathy from Southerners who form about 60 per cent of the league’s playing strength. In fact, it is rumored that a number of Dodgers expressed themselves unhappy at the possibility of having to play with Jackie.

Robinson is “Thrilled”

Jackie, himself, expects no trouble. He said he was “thrilled and it’s what I’ve been waiting for.” When his Montreal mates congratulated and wished him luck, Robinson answered: “Thanks, I need it.”

Whether Robinson will be used at first or second base is not known. That will depend upon the new manager, yet to be named by Rickey.

Rickey, in answer to a query, declared he did not expect trouble from other players, because of Robinson. “We are all agreed,” he said, “that Jackie is ready for the chance.”

Several thousand Negroes were in the stands at yesterday’s exhibition. When Robinson appeared for batting practice, he drew a warm and pleasant reception. Dixie Walker, quoted in 1945 as opposed to playing with Jackie, was booed on his first turn at bat. Walker answered with a resounding single. If, however, Robinson, is to make the grade, he will have to do better than he did against the Brooks. Against Ralph Branca, Jackie rolled meekly to the mound, walked and then popped an intended sacrifice bunt into a double play. At first base–a new position for him–he handled himself flawlessly, but did not have a difficult chance.

Source: Article found at http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0410.html

Topic 1:
a. Explain the Truman Doctrine. Why is this significant? What is its impact?

b. What were the major initiatives of Truman’s domestic policies? Be sure to explain the policies. Why were they created, and what did they accomplish? Why are they significant?

Topic 2:

a. According to Branch Rickey, what are the most important characteristics he needed in the first African-American baseball player (Document 1)?

b. Why do you think that Jackie Robinson’s character and actions off the field mattered so much more than the character and actions of white players (Document 4)?
c. Why is Jackie Robinson’s participation in Major League baseball significant, and what is the impact of his participation?

Topic 3:
a. What is the basis of the Cold War?

b. Why did America’s racial history and current status matter when it came to fighting the Cold War?

c. Watch the following video Cold War Effects on American Freedom (Links to an external site.). What is (Links to an external site.) the Cold War’s impact on American Freedom?

d. Watch the following video McCarthyism. (Links to an external site.) What limits were placed on American freedom?

University of California Irvine Trauma Doctrine Cold War Era Discussion

How to Managing Teams? Report (Assessment)

order essay cheap Table of Contents Definition of Critical Realism How to Measure Creativity Threats to Team Creativity References Definition of Critical Realism Critical realism came into existence as German philosophers attempted to deal with idealist philosophy that was common towards the end of the 18th century. It became popular among proponents of the American philosophy movement in 1916. The intention of introducing critical realism was to combine idealism with the perception that human beings could know the true nature of their world through new realism, which argued that the external world was not different from the way it appeared. Critical realism emerged in 1966, after Ian Barbour, a philosopher discussed theological and scientific realism (Clark, 2013). Critical realism has several major themes. The first one is that it acknowledges the presence of a reality that is not influenced by human perception and conception. The mechanisms that explain the reality affect what human beings observe. Naturally, the underlying mechanism is the natural laws whose effects are visible. Critical realism is also applicable in social contexts although it is difficult to make predictions. The involvement of human beings in the creation of social rules leads to constant changes. Critical realism provides a description of past or current events but does not create certainty about the future (Critical Realism, 2013). Critical realism is criticized since it is not clear whether experimental results can provide theories in a natural setting. Mere observation of particular results does not confirm that theories advanced in an attempt to explain what leads to the results are empirically accurate (Response to Critical Realism in Defense of Integral Theory, 2012). How to Measure Creativity There are different indicators that can be used to measure the creativity of an individual. The first indicator is inquisitiveness. An inquisitive person is a person who questions, investigates, explores, and challenges assumptions. Such a person does not accept things as they are told to him/her but goes ahead to look for the truth. The second indicator of a creative person is persistence (Mary, 2012). This refers to the ability to withstand difficult situations, tolerate uncertainty, and dare to do things that other people shy away from. A persistent person is not discouraged by small things but rather uses the experience to move on. The third indicator of a creative person is the imaginativeness. An imaginative person explores different possibilities, makes links, and uses intuition to try to understand complicated matters. The fourth indicator that can be used to measure creativity is the ability of an individual to collaborate with others. Collaboration involves making a product public, accepting feedback, and showing cooperating with different people (Nilsson, 2012). Threats to Team Creativity Team creativity is very important in any organization because it enhances business growth. However, it is threatened by the following factors. The first threat to team creativity is conformity. This occurs when members in a certain group have a feeling that other individuals in the same group might criticize their suggestions. It occurs despite the fact there are clear instructions that prevent such occurrences. The second threat to team creativity is production blocking. This interferes with team productivity in two major ways (James, 2003). The first way is that it disrupts the manner in which the idea generation is organized due to long delays. The second way through which production blocking interferes with team creativity is by reducing the freedom of generating ideas due to unpredictable delays. The third threat to creativity is performance matching. This occurs when team members match or equate their performance with the performance of an individual who is the least productive (Promoting Creativity, 2009). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Clark, A. (2013). Critical Realism. Web. Critical Realism. (2013). Web. Mary, R. (2012). Creativity and Innovation in the Workplace. Web. Nilsson, P. (2012). Four Ways to Measure Creativity. Web. Promoting Creativity. (2009). Web. Response to Critical Realism in Defense of Integral Theory. (2012). Web.

Population Growth and the Associated Concerns Proposal

Globally, the human history was not a great concern, especially to human population dynamics. This was as a result of a match between natural resources and human needs. However, around the XIX century, the untold millennia of human history was revealed due to socio-economic and environmental issues that begun to affect humanity both in positive and in negative ways. Global population in the XIX century was estimated to have reached the first billion. Scientist have calculated that the world population grows by one billion every twelve years (Does population growth impact climate change?, 2009). For example, the 20th century population was estimated to be 1.6 billion people, but at the dawn of the new millennium the population was about 6.1 billion. This was a huge increase, especially in the light of the fact that the replenishment of natural resources consumed by the population takes ages, not to mention the fact that some resources, such as crude oil, are non-renewable. Crude oil and coal in the 18th and 20th century were the main sources of energy, especially as the industrial revolution erupted in Europe and Asia, particularly, in United Kingdom and China (Does population growth impact climate change?, 2009). There were major social and economic benefits from the industrial revolution, including the rise of living standards, yet it took little time for the emergence of adverse environmental issues, such as air and water pollution, which led to policies and legislations formation to regulate the issues on a national and global level. Climate Change: Anticipating Drastic Consequences Climate in both the northern and the southern hemisphere had been relatively stable up until the end of the 20th century, when the issue of global warming emerged. Simultaneously, due to climate change over time, gradual cooling had been taking place up to the beginning of 20th century. Afterwards, universal average surface temperature of air moved to about 0.6 degrees Celsius (Earth is ‘committed to 0.6ºC of unavoidable warming, n. d.). Due to this climatic variation, the frequency of air frost has decreased in many areas. As a result of these changes, sub-tropics and tropics vegetation has been drying. Greenhouse gas concentration has become the key factor facilitating global warming. The latter, in its turn, is as a result of long rays from the sun being trapped in the Earth atmosphere after the short rays are refracted after hitting the earth due carbon concentrations brought about by anthropogenic activities, such as mining and transportation activities. The negative effects of global warming have been experienced in many countries, including Japan. Developed countries have devoted a range of conferences to the issue; for instance, Agenda 21 was adapted at the United Nations conference on Environment and Development in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro (UNO, n. d.) to apply the strategy of sustainable development at a national level. This was a major foot forward in helping developing countries design a strategy for management of the environment. Natural Hazards: What May Entail Major Problems Natural calamities are a result of geophysical activities, such as landslides, flooding, earthquakes and volcanic activities. Developed nations have invested in addressing this problem through involvement of geomorphologic activities in natural disaster field on local, regional and global levels (Alcántara-Ayala, 2002). Collaboration of the developed and the least developed nations to establish adequate strategies of risk management and assessment can be a pro-active measure to prevent from further instances of statewide natural disasters. The impacts of this international frame work have been taken worldwide/ since natural disasters continue to affect developing nations, such as Haiti, which was recently hit by the earthquake. Therefore, support and collaboration of healthcare units and the disaster management departments should be considered a top priority in every state, so that no major injuries could occur in case of a disaster. More to the point, it is important that further geomorphologic researches should be carried out to define the patterns of natural disasters occurrence. Reference List Alcántara-Ayala, I. (2002). Geomorphology, natural hazards, vulnerability and prevention of natural disasters in developing countries. Geomorphology, 47(2–4), 107–124. Web. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Does population growth impact climate change? (2009). Scientific American. Web. Earth is ‘committed to 0.6ºC of unavoidable warming (n. d.). Science Development Network. Web. UNO (n. d.). United Nations Conference on Environment

The Reciprocating Pump Engineering Essay

A pump is a mechanical device which helps to move fluids including liquids or gases. It is basically a hydraulic machine which converts the mechanical energy to the hydraulic energy. The hydraulic energy is been present in form of the pressure energy. There are various types of pumps such as positive displacement pumps, velocity pumps, Buoyancy pumps, Impulse pumps. The various different pumps are also been sub-classified in various other pumps. Positive Displacement pumps are one of the most commonly used pumps. They are sub-divided in to Reciprocating and Rotary pumps. Typical types of the Reciprocating pumps are Plunger pumps and Diaphragm Pumps. The “Plunger pump” is also known as Piston Pumps. The Reciprocating Pumps are highly efficient pumps which are even suitable for the very high heads at low flows. It is a self priming type of pump as it can draw the fluid from the level below the suction flange if the suction pipe is not evacuated. There should be a smooth flow required for achieving a good efficiency (Chinnuraj, 2009). The complete system is based on the design of the pump. The head of cylinder is been mounted with suction and discharge valves. The fluid enters the pump through the suction valve and goes out threw the discharge valve. In suction stroke, suction valve opens when the plunger retracts. The liquid gets pushes out of the discharge valve in the forward stroke. Reciprocating system has a pulsating discharge and it totally depend on the speed of the pump which can be easily altered. The intake of the fluid in the pump is always at a constant volume. They are often used for slurry and sludge. There are various different designs from rest of the pumps. The design containing single-acting motion discharges fluid from only one side of the piston. There is only one suction and discharge per revolution of the crank shaft. The other design is the double-acting piston design where the suction and the discharge occurs on the either side of the piston resulting in double suction and double discharge per revolution of crack shaft. Classification of PD Pump Positive Displacement pump are been classified as follows: Positive Displacement Pump Rotary Pump Single Rotor -Vane -Piston -Flexible -Member Screw -Simplex -Duplex -Triplex -Multiplex -Simplex -Duplex Double Acting Single Acting Diaphragm Piston Plunger Reciprocating Pump Simplex Multiplex Multi Rotor -Gear Lobe Circumferential Piston -Screw (Gates, 2010) Working Principle of Reciprocating Pump The working principle of the Reciprocating pump is very simple; it operates on the principle that a volume of liquid would be displaced by solid equal to its own volume. The mechanical energy is been converted in to the pressure energy and takes place due to the suction of the liquid into the cylinder in which the piston is having a reciprocating motion (linear motion-threw and fore). This exerts the thrust on the fluid and hydraulic energy gets increased gradually. In single acting reciprocating pumps, a single piston moves forward and backward in a closed tight cylinder. The linear motion of the piston in the cylinder is been given by connecting piston to the crank with the help of a connecting rod. An electric motor is been used to give motion to the crank and the rotary motion is been converted to the linear motion by the help of the connecting rod. The working principle is somewhat similar to the car engine’s where the piston has the same movement threw some similar kind of motions. In Reciprocating Pump, the suction valve allows the fluid to enter where as the discharge valve tends to discharge it from the cylinder (Chinnuraj, 2009). http://www.lcresources.com/resources/getstart/pump.gif Fig 01: Working Principle of Reciprocating Pump (Getting Started in HPLC, 2001) Types of Reciprocating Pumps The Reciprocating Pumps are usually classified as follows: Direct or Indirect acting Simplex (single) or duplex (double) Single acting or double acting High pressure or low pressure The direct acting pumps are one of the most common type of pump been used. It is been known so as in the particular design the pump rod is a direct extension of the piston rod in which the lower end is been directly connected to the piston in the cylinder. Single and Double action pumps is as mentioned earlier. Single action has a single suction and a single discharge per revolution and Double action pump has two suctions and discharges per revolution. Applications Reciprocating Pumps have a very large contribution to the society with plenty of uses. They are been used for no. of small and large applications including irrigation, chemical movement, sewage movement, flood control and marine applications and even many more. Designing factors like size and type of pump depends on the usage. They are been used in various purposes such as: High pressure jets: The purpose of pumps used is producing a direct high jet pressure of the fluid. The inlet flow is at a constant flow and pressure but the discharge at a high velocity and therefore results to high amount of pressure. Chemical Injection: The Reciprocating Pumps are even used in the chemical industry where they need to inject the chemical in a certain flow or pressure. It is been used at very high precise and accuracy Irrigation: The pump is usually used in farms and gardens to distribute water throughout equally and automatically without any sort of manual efforts. Sewage movement: The pump are been used to move the slurry or sewage material in a very easy and automatic way. The main advantage is the time constraint. It takes very less time as well as it is very cheap compared to other techniques. Marine application: The vast amount of usage is being the marine sector where they need to use water movement from one part to other through a pump. The pump is very easy and compact source of product which can be installed very easily and without any maintenance in future. In marine field pump is used for: Lubricating oil transfer Fuel oil transfer Auxiliary circulating and condensate. Domestic uses: Reciprocating pump is even used as domestic purposes. In olden days it was very common to use a hand pump which was a type of reciprocating pump with help of which we can pull the underground water for various purposes such as home usage, irrigation, construction, small scale industry and many more. Discharge and Pressure Characteristics The working principle and the characteristic is been keenly observed earlier. It is been very easy to analyse the discharge and pressure constraints of reciprocating pumps. The discharge of the reciprocating pump is not uniform and stable. The discharge characteristic depends on: Head flow of fluid Fluid density Speed of reciprocating piston Pump size and design The discharge is completely non-uniform and throttling. The pulsating property of the discharge fluid is seen. This is because the piston moves at a high velocity hitting the fluid out wards and the hitting of the piston is not a continuous act which can give a uniform pressure outlet. Despite of vital use, the reciprocating pump still encounter pulsating pressure which is been seen at the suction and discharge lines. This pulsating feature is result of the interaction between unstable flow of fluid and the dynamic characteristics of the fluid particles. Pressure pulsating in the suction line can lead to the cavitation, either in the line itself or in the cylinder chamber. If cavitation is been experienced at the start of the piston stroke than the piston loading and the crank assembly can fail. Because of all this factors it reduces the life of the pump and also affects the safety conditions (K A Edge, 1997) Pump Performance and Efficiency The head of flow against which the pump works is called total head, H. The total head of the pump is the energy imparted to the liquid by the pump. H = hd – hg Therefore, the effective head of a pump is expressed by the following equation: H = – ……………………………Equation 1 (Sorensen, 1969) This design principle of the pump work similarly as that of the turbines. The energy of supplied to the pump by the rotating shaft to move the piston inside the cylinder, in terms of bhp: Energy, e = = The capacity of the pump is proportional to its displacement per unit time, D. Assuming 100% of the hydraulic efficiency of the pump, the displacement of the pump is calculated. The displacement is the calculated capacity of pump which is proportional to: Cross-sectional area of piston, A Length of the stroke, S No. of cylinders, n Pump speed in rpm (gallons per minute) D = (A Ã- S Ã- n Ã- rpm) / 231 In case of double acting pumps, the cross sectional area is twice to be taken in to account from which the cross sectional area of piston rod (a) is subtracted. In double acting pumps, D = ((2A – a) Ã- S Ã- n Ã- rpm) / 231 The volumetric efficiency of the pump is expresses in terms of percentage. It is directly proportional to the ratio of the total discharge volume to piston displacement. The ratio (r) is equal to (c d)/d where: D = volume displaced by piston C = Additional volume between the discharge and suction valves. So it is clearly seen that smaller the ratio, the volumetric efficiency is tend to be better. Mathematically it is expressed as: VE = 1 – (P Ã- b Ã- r ) – S Where P is pressure B is the liquid compressibility factor R is volume ratio S is the slip. (Joe Evans, 2004) Losses in Reciprocating Pump There are various losses which are been encountered in the pump such as: Frictional losses Head losses Heat transfer losses The various losses occur due to the friction and the movement of the fluid. It depends on the head flow of fluid, density of the fluid, piston speed and the fluid suction capacity as well as discharge. There are lots of constraints been involved here, but it simply can be minimised but not 100% avoided. Advantages Easy in working Inexpensive Compact and Easy to install Low maintenance Works at high speed and at low power Disadvantages The major disadvantage of the reciprocating pump is that it has a discontinuous discharge flow which with variable pressure and hence it adversely affects the potential of the pump usage. There are various techniques been used to minimise the pulsating feature but it still tend to create problems. There are some technical ways used to minimise it by using sensors or throttle valves which keeps the discharge pressure uniform, but it does affect the overall flow and creates a kind of friction to the overall discharge pressure. Secondly, it has a disadvantage that it is prone to flow separation at the lowest pressure point in the system. The design of the system is such that this problem would be there and cannot be solved. The various different tries and practical experiments to minimise it would not work till the design is not thoroughly changed. In spite of all this disadvantages it is still a very useful product and widely used.