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Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Decision Making

Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Decision Making. Emotional Intelligence “Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic” (Higgs, Dulewicz, 2016). Emotional intelligence is a long terms process in which a person cannot become emotionally stable within a few days moreover it requires practice over and over again. Emotional Intelligence plays a vital role in leadership (Issah, 2018). An Ideal leader must be aware of their own emotions and should have control over them to an extent. The leader should also know their strengths as well as their weakness and should work over them in order to become a perfect leader. Daniel Goleman studies suggest that emotions are a crucial part of behavior and if not executed properly would lead to incorrect decisions. Emotional Intelligence is also an ability through which a person becomes more social and understand the emotional elements of others as well (Higgs, Dulewicz, 2016). Hence, we should try to become emotionally intelligent in order to succeed in life and achieve the goals we admire. The purpose of the following research paper is to answer the assignment questions provided to us by our professor Dr. Michele Vincenti. Another crucial aspect of this paper is for us is to understand how emotional intelligence has a significant role in everyday life. Hence, Dr. Michele Vincenti has made the questions in such an engaging manner that will enhance and enrich our knowledge and perception towards our own emotions and behavior as well as their effects on others. Q-1) Provide an explanation of the factors of Emotional Intelligence. Emotional Intelligence “Emotional intelligence can best be described as the ability to monitor one’s own and other people’s emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior”(Srivastava, 2013). It can be explained merely as a skill that identifies others as well as own emotions and evaluates them in order to gain knowledge of thoughts and behavior. Emotional Intelligence is composed of 5 factors Self-Awareness Self-Regulation Motivation Empathy for Others Social Skills Self-Awareness: It is the ability to recognize our own emotions and to evaluate in order to gain the benefits as well as limitations of those emotions (Daniel Goleman). In self-awareness, a person should be aware of their emotions. This is a vital step in order to gain emotional intelligence. This is because before we can make any changes in our behavior, we have to know how we behave? In certain situations, a person may act differently because they do not have the exact knowledge about their behavior. Once the knowledge about our strengths and limits are precise, we are more confident and a hence it helps us to be more assertive regarding our decision. However, it should not be confused with the fact that assertiveness means we are always correct but what it means is we tend to justify our decision based on our emotion. Daniel Goleman has divided Self Awareness into three more parts: Emotional Self Awareness: We should acknowledge our emotions and the possible effects they can have on our lives. Precise Self Awareness: We should be able to distinguish the benefits as well as the limitations of emotions on our behavior. Self-Assurance: We should be able to distinguish our self-esteem and abilities. These breakdown of self-awareness by Daniel Goleman helps to know what possible effects one can have on their behavior if they are not aware of their emotions and hence it becomes a necessity to know the limits as well as the benefits of our capabilities. Self-Regulation: The second step towards emotional intelligence is Self-Regulation. It is a process through which we regulate our emotions regarding responding towards the situation and other people behavior. To overcome this situation, one has to practice on his self-regulation. It is composed of 6 factors (Batool, 2013): Emotional Self-control: Controlling emotions. Trustworthiness: Being honest and making a decision based on values and beliefs. Flexibility: Being able to adjust when it comes to an understanding other people emotions. Optimism: Being able to see opportunity in a situation. Achievement: Developing ourselves in order to achieve our goals and aims. Initiative: Being able to take steps towards situation whenever required so. One has to overcome all these situations and grasp them in order to gain self-regulation. Without self-regulation, we cannot respond to a situation in the right manner. Social-Awareness: As the word explains itself that one needs to be aware of the society which means to evaluate and understand others needs and responding in that manner. To be more precise we need to understand other people’s needs to coordinate with them. According to Daniel Goleman, it is made up two factors(Batool, 2013): Empathy: Considering the needs of other people and their emotions. Organizational Awareness: Being aware of the organization itself, for example, the environment within the organization, behavior within the organization and whether they are affecting the employees. Motivation: It describes how motivated a person is and how they tend to motivate others. One should have motivation towards their goal and an achievement drive. Achievement drive is the commitment towards the achievement of goals. They should have a mentality of optimism which means they should be confident and full of encouragement when it comes to their future. Motivation can be intrinsic(internal) or extrinsic(external) and should be possessed in such a manner that the required is fulfilled (Batool, 2013). Relationship Management: The last factor that maintains a relationship with the management. In order to maintain a relationship, one must possess the needs of employees and understand their emotions in order to influence them to achieve goals. The influence should not be considered with a negative aspect, but it has to do with executing the right method to build a relationship (Batool, 2013). Q-2) Explain how each factor is linked to leadership effectiveness. Leadership Effectiveness can be defined as the process in which leaders influence the employees in such a manner that their motivation and trust is increased towards an organization along with an increase in effective productivity (Madanchian, Hussein, Noordin, Taherdoost, 2017). A leader plays a crucial role in balancing both the aspects of motivation and productivity within an organization. However, the crucial role comes with crucial skills. In order to balance out both the aspects, a leader must be well trained in skills. The five factors discussed above are closely related to effective leadership. There is a correlation between them and are discussed as followed: Self-Awareness and Leadership Linkage: In order to become an effective leader, the leader must be aware of their limitations and benefits. Leaders should eliminate all the possible limitations involved in self-awareness in order to achieve goals. They should present themselves as confident and honest in front of their subordinates in order to maintain a healthy relationship. If a leader is not aware of themselves, then it might lead them to the wrong path towards leadership and would disrupt them making a proper decision. If his own emotions overpower a leader, then they might not be effective. For instance, if a leader is suppressed by their emotions than the decisions that they make are always under the influence of their emotions. Self-Regulation and Leadership Linkage: Once we are more explicit about our own emotions, we can make better decisions. An effective leader must absorb all the information first and evaluate it by it in their perception. A leader must try to understand the emotions of their employees in order to attain a better relation. In a study of self-regulation in leaders states that leaders who tend to have self-control can make a valid decision. A leader must be adaptable with employees of different cultures and values. The emotions of a leader should not outweigh the situation itself. Motivation and Leadership Linkage: One of the key attributes in leadership. Motivation is directly proportional to employees satisfaction. An effective leader must motivate their employees in order to achieve organizational goals. If the employees are not motivated, they tend to put fewer efforts towards their work, and it directly affects the outcome of an organization. There are possible methods through which motivation can be tackled such as recognition of work of employees, rewards, appraisal or even verbal appreciation is enough to increase the motivation of the subordinates. It depends that how the employees are motivated by intrinsic factors such as appreciation or extrinsic factors by providing them some rewards. Empathy and Leadership Linkage: Empathy is the ability to understand the employee’s situation, needs, and feelings. Empathy tends to effects leadership if it is not executed correctly. It allows a leader to understand how their decision will affect their employees. Empathy cannot be gained in a single day, it all depends on small things a leader do to create that bond between him and the employees. Social Skills and Leadership Linkage: Social skills can be defined as the persuasion and essential skills that are necessary for an effective leader. Being an influential leader reads the emotions of employees and understands them to gain trust. In order to achieve that the leader must have the required communication skills where they must listen carefully to the employee’s feelings and convey their thoughts as well as feelings towards the same situation. Q-3) Investigate if emotional intelligence can be taught. If yes, then how; if no then why not. Emotional Intelligence can be taught. Some of the big universities in the World such as University of San Francisco, Trinity College Dublin, and Birmingham City University teach Emotional Intelligence as one of the subjects (University cite). As a part of the course, they teach their students with the help of group discussions, being social, helping out other students, and elaborating one’s strengths and limitations. According to these Universities, the students during these courses become more stable emotionally and tend to look at the world in a different way (University cite). The students are even put in situations where their behavior is monitored in order to obtain result’s whether they have control over their emotions or they overpowered by them. Those students also behave with a positive attitude in other classes amongst the other students. Hence, from these facts, we can conclude that Emotional Intelligence could be taught. Emotional Intelligence can be taught by putting them in social group and seeing them to get together, the reactions they produce and how they cooperate with them. I would support my answers with the following research and studies done about the teaching emotional intelligence. Recent studies by Child Development showed that Emotional Intelligence can be taught and leads to positive effects. The research was done by Child Development which involved 97000 students from Kindergarten to Middle School from the United States, United Kingdom, and Europe. These students were taught emotional intelligence for six months and assessed afterward. The result that they concluded were astonishing. The behavior of these students was positive not within the classroom only but also outside the classroom environment as well. Now comes the astonishing part of the results which was the students who took this course passed College at 11 percent higher rate than their peers who did not, and it did not stop there. The high school students who were taught Emotional Intelligence graduated from school with 6 percent more rate, arrest cases dropped by 19 percent among those who were taught and 3 percent less drug abuse and 13.5 percent less mental disorders. The data itself showcases the results that Emotional Intelligence can be taught and can bring positive results along with it (Taylor, Durlak, Weissberg, 2017). RULER is a school in the United States where they teach emotional intelligence to students from kindergarten to the eighth standard. The results that they show are surprising. The school faculty explains that just due to the teaching of this course has dropped the incidents of bullying, anxiety, mental disorders such as depression and has also increased their grades significantly(Grace, 2017). Another research that suggests that Emotional Intelligence can be taught took place in Holly Risk School (Defao, 2016). The research was conducted to show that teaching aspects of emotional intelligence can help students to emerge in social activities as well as perform better than other. The research applied to teach students emotional intelligence from kindergarten to ninth standard showed spectacular results. As the student tend to grow, they were aware of emotions about themselves as well as of other students. They respected other students and maintained a good relationship as well. The grades were also criteria that increased throughout the schooling, and they were more motivated than the other students. The program that the students were taught was Social and Emotional Learning (SEL). Hence, Yes Emotional Intelligence can be taught. I would support my answer with research done by Jaeger, where he noticed that Emotional Intelligence if taught in the right manner, can be accomplished. Jaeger research results displayed that students who were taught emotional intelligence possessed it in real life in comparison to students who were not taught (Jaegar, 2004). Another significant discovery that Jaegar did along with his colleague Kevin showed that emotional intelligence was directly related to improvement in their academic performance of those 864 students. The results that came out of the research amazed me that how that emotional intelligence is positively correlated to the academic performance of students (Jaegar, Kevin, 2007). However, it takes time to learn emotional intelligence, but the benefits that one gets are evergreen and significantly fascinating. Q-4) How would a person convince you that they had emotional intelligence (beyond tests). Without a test, it is quite difficult to convince me whether they have emotional intelligence or not. However, it is still possible. One of the methods of finding out whether they are emotionally intelligent or not is by using behavior as a predictor (Bejamin, 2010). Those behavior are as followed: They tend to remain calm when under pressure. It should not be confused with lack emotions but to be linked with that the person can regulate the emotions to an extent where they tend to stay calm. Emotional Intelligent people do not get defensive when we criticize them instead they look at the criticizing element as feedback in order to improve. They are keen listeners and analyzers before coming up to a conclusion. It directly relates to the fact that they will feed themselves with information provided by someone else they will try to digest it (analyze) and after that, they evaluate it to a conclusion. This tendency helps them to become a more critical thinker and more of emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent people care about other people perception and perspective. This brings in the concept of showing empathy and building a relationship. They are willing to admit they are wrong. Emotional intelligent people know their limitations and hence are not afraid of accepting it. This would not be enough for me to understand or be entirely convinced whether they are emotionally stable and hence I would have to ask them some specific follow-up questions and by their answers, I can conclude whether they had emotional intelligence or not. The questions that I will put up to them would be: What are you are goals in life and how will achieve them? In this question, I will test his motivation towards the achievement of his goals. For instance, if he wants to be physically fit in life than I will look forward if he tries to achieve all the factors related to being fit. Another component I would look for is whether he is persistent or not? Which would directly provide me an idea of how dedicated and committed he is towards his goals. If the commitment and dedication are high than according to my perception, he would be an emotionally intelligent person. Have you been a part of the company that you did know? How well did you manage to keep up with it? Is the person self-regulated or not. This question would help me understand that how well he tried to cooperate with an unknown company. Did he manage to do well by adapting to changes in the circumstances? From these answers, I will be aware of whether they are emotionally intelligent or not. Have you tried something and failed, what were the reasons? In this question, I will look forward to an answer where the person without hesitation will speak about their failures. In this scenario, I will look forward to whether he makes excuses regarding the failure and blames others. Even though external factors might be involved in the failure, I would still look forward to him being responsible and accepting his failure (Self-Recognition). Have you received negative feedback from someone and how did you feel during that time? In this case, the answer would describe whether that person is stable regarding emotions and their reactions towards negativity. If the response is something where the person asked the sender of negative feedback that what made them say that and later on improved in that particular area would convince me that he/she is emotionally stable. They do not react unnecessarily towards the situation and instead try to find out the cause of it so that they can improve (Self-Awareness). Have you asked for help while doing an assignment? An emotionally intelligent person would not be afraid to ask someone for help. This is theory where they know their weakness and are not afraid to showcase them explains how they want to improve as self-being. How was your relationship with the colleagues you last worked for? Asking this question would answer if the person has social skills and empathy towards other or not. If they answer that their relation at work previously was positive and they had good relations with the staff would lead me to believe that they can understand other person emotions as well (Social Skills). Conclusion The purpose of this paper was to enhance my knowledge and to be aware of the aspects of one’s emotions and behavior in decision making. At the beginning of the assignment, I was amazed to find out that how much I did not know about myself. The purpose of writing this assignment has significantly improved my perception towards myself as well as others. The first portion of the assignment helped me understand the factors related to emotional intelligence and followed by a relation between leadership and emotional intelligence as well as their effects on each other. The next portion of the assignment helped me to gain knowledge whether emotional intelligence can be taught or not. By doing some research (supporting with evidence) I came up with and conclusion that it can be taught and at some universities and school it is already being taught. The last portion of the paper includes how to understand whether someone is emotionally intelligent or not and what factors to look for in their behavior. References Jaeger, A. J.,Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Decision Making
The Post World War II Nuclear Arms Race Term Paper. Introduction The nuclear weapon is the most powerful and destructive weapon ever invented by mankind. This weapon played a role in ending the Second World War since the Japanese forces surrendered when atomic bombs were dropped on their cities. The impact of these bombs was devastating and mass casualties were experienced at the sites of the attacks. For the first time in history, the world was introduced to the nuclear bomb and its destructive capabilities. Following this spectacular display of the annihilating capability of the nuclear weapon, the major world powers saw nuclear armament as being integral to their military strength. Due to the immense military power that ownership of nuclear weapons gave to a particular country, the post WWII years were followed by a global nuclear arms race. The two main countries in competition for nuclear superiority were the US and the Soviet Union. This paper will set out to discuss the nuclear arms race with a focus on what caused this phenomenon and the impacts that it had. The Nuclear Bomb Research into nuclear weapons was conducted by scientists from the US during the 1930s. In 1939, the US government commissioned a project that was aimed at producing the world’s first atomic bomb. This project, known as the Manhattan Project took place with the support of Canada and the US and it was able to produce two types of atomic bombs utilizing uranium and plutonium. The first successful detonation of a nuclear device was the Trinity Test conducted on 16 July 1945 in New Mexico (Carnesale et al., 52). This test demonstrated that the nuclear bomb could be deployed in battle and the US President Harry S. Truman authorized the weapon’s use against Japan. In the years immediately following WWII, the US was the sole world nuclear superpower. This country had a monopoly on the knowledge of nuclear weapon production and it had already successfully tested its nuclear weapons and perfected its delivery system as could be witnessed from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. The US hoped to maintain its exclusivity as the only nuclear capable nation in the world. While the US and the Soviet Union had been allies during the war, they had great differences and the two countries did not trust each other. The adversity between the US and the Soviet Union began in the late 1940s and the US took steps to protect itself from any Soviet aggression. Carnesale et al. explain that by 1949, the US had a number of strategic bombers carrying targeting critical Soviet installations located in the UK (78). These bombers were equipped with nuclear warheads capable of causing significant damage to the Soviet Union. To counter US nuclear superiority, the Soviet Union maintained a strong military presence in Europe and its conventional army was capable of overwhelming the whole of Europe. Well aware of the superiority that nuclear weapons gave the US, the Soviets engaged in intensive efforts to develop their own nuclear weapons. These efforts were aided by reports from Soviet spies who had been following the progress of US scientists during the Manhattan Project. The Soviets achieved nuclear capability in 1949 and they demonstrated their capability by detonating a test bomb on August of the same year. This bomb, named “First Lightning” closely resembled the American bomb dropped on Nagasaki. These similarities were because the bomb was built using details obtained from the infamous nuclear spies Theodore Hall and Klaus Fuchs. This demonstration of Soviet nuclear capacity effectively started the nuclear arms race. Buzan and Herring explain that while the US was previously confident in its position as the global nuclear power, the advances by the Soviets proved that other nations were taking steps to develop nuclear weaponry (81). The Nuclear Arms Race Buzan and Herring define an arms race as “the most extreme manifestation of an arms dynamic between the militaries of different states” (81). For an arms race to occur there must be at least two parties engaged in a conscious rivalry with each other. In the post WWII years, the US and the Soviet Union were the main antagonists. The two powers were aware of each other’s nuclear ambitions and sought to outdo each other. The nuclear arms race began in full force following the detonation of the atomic bomb “First Lightning” by the Soviet Union (Carnesale et al. 77). This development brought the Soviets closer to matching the nuclear strength of the US. However, the Truman administration wanted to ensure that it was the major nuclear power in the world. Therefore, in response to the development of an Atomic bomb by the Soviet Union, the US administration approved research into the development of a hydrogen bomb in 1949 and increased funding for nuclear research and development. In 1952, the US had successfully created the powerful hydrogen bomb and this weapon was tested on November 1952. Another hydrogen bomb of a 14.8 megaton yield was made and tested by the US in 1954 firmly reinforcing the nuclear superiority of the US in the world. Up until the mid 1950s, the US nuclear superiority was unchallenged as the US demonstrated qualitative and quantitative superiority to its nearest rival, the Soviet Union. This unchallenged nuclear superiority status was offset in 1955 when the Soviet Union detonated a 1.6 megaton hydrogen bomb (Holloway 131). Before this detonation, the US had been the only nuclear weapon state in possession of the immensely powerful hydrogen bombs. Nuclear weapons started to take priority over conventional weapons from 1955. Before this period, the Soviet Union has relied on its conventional forces in Europe to counterbalance US military strength. However, the two sides started to increase their reliance on tactical nuclear weapons between 1955 and 1965. Tactical nuclear weapons were low-yield nuclear weapons that could be employed on the battlefield in relatively close proximity to friendly forces (French 199). The US administration hoped to reduce its military spending in Europe by using nuclear weapons in the European theatre as a deterrent to Soviet aggression. Tactical nuclear weapons presented the best means through which NATO could counter the Soviet’s superiority in conventional forces (Holloway 54). For the Soviets, tactical nuclear weapons would deter attacks from the US since deployment of these weapons would cause the destruction of Europe. In addition to this, the Soviet Union did not have the capability to successfully attack the US due to the geographical distance between the two countries and the strong air defenses implemented by the US. By 1965, Europe had thousands of tactical nuclear weapons, the majority of which were owned by NATO. Buzan and Herring state that NATO forces engaged in widespread use of nuclear artillery to strengthen its position in Europe (34). A variety of delivery systems including cannons and tanks were to be used to deliver the nuclear payloads. The smallest tactical nuclear weapons could be carried and delivered through recoilless rifles placed on light armored vehicles. By the end of the 1950s, there were a number of nuclear-capable tactical aircraft in operation all over Europe. In addition to the aircrafts, both sides introduced surface-to-surface missiles that could be used for tactical offence or defense purposes. Arms races are characterized by a competition in terms of weapon quantity with each party trying to outnumber other others. During the nuclear arms race, the nations involved were engaged in intense competition to increase their nuclear stockpiles and produce nuclear warheads. This was the case in the nuclear arms race with both super powers increasing their nuclear stockpiles with the aim of superseding the rival. At the peak of weapons proliferation, the USSR had 45,000 nuclear warheads while the US had about 30,000 nuclear warheads (Buzan and Herring 54). The countries also looked for the most effective ways of delivering their nuclear payloads to an enemy. The two major rivals in the nuclear arms race tried to obtain the same or higher technological capabilities to their rival. Holloway reveals that the Soviet Union looked for means to equal US qualitative advancement in nuclear weapon development (148). Each technological advancement demonstrated by the US was shortly followed by similar achievements by the Soviets ensuring that the two states were at equal power. For example, by 1965, the US had succeeded in successfully building and deploying an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) that was capable of delivering nuclear payloads to distant targets (Oelrich 81). This was a threat to the Soviet Union since it meant that the US could launch a nuclear warhead into Soviet States from the US. To counter this, the Soviets also set out to develop the same capabilities. The Soviet Union built rockets that could carry the heavier and less effective nuclear warheads in the Soviet stockpiles halfway around the world. An important note concerning the US-Soviet rivalry was that in addition to reacting to each other’s advancement, each superpower was also reacting to what it estimated that the other would do in the future (Buzan and Herring 95). This mutual suspicion led each nation to assume that its opponent was carrying out additional research and development in its nuclear weaponry. Impacts of the Arms Race The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty In two and a half decades after the end of the Second World War, the nuclear arms race had become so prevalent that the international community acknowledged that action needed to be taken to prevent future spread of nuclear weapons. To legally limit the proliferation of nuclear weapons and technology, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was established in 1968 and ratified in 1970 (Bluth 84). This treaty named the five nuclear capable countries of the time, which were the US, the Soviet Union, China, Britain, and France, as the primary owners of nuclear weapons and technology. The nuclear capable signatories of the NPT agreed not to sell weapons to the non-nuclear capable states. In addition to this, the treaty required the nuclear weapons states to avoid providing technical aid that could help the non-nuclear capable states to manufacture nuclear weapons. This would ensure that the nuclear weapons were restricted to only a few states. The other binding commitment of the NPT was to encourage nuclear disarmament (Bluth 88). The nuclear-weapon States were required to make positive steps towards reducing their nuclear weapons stockpiles and eventually achieve complete disarmament. The NPT recognized that nuclear technology could be used for peaceful means. This treaty therefore allowed for the transfer of nuclear technology and material among nations for use in peaceful purposes such as power generation. Deterrence The nuclear arms race was used for deterrence purposes by the two United States and the Soviet Union. After the Second World War, these two former allies emerged as the great global powers. However, the two had sharp political and ideological differences that made them bitter rivals. In the years following the Second World War, the US and its allies were pitted against the Soviet Union and its allies. The ideological conflict between the two led to threats of war and great antagonism between the Soviets and the Americans. The arsenal of nuclear weapons maintained by both the US and the Soviet Union ensured that the two superpowers were never engaged in a direct military confrontation since both powers were aware that such an action could lead to devastating losses (Oelrich 80). The arms race introduced the concept of “Mutual Assured Destruction”. Both the US and the Soviet Union had amassed nuclear weapons that were capable of completely destroying each other (French 56). An important strategy employed by both sides was the second strike capability. This capability meant that either side could strike back even after it had been hit by a devastating attack from the opposite side. As such, neither side could attack the other since each was assured that it would suffer catastrophic destruction even if it carried out a preemptive attack. Costs The nuclear arms race led to a monumental increase in the military expenditure of the US and the Soviet Union. The US increased its military spending to finance research and development into nuclear weapons and efficient delivery systems. By the year 1986, the US had a defense budget of $367 billion, a 200% increase from the previous decade (French 163). However, the military expenditure was low compared to the country’s GDP and Americans did not feel the negative economic impact of the nuclear weapons program. The Soviet Union was more affected by the financial strain caused by the arms race since the country had a lower GDP. In addition to this, the arms race strained the country’s economy since significant resources were dedicated to the Soviet military research at the expense of the civilian sector. Some scholars argue that the financial burden imposed by the nuclear arms race contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent end of the arms race (Kort 1973). This argument holds some merit considering the fact that the Soviets dedicated between 30 and 40% of their GDP to military efforts while the US only used 8 to 10%. This difference in economic costs made it hard for the Soviet Union to keep up with the US in the arms race. Decline in the Arms Race Haslam reveals that by the beginning of the 1960s, it was clear that the US and the Soviet had equal nuclear power (43). While the US has begun as the global nuclear leader, the Soviet has increased its weapons number and sophistication to match that of the US. Both sides realized that it would be important to stop or reduce the race of the arms race. In 1972, the first treaty aimed at limiting nuclear weapons was implemented. This treaty, known as the strategic arms limitations talks (SALT) put temporary limits on intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched missiles. It also imposed strict limits on defensive antiballistic missile systems. However, this treaty did not limit efforts at modernizing the available missile systems of both nations. As such, both countries continued to modernize their offensive missiles and developed missiles capable of carrying more than one nuclear warhead. Kort documents that these missiles known as MIRVs (multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles) rendered the SALT agreements ineffective since each country could still deliver missiles to numerous targets in spite of the limitation on delivery vehicles (1971). A second agreement, SALT II was proposed to address the inadequacies of the first treaty. The end of the arms race started with the appointment of Mikhail Gorbachev as the first secretary of the powerful Communist Part of the Soviet Union. This Soviet leader advocated for a reduction in the nuclear and conventional forces of the Soviet Union. Bluth reports that the Soviets made a series of concessions that led to the ratification of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) treaty, which required a large reduction in the nuclear stockpiles of the US and the Soviet Union (215). The treaty also called for an elimination of short and medium range nuclear missiles and this requirement was fulfilled in 1991 when both the US and the Soviet Union destroyed their arsenals. The end of the cold in 1991 war marked the end of the nuclear arms race that had been in play for almost four decades. With the dissolution of the USSR, the US was the dominant military power in the world. During the early 1990s, the US and the Soviet Union reduced their tactical nuclear weapons in Europe following the withdrawal of Russian troops from Eastern Europe (French 74). From then on, the US and Russia have engaged in a policy of continuous nuclear disarmament. Discussion In spite of the end of the Soviet Union and the Cold War, the US and Russia still retain a considerable number of nuclear weapons. Oelrich states that the two countries are capable of launching devastating nuclear attacks against each other (79). The primary reason for maintaining a nuclear arsenal in the post-Cold War era is deterrence. Oelrich agrees that the nuclear weapons are able to support broad deterrence objectives therefore ensuring that neither country takes aggressive military action against its rival (81). It can be assumed that nuclear weapons will continue to fulfill this role since as opposed to leading to a war, the nuclear arms race served as a substitute for war since none of the nuclear weapon states have every used their weapons against an adversary. Conclusion This paper set out to discuss the nuclear arms race that took place between the US and the Soviet Union after the Second World War. It began by highlighting the introduction of nuclear weapons into modern warfare by the US. The paper then showed how the Soviet Union made efforts to obtain nuclear capabilities during the first 5 years following the end of WWII. Following the acquisition of nuclear weapons by the Soviet Union, the US took measures to increase its nuclear superiority and this created the arms race. The paper has revealed that the nuclear arms race was aimed at increasing the global power of the nuclear weapons states and serve a deterrence purpose to the other arms race participants. The arms race came to an end following the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Even so, nuclear weapons continue to play a major role in the defense strategy of the US and Russia. Works Cited Bluth, Christopher. The Collapse of Soviet Military Power. London: Dartmouth Publishing Company Limited, 1995. Print. Buzan, Barry, and Herring Eric. The Arms Dynamic in World Politics. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998. Print. Carnesale, Albert, Paul Doty, Stanley Hoffman, Samuel Huntington and Scott Sagan. Living with Nuclear Weapons. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983. Print. French, David. Army, Empire, and Cold War: The British Army and Military Policy, 1945-1971. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012. Print. Haslam, Jonathan. The Soviet Union and the Politics of Nuclear Weapons in Europe, 1969-1987. London: MacMillan Press, 1989. Holloway, David. The Soviet Union and the Arms Race. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984. Kort, Michael. The Columbia Guide to the Cold War. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013. Print. Oelrich, Ivan. “The next step in arms control: Eliminate the counterforce mission.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 68.1 (2012): 79–85. Print. The Post World War II Nuclear Arms Race Term Paper

independent research project(using SAS and Excel)

independent research project(using SAS and Excel).

The Independent Research Project (IRP) is the main deliverable for earning the SAS Joint Academic Certificate in Data Analytics. For this project, you’ll use real-world data to make a business recommendation based on your analysis of the data.…The link is where i get my data, if you have any question about the data set, you can view must know how to use SAS Studio and Excel.please don’t plagiarism, it is very important for me.After finish this, I also have another some assignment based on this. I hope you can help me complete it later.
independent research project(using SAS and Excel)

How Safe Are Self-driving Cars?

order essay cheap How Safe Are Self-driving Cars?. Introduction Self-driving cars are a part of the broad spectrum of autonomous vehicles. These are vehicles in which very little to no human control is required to operate the vehicle. These vehicles have the capability to gather information about their surroundings using a combination of sensors such as sonar, computer vision, GPS, Lidar etc and software that enable them to control and navigate [1] the vehicle. In other words, these vehicles can exercise total autonomous behaviour; the power to make driving decisions like obstacle avoidance, lane departure, back up parking, collision warning [2] among others. It is worth noting that cars are manufactured to 6 different levels of autonomy as specified by the SAE international (Society of Automotive Engineers): Level 0(No automation): A person controls driving completely. Level 1(Driver assistance): In some driving modes the steering and braking are controlled but never all at once and the human driver needs to ready to take full control at any instant. Level 2(Partial assistance): Similarly, the car can handle steering, throttle and braking in some driving modes, but the driver must always stay alert. The driver still must be aware of the surrounding traffic and road conditions. Level 3(Conditional assistance): The car can do as mentioned above as well as change lanes and monitor surroundings. The driver is alerted if their intervention is required. Level 4(High automation): The car can drive itself with the driver on board. The car can monitor the surroundings perform functions (steering, throttling, braking and parking). There are moments when the driver can be inattentive. If the car is faced with a situation it cannot read the driver is requested. If the driver does not respond the car will handle the situation autonomously. Level 5(Full automation): The car requires no human intervention completely. The car needs not to be designed to the ‘conventional operational format’. These cars have no pedals, seats facing forwards or even a person within [3]. Level 5 cars are still at the conceptual stage at this moment in time. Level 4 and 5 cars are genuinely considered self-driving cars for instance Google’s self-driving vehicle Waymo. This report will take a focus on this end of the broader spectrum of autonomous vehicles with a deeper look on the safety aspects involved. Then truly consider whether these cars can truly pose no threat to human lives and even take a step forward in the other direction in reducing present road accidents. How safe are self-driving cars? According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration “94 percent of serious crashes are brought about by human error” [4] and fatal crashes occur about “once for every 3.3million hours of driving” [5]. Self-driving vehicles have the capacity to bring an end to this statistic or at least limit it, reducing the numbers of those injured or killed. Main Safety Features Therefore, there are several safeties features as shown in fig 1.1 that self-driving cars by virtue of their design have that aim to curb this statistic: Lane Keep assist: This ensures that the car stays at the centre of the road. It often involves a system of cameras that are designed to read the lane markings to ensure that the car stays on the desired path. If the driver starts drifting out of the lane warning systems are triggered [6]. To ensure satisfactory lane keeping performance the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is implemented. The ADRC can process real data on vehicle uncertainties and disturbances. Successfully managing to keep the car in lane with a “maximum lateral offset of 0.1m” [7]. Cruise control: This ensures that the car is at a safe constant distance to the car ahead. It involves the use radar technology whereby reflected microwaves allow for the speed and location of nearby vehicles to be computed [8]. Active park assist: This makes use of ultrasound waves as illustrated in fig 1.0 below. The sound waves reflected of the nearby surfaces allows for the cars distance to them to be registered [8]. This feature means that the car can be able to park itself whilst the driver remains free handed. Simply put, the car has incredibly accurate sensors fitted on both sides. That can detect a parking spot that can even be as small as “1.2 times the car length”. The onboard computer system can precisely determine the steering turn angle required allowing the car to manoeuvre into the spot at first attempt. This lessens the period for which the car obstructs oncoming traffic [9]. Emergency braking: Involves a system of cameras that can judge distances to surrounding obstacles pedestrians, vehicles, physical structures etc. The car automatically activates the brakes if a collision danger is intercepted [6]. Adaptive Front Lighting: They illuminate the road in front and on the side in a desired illumination pattern depending on the cars speed to maximize night-time visibility. For example, at high speeds the beam pattern longer and narrower to see further [10]. Fig 1.0 Assist park technology Fig.1.1 Illustration of the main safety features of a self driving car Software Failure Despite all these technical features put in place automated systems still have the potential for failure and even a delayed software response by a fraction of a second on a highway can be life threatening [5]. For example, when a self-driving uber struck and killed a pedestrian. Even though the car had been fitted with cameras, LIDAR, navigation sensors and a computing unit. The pedestrian couldn’t be detected until a second after collision. On the other hand, there have also been cases of plastic bags flying by and triggering the car to break [13]. Furthermore, there are a host other problem raised by self-driving cars: multiple sensors with conflicting information, weather that can impair the visibility of the sensors by reducing their range and accuracy, vulnerability to hacking of even the most rudimentary levels [14]. Conclusion Consequently, the state of technology regarding self-driving cars indicates that decades of long research is still needed before launching a level 5 car. This involves research in different fields, for example, computer science, cognitive science, psychology etc. As “It involves not looking-in but also looking-out of a vehicle.” [15] Breakthroughs are needed in software engineering to ensure that the cars can handle the complex everchanging road conditions by making decisions within fractions of a second. Ultimately to safeguard human lives. Seemingly this is a great task that foretells huge expenses. Reference List [1] Union of Concerned Scientists, Self-Driving cars explained, 03/18. [Online] Available from: [Accessed 22/10/18] [2] K. A. Redmill, T. Acarman, and Ü. Özgüner, Autonomous Ground Vehicles, London: Artech House, 2011 [3] M.May, “The 6 levels of self-driving car- and what they mean for motorists”, the, Sept. 18,2018.[Online], Available from: [4] Anonymous, “Self-driving cars raise safety, ethical concerns,” University Wire, May. 10, 2018. [Online], Available from: [5] S. Shaldover, “The truth about “Self-Driving cars,” vol.314, pp. 52-57, Jun 2016. [6] S. Huntington, “What are the safety features in autonomous cars”, Automative iq, Jan.23, 2018.[Online], Available from: [7] Z. Chu, Y. Sun, C. Wu, N. Sepheri, “Active disturbance rejection control applied to automated steering for lane keeping in autonomous vehicles,” Control of Engineering Practice, vol.74, pp.13-21, May 2018. [8] H. Fountain, “Yes, driverless cars know the way to san jose,” New York Times Oct.28,2012.[Online], Available from: [9] Expert Reviews staff, Active park assist, Expert reviews, 04/2011. [Online] Available from: [10] R. Bishop, Intelligent Vehicle Technology and Trends, London: Artech House, 2005. [11] The Economist, How does a Self-driving car work [Online image], 2015. Available from: [Accessed 23/10/2018] [12], Car parking technology [Online image], 2016. Available from: [Accessed 23/10/2018] [13] S. Parker, “Self-driving Uber vehicle that struck woman in Tempe was not programmed to brake,” University Wire, Jun.1, 2018. [Online], Available from: [14] O. Salon, “Why self-driving cars aren’t safe yet: rains, roadworks and other obstacles,” The Guardian, Jul.5, 2016. [Online], Available from: [15] C. Hong, Autonomous intelligent vehicles: theory, algorithms and implementation, London: Springer, 2011. How Safe Are Self-driving Cars?

Design Of Steel And Structure Engineering Essay

A plate girder bridge is a bridge supported by two or more plate girders. The plate girders are typically I-beams made up from separate structural steel plates (rather than rolled as a single cross-section), which are welded or, in older bridges, bolted or riveted together to form the vertical web and horizontal flanges of the beam. In some cases, the plate girders may be formed in a Z-shape rather than I-shape. The first tubular wrought iron plate girder bridge was built in 1846-47 by James Millholland for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.[1] Plate girder bridges are suitable for short to medium spans and may support railroads, highways or other traffic. Plate girders are usually prefabricated, and the length limit is frequently set by the mode of transportation used to move the girder from the bridge shop to the bridge site.[2] Anatomy of a plate girder. Generally, the depth of the girder is no less than 1/15 the span, and for a given load bearing capacity, a depth of around 1/12 the span minimizes the weight of the girder. Stresses on the flanges near the centre of the span are greater than near the end of the span, so the top and bottom flange plates are frequently reinforced in the middle portion of the span. Vertical stiffeners prevent the web plate from buckling under shear stresses. These are typically uniformly spaced along the girder with additional stiffeners over the supports and wherever the bridge supports concentrated loads. Contents Description Page # Introduction 05 Plate Girders Concept 07 Elements of Plate Girder 09 Depth of Plate Girder 09 Non-Compact Web Plate Girders 09 Slender Web Plate Girders 11 Homogenous Plate Girder in Bending

2. Create an APA title page entitled Staffing PowerPoint Presentation Slide 1 3. Put only 1 question on each slide Essay

2. Create an APA title page entitled Staffing PowerPoint Presentation Slide 1 3. Put only 1 question on each slide with the correct answer or answers Slides 2-19 4. Create a reference page entitled References Slide 20 5. You should have a total of 20 slides 6. Each slide should contain 1 question and the correct answer 7. Your presentation should be in black and white only and use an Arial #18 font throughout 8. Use no special features 9. Use no music 10. Spell check your slide 11. Each slide will be graded as either correct or incorrect 12. Correct will be given a score of 6.25 points 13. Incorrect will be given a score of 0 14. 20 slides at 5 points each for a total score of 125 points

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