In this essay I will discuss and argue how each concept works according to various theorists and how they work in shaping the individual habitus. A stereotype is a group concept that is usually negative and judgmental in nature. A Stereotype describes a group with certain personality traits and inhibits a more open and reflective understanding about the diversity among any given social group (Perkins 1997). Stereotypes work because they re-present a view in reality that we all recognize, otherwise they would fail to work as stereotypes (Lacey 2009).
In today’s society most people believe everything they hear, and categorize people based on false standards that religion, the media and the government have given them and told them is right. Gender and racial inequalities, for example, are socially constructed and it is something we are automatically born into. Breaking away from this to create any form of change is considered not normal and ‘out of character’. This further encourages the molds of stereotypes as everything you do and everything you see others do can be categorized under any particular label whether it because of their gender, race, religion, class, sexuality or age.
Stereotypes whether negative or positive help shape the individual habitus as they are the activation or encouraged thoughts about particular types of groups or specific ways of doing things from the view of society. According to Bourdier stereotypes have a real danger in creating a more of less long-term individual habitus. (Lane, Dr. Karen 2013) The habitus may be positive or negative. When it is negative and constantly reinforced through popular images of stereotypes we delimit people’s life chances drastically and unfairly.
When discussing discourse French philosopher and social theorist Michel Foucault stated that the idea refers to the production of knowledge through language which gives bounded meanings to material objects and social practices (McCorkle, N. Angela, 2013) In more detail discoures are groups of statements comprising language that represents knowledge about a topic and involve the individual analyzing context (historical and social forces) plus text (discourses embedded in programs) and audience reception.
Discourses create different meanings and change realities for different people in time and over time. For example the way we picture the role of the family unit and what we believe to be true. (Lane, Dr. Karen, 2013) they regulate what can be said, who can say it and when and where they are allowed to. (Lane, Dr. Karen, 2013) Discourse works similarly to stereotypes as whoever has the power creates the knowledge. With Stereotypes the group who creates them has the power and we as the individual re-present the stereotypes as we recognize them (Lane, Dr.
Karen, 2013). The way discourse works in shaping the individual habitus is evident in channel 10’s program The Biggest Loser. The Biggest loser places a large emphasis on the discourse that people are unable to be happy if they are extremely overweight. According Oullette and Hay, shows like the biggest loser (and any other program based on changing individual’s lifestyles) work by shift blame from the concept of ‘political government intervention’ to a ‘government of the self’ (Ouellette, L. amp; Hay, J, 2008) Ideology is basically a system of meaning that helps define and explain the world and that makes value judgements about the world (Croteau, David, Hoynes, William, Milan, Stefania, 2012). Ideology is related to but broader then concepts such as world-view, belief system and values. Ideologies do not necessarily reflect reality accurately but often they present a distorted version of the world. (Croteau, David, Hoynes, William, Milan, Stefania, 2012).
Karl Marx believes that the ruling class control ideology and used a trick to create an illusion of fairness and harmony (Lane, Dr. Karen, 2013) This plainly brings into question human agency and free will however one can argue that those influenced still have the ability to change it (Lane, Dr. Karen, 2013). Italian theorist Antonio Gramsci argued that cultural domination is never fully achieved and that audience awareness is evident but again cultural domination is always in contention (Lane, Dr.
Karen, 2013) Gramscian thesis of Hegemony also argued that ruling groups can maintain their power through force, consent, or a combination of the two (Croteau, David, Hoynes, William, Milan, Stefania, 2012) Hegemony is not simply about ideological domination (one groups belief are imposed on another) but rather it operates at the level of common sense about the assumption made about social life and what individuals believe to be natural (Croteau, David, Hoynes, William, Milan, Stefania, 2012) Stereotypes are related to ideologies as they are both seen as not reflecting reality accurately.
Being ideological is adhering to ones beliefs in the face of the overwhelming contradictory. Making a stereotype is a generalization therefore there is always contradicting evidence. However discourse is the opposite as it is language and language is reality. I would argue, based on Marxist theory that the way the individual habitus is shaped by ideology is that individuals will conform to the beliefs and all things ‘natural’ according to the group with the most power. Their ideas, thoughts and actions will be controlled by the dominant ideology. This creates less individuality and more agreement in view and opinion in society.
However according to Gramsci’s theory of Hegemony operating on the level of common sense audiences are not easily or always convinced that the system operates in their best interests. Ultimately, therefore, he believed that audiences exercise agency (Lane, Dr. Karen, 2013). Therefore the individual habitus is shaped through self-awareness and self understanding and personal opinions therefore it allows more room for freedom thinking creating more ideas and more individuality. O’Shaughnessy and Jane Stadler define the narrative as a ‘basic way of making sense of our experience. ’ Generally speaking, we, as human beings, tend to hink of all of our experiences through narrative (O’Shaughnessy, M. and Stadler, J. 2008). Levi Strauss, a French anthropologist, believed the way we understood certain words depends not so much on any meaning they themselves directly contain, but more by our understanding of the difference between the word and its binary opposites. (Minns, Lauren, 2012) Many films in society today contain binary opposite. Binary opposites is a means of cultural classification that splits the world into sets of dualistic opposing categories such as good versus evil, insane versus sane and human versus supernatural. (O’Shaughnessy, M. nd Stadler, J. 2008) Strauss believed that binary oppositions tied in with Dominant ideology. Dominant ideology is the set of common values and beliefs shared by most people in a given society, framing how the majority think about a range of topics (Tidswell, Corey, 2010) Point of view, the positions cameras take and whose viewpoint they show the viewer (O’Shaughnessy, M. and Stadler, J. 2008), dominant discourses and hierarchy of discourses. Another theorist Tzevan Todorov believed there to be 5 stages of Narrative sequence. The first sequence is where the narrative begins and that’s equilibrium, everything is happy and safe.
The next stage is disruption; an event happens that creates tension. Realization is when the characters realize the problem and try to fix it. Restoration in the next stage and this is when the problem or event is solved and equilibrium is again restored, therefore the film has a happy ending (Healey, Elizabeth,2011). The film the Dark Night is a perfect example of both Strauss theory of Narrative and Todorov’s theory of narrative. The story follows Todorov’s theory beginning with equilibrium, then disruption followed by realization and restoration of equilibrium.
The Dark Knight is riddled with a number of social issues and binary oppositions. Good versus evil is an obvious opposition, as is the hierarchy of discourses dealing with, firstly, gender roles and, secondly, stereotyping. Thus, the dominant ideology in the film is that men are dominant gender. From the point of view of a number of characters, The Dark Night is centered on and framed through Batman himself. Over the course of the film Batman grows from a disheveled former super hero back to his original powerful, evil slaying self, a grown and more empowered man.
In the end Cat-woman, a female is also a hero, thus reinforcing the notion feminism is still a necessity. According to Todorov’s theory individual habitus can be shaped by the way a person interprets their individual narrative. When they are happy something might go wrong therefore according to Todorov they will subconsciously follow the stages of theory or chain of events until their equilibrium is restored. I could argue also that when considering Strauss theory the way and indviduals life will lead is based on experience. The outcome they wish attain will be learnt through past events and learning from mistakes.
The media are implicated as central actors through the spoken word, through pictures, through sound, lighting, bodily gestures and movements, clothing and appearances. Al of these are languages because they all create meaning and ideas. Individual habitus will always be shaped by component of mass media such as narrative, ideologies, discourse and stereotypes. Whether the habitus is shaped negatively or positively it will still be shaped. According to Strauss our independent habitus will be shaped by passed experiences, and Todorov believes our idea of what should happen will determine our habitus.
I have also argued how according to Foucault dominant Discourses will always shape the individual habitus through playing on the emotions of viewers and using governing policies to attain particular messages. Stereotypes will continue to shape individual habitus until people stop conforming to them whether they be negative or positive. Marxist theory of ideology allows for the independent shaping of habitus. This helps create more individuality among society. However in saying that society is difficult to shape when not everyone is participating to do so. References: *Barker,Chris. 007, ‘Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice’ SAGE publications, 18th May 2013 <http://reader. eblib. com. au. ezproxy-f. deakin. edu. au/(S(vyyzj4mv4f1x5x2hqivzbt5r))/Reader. aspx? p=585413&o=154&u=VUfJjDoccCISHJL9tmIPg&t=1369692183&h=4124B759F7B13440AD90DBAD29E56F710465A7AF&s=8810865&ut=484&pg=115&r=img&c=-1&pat=n#> Bourdieu, P,1992, ‘The logic of practice’, Polity Press, Cambridge *Croteau,David, Hoynes, William, Milan, Stefania, 2012, Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences, SAGE Publications Inc. , California.
Healey, Elizabeth, 2011, Narrative; Tzvetan Todorov’s Theory, Heathenmedia, May 27 20133, < http://heathenmedia. co. uk/radiostar/2011/10/31/narrative-tzvetan-todorovs-theory/> Laberge, S,1995, ‘Toward an interpretation of gender into Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 131–146 *Lacey, N. 2009, Image and Representation: Key Concepts in Media Studies, Second Edition, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan. *Lane, Dr. Karen, 2013,Topic 4: Discourse Analysis, Deakin University, May 27th 2013 <https://d2l. deakin. edu. au/d2l/le/content/176579/viewContent/1731294/View> *Lane, Dr.
Karen, 2013, Topic 2: Film and Television Narratives, Deakin University, May 17th 2013, <https://d2l. deakin. edu. au/d2l/le/content/176579/viewContent/1731292/View> *Lane, Dr. Karen, 2013, Topic 3: Ideology, Deakin University, May 27th 2013 <https://d2l. deakin. edu. au/d2l/le/content/176579/viewContent/1731293/View> *Lane, Dr. Karen, 2013 Topic 1: Media Representation, Deakin University, may 28th 2013, < https://d2l. deakin. edu. au/d2l/le/content/176579/viewContent/1731291/View> McCorkle, N, Angela, 2013, Discourse, retrieved 28th May 2013, < http://quizlet. com/20943972/subjectivity-and-representation-flash-cards/>
Minns, Lauren, 2012, Strauss Binary Opposites, Lauren Minns, May 27th 2013 <http://www. slideshare. net/laurenminns/strauss-binary-opposites#> Noble, G, & Watkins, M. 2003, ‘So, how did Bourdieu learn to play tennis? Habitus, consciousness and habituation. ’ Cultural Studies, vol. 17, Issue 4, p520-538. *O’Shaughnessy, M. and Stadler, J. 2008, ‘Narrative structures and binary oppositions’, Media and Society, 4th edition, south Melbourne, Oxford University Press *Ouellette, L. & Hay, J, 2008, ‘Makeover television, governmentality and the good citizen. ’ Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, Vol. 2 Issue 4, p471-484, 14p *Perkins, T. 1997, ‘Rethinking Stereotypes’ in O’Sullivan T. and Jewkes Y. (eds), The Media Studies Reader, London, Hodder Arnold. Shilling, C, 1993, ‘The body and social theory’ Sage publications Inc, California Tidswell, Corey, 2010, A2 Media Practical, May 27th 2013 <http://a2mediacorytidswell. blogspot. com. au/2010/10/narrative-theories-levi-strauss-binary. html> Wysocka, Paulina, 2013, ‘Gender Inequality and Stereotypes’ May 18th 2013, <http://uicsocialtheory. weebly. com/12/post/2013/04/gender-inequality-and-stereotypes-paulina-wysocka. html> http://socialpopblog. wordpress. com/about/
Description In this writing assignment you will first give a clearly and briefly developed articulation of your interpretation of Jenson’s doctrine of God. Who/what is God, and/or what is God like, in the theology of Robert Jenson? On the basis of your interpretation of his doctrine of God, you’re to offer an interpretation of Jenson’s overall theological system. How are Jenson’s interpretations of other theological topics best interpreted or seen in light of his doctrine of God? A list of possible topics to handle runs as follows: creation, the human person as image of God, prayer, sin, salvation, church, Eucharist, gospel. Your paper should offer an interpretation of sin, salvation, and at least two other topics of your choice.
Essay Help “>Essay Help