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Idea Of What Is Normal Psychology Essay

To be able to categorize and label something as an illness, ailment or an abnormality we first must consider what ‘normal’ behaviour is and how it can be defined. The dictionary states that normal is ‘conforming to the standard or the common type; usual; not abnormal; regular; natural’. As can be seen, the definition of normal itself is very vague, ambiguous and open to interpretation therefore labelling behaviour as abnormal should be a very delicate, complex procedure. Labelling someone as ‘abnormal’ is potentially a life changing experience and the stigma attached could be detrimental to the individual. Psychologists take this idea of ‘what is normal’ further and have four definitions to define abnormality; deviations from social norms; deviation from statistical norms; failure to function adequately; and deviations from ideal mental health. Moreover, psychologists and psychiatrists use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to classify mental disorders. This supposedly provides standard criteria for the individuals which have to diagnose a patient with a mental illness. Despite these criteria and classification system being generally accepted with open arms by experts and patients alike, they each have limitations. Deviating from social norms means someone is not complying with the socially constructed values and belief systems in place. An example of this could be inappropriate dress, driving on the wrong side of the road and or not eating a lot. A limitation for using deviating from socially constructed social norms as a criteria to define abnormal behaviour is that a lot of socially constructed things depends on the situational context; for example, wearing pyjamas in the house is a social norm, whereas wearing pyjamas to an opera would be seen as deviant. Furthermore, social norms change with time; previously it would have been socially deviant to be homosexual but now it is a perfectly acceptable sexual orientation. In addition, this criteria also presents cross-cultural issues, for example if you are in an Indian rainforest and speak to spirits, you are a shaman; if you are in England and speak to spirits, you are probably experiencing psychosis. Deviation from statistical norms is based on the percentage of the population who have a particular trait, personality or behaviour. A good example of a statistical norm is shoe size. Most female adults – statistically – have a shoe size between four and seven. If an individual falls either side of this, their shoe size could be classed as abnormal, statistically. However, this definition of abnormality definitely presents some limitations. One limitation is what characteristics do we choose to be abnormal? An example of when deviation from social norms is when looking a persons I.Q. and sport. When a person has a statistically high I.Q, they are not labelled abnormal, but a ‘genius’. Furthermore, if someone runs faster than what is statistically normal, they become a top athlete and a leader in their event, rather than abnormal or an anomaly. Another problem with viewing abnormality through statistical deviations is: where do you draw the line? I.Q. reference charts suggest divide intelligence into ranges and categories. If someone scored 84 on an I.Q. they would be classed as ‘borderline mentally disabled’, but if they scored two more points, they would then be classed as ‘average’. When statistics present such concrete categories, there is no room for the fluidity and manoeuvre that should be involved when classing an individual as ‘abnormal’. Another problem with this statistical definition of abnormality is that there are some conditions a lot of the population have. In American, approximately 75% of adults have to use some form of vision correction (Jobson Medical Information LLC and Vision Council of America, 2006). In this circumstance it could be seen that the remaining 25% of adults which do not need any aid to help them see and have perfect vision, are actually ‘abnormal’. Deviations from ideal mental health are essentially a deviation from what is considered normal ideal mental health, such as the criteria put forward by Jahoda. The six criteria she put forward are: positive attitude towards the self; self-actualisation; resistance to stress; personal autonomy; accurate perception of reality, and; adapting to the environment. There are several problems with the criteria she suggests. For example, it is difficult to ever achieve the kind of self-actualisation Maslow proposes. Furthermore, there are many reasons a small level of stress could actually be more beneficial for your health; with correct stress management and individual could actually be healthier. Also, as noted in deviating from social norms, there could be a large difference as to what is a deviation from culture to culture. The final deviation is the failure to function adequately. This is when an individual is unable to live a ‘normal’ life. This may be because they do not experience a normal range of emotions, or have a normal range of emotions. There are five indicators to decide when an individual is failing to function adequately: Dysfunctional behaviour/maladaptiveness; personal distress or discomfort; observer discomfort unpredictable behaviour and; irrational behaviour. However, this isn’t a reliable definition of abnormality; it is very vague and is definition individual problems. Furthermore, context needs to be taken in to account. If a student is anxious because of an essay, this may be uncharacteristic for the student, but this would not be abnormal. The DSM IV TR provides definitive criteria used to classify mental illnesses globally. Clinicians evaluate a patient’s condition by using five separate axes before making a complete diagnosis. Axis 1 looks at clinical syndromes which may cause significant impairment, the most common of these are anxiety and mood disorders. Axis 2 looks at mental retardation and personality disorders; patients are usually diagnosed with either something on Aix 1 or Axis 2, however, this is not always the case. Axis 3 looks at other medical conditions, e.g. diabetes. Axis 4 looks at psychosocial and/or environmental problems, for example school and housing. Finally, Axis 5 is a global assessment of functioning (GAF). G.A.F. looks at the psychological, social and occupational functioning over all. As the DSM IV TR is multi-axial, it gives a more thorough and detailed idea of how to treat the patients; however, there are still many problems with this idea. Zimmerman (1988) argues that change in classification do not always reflect changes in knowledge. For example, in 1973, homosexuality was no longer considered a mental issue; this classification essentially changed over-night. This consequently makes the classification seem arbitrary and questionable. Also, we must bear in mind the ‘continuum concept’; to what extent is certain behaviour just an addition to ‘normal’. Furthermore the DSM IV TR presents us with problems relating to validity. If a diagnosis predicts the course of an illness, it is a valid prognosis. Rosenham and Rosenham (1973) suggest that diagnosis can have good reliability yet poor validity as often doctors misdiagnose patients whose symptoms can be faked. A way to combat this could be to use both the DSM IV TR and the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases) to cross reference and see whether the classifications agree; however, when 1500 were assessed, it was found there was good agreement on depression, anxiety and substance dependence, but only 35% agreement on PSTD and a 68% agreement overall (Andrews et al, 1999). There is also multiple problems with the reliability of diagnosis. A method used to try and increase reliability is ‘Inter-rated reliability’; this is when more than one psychologist diagnoses the illness and if two psychologists agree, the diagnosis is more reliable. However, Beck et al conducted a study which showed that psychiatrists only agreed 54% of the time. Also, diagnosis is subjective as patients may give different information, or the evidence gathered is not sufficient. Additionally, cultural factors affect reliability. The DSM IV TR may not be useful for other cultures and it depends whether the phenomena is absolute, universal or culturally relative. It is important that psychiatrists are aware of cultural factors and Sabin (1975) further suggests that language barriers may cause over-diagnosis of mental illness. Lopez (1989) disagrees with Sabin’s suggestion and believes that if we take every cultural belief into account we would under-diagnose. However, Cooper et al (1972) conducted and study which suggested psychiatrists in the U.K and U.S. over-diagnose; the U.S. psychiatrists diagnose patients with schizophrenia twice as often as their U.K counterparts, and in the U.K bi-polar disorder is diagnosed twice as often. Labelling can have some advantages, for example people like to know what is wrong with them, and a diagnosis can give them that assurance and ‘finding’ a certain illness brings new discovery and treatment, therefore advances the medical word. However, labelling can also have negative effects (Goffman, 1968), as there are often certain connotations with certain illness. Previously in Japan, schizophrenia was rarely diagnosed because of the stigma and only 20% of patients with it were aware (Kim
Introduction: outline your argument (50 words). Read all the questions in order to be able to summarize the points you will be making. You may wish to do this section last. Identify the main persons and events that are the focus of the films Excellent Cadavers and The Mafia Only Kills in Summer. (200-300 words) How do the two films differ in their stylistic approaches? Discuss specific scenes that in your opinion create the greatest impact. (200-300 words) What comment is the filmmaker trying to make about the collective culture of the characters in The Mafia Only Kills in Summer? Give specific examples. (200-300 words) Conclusion: in two sentences summarize what your paper was about without repeating what you said in your introduction. (up to 50 words) ***MUST QUOTE FROM*** Dickie, John. Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia. St. Martin’s Press, 2004. ISBN: 978-1403970428 Dana Renga, ed. Mafia Movies: A Reader. University of Toronto Press, 2019. ISBN: 978-1-4875-2013-7 Excellent Cadavers by Marco Turco (2005) Movie/Film The Mafia Only Kills in Summer by Pierfrancesco ‘Pif’ Diliberto (2011) Movie/Film
week 8 Political Compass Results. I’m trying to study for my Political Science course and I need some help to understand this question.

Required ResourcesRead/review the following resources for this activity:

Lesson
Political Compass Test Results
Additional scholarly sources you identify through your own research

Go to the site: https://www.politicalcompass.org. (Links to an external site.)
Scroll to the end of the site where it says “take the test.”Answer all of the questions.After you answer the questions, there will be a chart with your Economic and Social numbers.
After taking the political compass test, tell the class what your scores are and what they mean. Then, analyze why you believe the results or do not believe the scores. Finally, discuss how this course has been beneficial to your daily life and career choice. Use evidence (cite sources) to support your response from assigned readings or online lessons, and at least one outside scholarly source.
HOW TO ACCESS THE BOOK: type in “Magstadt, T. M. (2017). Understanding politics: Ideas, institutions, and issues. Australia: Cengage Learning. google books” if you cant access the book it’s ok but be sure to cite the website for the quiz and other references you use!
week 8 Political Compass Results

Motivation is generally linked to reward, and it is widely considered that maintaining a healthy reward system is central to the regulation of the employment relationship. The reward system varies from organisation to organisation, and comes in various forms, including monetary or non-monetary, tangible or intangible, and physical or psychological, and these are offered to the employees as compensation for the productive work they execute. (Thinking made easy, 2009) Ford motor company is multinational organization which incorporated an effective reward system exemplified by the restructuring of its operations and its organisational chain of command. The company has incorporated a team-based methodology in its manufacturing process which gives employees far better control over their responsibilities (2006). Instead of simply following the instructions of managers, workers can directly contact the suppliers to talk about quality of equipment and to take care of the product defects. This is evidently one form of incentive for employees because the employee’s decisions are valued by their organization; they can practice their personal judgment to make their own decisions with regard to matters that concern the organisation they work for. Ford is one of the numerous organisations in the United States that use Internet to run incentive programs for employee motivation and recognition, award selection, award fulfilment . Online-oriented employee motivation poses various benefits that are advantageous for employees and the organisation itself. The promotional events for example are posted on internet which reduces the use of paper. These materials can be immediately and efficiently added or removed from the Internet, based on the employees’ decision or judgment. Hence, online incentive programs save time, money, and even permits greater control for the organisation and employees. Ford also acknowledges corporate social responsibility (CSR) which benefits the employees, consumers, dealers, suppliers and community. Hence, Ford is able to provide a quality life to its employees and their families (Thinking made easy, 2009) Another form of compensation for the employees at Ford is the company’s programmes for Employee Involvement (EI). Some of the EI programmes are the Mutual Growth Forum (MGF) and the Employee Assistance Plan (EAP). Through Mutual Growth Forum the relationship between employees and administration is developed through a two-way communication. To do this, the concerned parties conduct regular meetings to discuss matters of mutual interest, such as product plans, competition, economics, holiday schedules and work conditions. The Employee Involvement programme is completely voluntary which takes care of the workers who have health problems, drug dependency and the like. The programme also includes a referral technique for professional counselling, assessment, and treatment, as well as wellness activities for health risk evaluations, stress management, hypertension monitoring, and so on. These compensations benefits to Ford with enhanced employee creativity, lessened absenteeism, better quality of products, and improved relations between employees and the administration. Team design Ford incorporated the Ford Production System (FPS) in the mid-1990s, an initiative to restructure its manufacturing process to enhance flexibility and efficiency in its automobile production systems. Under FPS, factory employees form teams called “work groups.” (Liker

You will use R to perform basic data analysis on the supplied data set. You will submit the Word document you created with your screenshots with discussion& analysis…

You will use R to perform basic data analysis on the supplied data set. You will submit the Word document you created with your screenshots with discussion& analysis….

Assignment – Data Analysis in R. You will find 2 files to download.1) grades_km_input.csv is the dataset file you will use for the assignment.( CSV will be added once tutor is assigned)Using pages 123 to 127 in the textbook, recreate the clustering analysis on page 127 using the attached file. The grid.arrange command on page 127 seems to have some syntax issues so please use the command – grid.arrange(g1, g2, g3, nrow = 1) instead.In a Word document include your plots. In R Studio you can export your plots as images. Make sure I have screenshots of your code. Make sure I can see the data and time on your screenshots. Discuss any insights you can gain from these 3 plots.You will use R to perform basic data analysis on the supplied data set. You will submit the Word document you created with your screenshots.
You will use R to perform basic data analysis on the supplied data set. You will submit the Word document you created with your screenshots with discussion& analysis…

The Cause Of Premature Puberty Children And Young People Essay

order essay cheap The Cause Of Premature Puberty Children And Young People Essay. It is usually young girls who are the victims of sexualisation. The media teaches them inappropriate behaviours that are frequent in older women and represents them in a sexualized way. Many young girls look up to models and celebrities. Many teenage girls look up to and copy the hair, makeup and wardrobe of celebrities like Kim Kardashian; who is popular with men and became famous because of a sex tape. Young girls don’t want to look like strong successful women who are less attractive. The media puts a strong emphasis on their idea of beauty for example you would see a slim sexy women on a men’s magazine however you are less likely to see an overweight women. Many media and entertainment sources promote this ideal beauty image to young girls. For example TV shows and ads, music videos, toys, beauty pageants for under 10 year olds, clothes and magazines all promote sexualisation. Interpersonal relationships with friends, family and teachers can also contribute to sexualizing girls. Parents can encourage girls to have a good appearance and take pride in the way they look which will make them believe this is an important aim for them. Sarah Burge was in the newspapers for controversially giving her 8 year old daughter a cosmetic surgery voucher for liposuction for when she turns 18 she has also admitted to giving her teenage daughter Botox. Girls can also sexualise themselves. They want to buy product that are meant to make them look more sexy and attractive and copy the celebrities who they label sexy. Research in the APA report Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls suggests that teachers can also push sexualisation on girls by encouraging them to be sexualized women. More findings suggest teachers believe girls who are of Black origin are viewed as “hypersexual” and are not likely to accomplish success in school. Peer pressure also contributes to sexualisation. “Over a quarter of teenagers are having sex before 16. Further research from child line suggests that 15% of callers talking about peer pressure connected it with sex. The pressure to have sex came from other girls” (NSPCC 2011) The media effects a child’s thinking with their focus on looks and appearance shaping how a child views the perfect body image. “Teenagers today are getting sex education and socialization mainly from media sources and children are exposed to large amount of explicit sexual content which they can’t process. Valuable time for them to develop with their age is taken away” (Olfman 2009). In the early 19th century many children were orphaned and pushed into the adult world where they had to work however they managed it to the best of their ability because TV and media didn’t have such a big impact as it has today. The media however thinks it is the responsibility of the parents to decide what they let their children watch and to shield them from what they view as inappropriate. Parents allow their children to watch films that are not age appropriate. When a child wants to look different parents automatically panic thinking it is not normal. A child supporting the Goth look can be seen as abnormal and they are suspected of doing wrong as it is different to the common appearance accepted in society and media. FredricksonThe Cause Of Premature Puberty Children And Young People Essay

any thing you like

any thing you like. Political Experience Project Guidelines and Rubric Step 1: Participate in a political experience of your choosing and provide evidence of attendance. Below, I’ve compiled a list of several possible experiences. This is not an exhaustive list, so feel free to propose alternatives to me. Provide proof of attendance—a ticket, a selfie, a flyer. ****Update I’ve also included a list of at home options in the wake of social distancing requirements (screenshots and photographs are acceptable proofs of “attendance”)***** Ideas for Political Experiences I am asking you to seek out a novel political experience this semester (with few exceptions, you should not just rely on a previous experience or continuation thereof). The following are examples of activities you can engage in to prepare for your creative project. The list is not exhaustive. If you have questions, ask! Speak at/attend a city council meeting in your area Volunteer with an elected official Volunteer with a local non-profit or politically-minded organization Find politically relevant conferences or art exhibits Go to a public talk or lecture Attend a rally or protest Places to look for ideas: uci.edu; eventful.com; scpr.org; nixonfoundation.org; chapman.edu; political party websites; OC Weekly; Facebook Ideas for Political Experiences During Social Distancing 1. Watch an archived city council meeting. Many cities in Los Angeles and Orange counties offer this option. I know for a fact that Irvine and Long Beach do. 2. Take a tour of the National Portrait Gallery’s online collection. 3. Volunteer online to phone/text bank for a political candidate (there’s still an election going on this year, and this can be done from home). 4. Watch one of these political documentaries. 5. Write a letter to an elected official Step 2: Respond to your experience creatively. Past responses have included drawings, paintings, original compositions, photo collages, websites, and more. Your options are plentiful—ask if you have questions. Your response can focus on the entire experience, or a smaller component of it. If you are having trouble deciding how to respond, consider how your experience made you feel, whether you were surprised by anything, and what you learned. You will submit a photo or file attachment of your response to satisfy this step. Step 3: Answer the response questions. Attach the answers to the following questions to your response. You should write at least a paragraph for each question. What was your attitude toward politics prior to engaging in the experience you chose? Describe your experience. How does your experience relate to the concepts we’ve learned in class? Using your understanding of class concepts, discuss an aspect of your experience that could be improved upon. Has your attitude toward politics and political participation changed? Do you think you will seek out other experiences like this in the future? NUMBER EACH PIECE OR FILE OF YOUR PROJECT—IF YOU DO NOT CLEARLY IDENTIFY EACH STEP IN THE PROJECT, YOU WILL LOSE POINTS. Assignment Rubric Assignment Component Points Completion Tasks Proof of attendance/participation 15 Answer Required Response Questions 5 Creative Project 5 Application of Concepts Demonstrate a link between your creative response and your political experience 15 Demonstrate an understanding of the political experience (summary) 15 Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between your political experience and class concepts and/or government 30 Other Details Label each step of the project (e.g. Step 1 or Proof, Step 2 or Creative Project, etc.) 5 Show thought, effort and creativity 10 TOTAL POSSIBLE POINTS 100any thing you like

7th grade work make it look like 7th grade work not to big work

7th grade work make it look like 7th grade work not to big work.

Assignment: Characters Affect Plot

Instructions: Answer these questions. Check the rubric before you begin writing to see
how your responses will be graded.
1. Friendship can bring out a person’s best qualities. How does Mary’s
friendship with the robin bring out her better qualities?
2. Martha is also Mary’s friend, and she expects Mary to be
self-reliant. What does she teach or encourage Mary to do?
3. How does Mary feel as she becomes more
independent? Why?
4. What is the theme of The Secret Garden, and how does Mary’s transformation contribute to
the development of the theme?
7th grade work make it look like 7th grade work not to big work