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Nikolai Sukhanov, dismissed him as ‘grey, dull, blank. ’ Trotski and his sympathisers . . . ridiculed Stalin as a bureaucrat without an opinion or even a personality of his own . . . (Stalin’s) defects were thought obvious. Stalin had not lived as an emigre before the fall of the Imperial monarchy in the February Revolution. He was neither a polyglot nor a decent orator.

He was a mere administrator such features were offered as proof that he deserved second rate status among the party leaders” How then did this administrator become leader of the USSR? Background * Even before the death of Lenin, the leaders of the Bolshevik regime had begun to prepare themselves for the power struggle which was likely to ensue after Lenin’s death. * The main contenders were the members of the Politburo; which included Zinoviev, Kamenev, Tomsky, Bukharin, Rykov, Stalin and Trotsky. * The Politburo was divided between the right and left wing elements of the party. The main dividing issue was the pace of industrialisation. Stalin’s personal characteristics and qualities * Stalin appeared at the least and probably was a loyal party member. He was one of the few leadership contenders who actually had proletarian routes. It seemed that Stalin wanted to keep the party together at all costs and was not interested in causing a split amongst the Bolsheviks. * Stalin was seen by many in the party as being more down to earth and practical than other leading members of the Bolshevik Party. His skills as a good bureaucrat meant that he was suited to managing a centralised party. Stalin was tough and ruthless. He was determined to protect his power base and make sure that he was not ousted. Stalin’s position in the party * Stalin had control of the party machine through his key positions in the Politburo and Orgburo and as General Secretary. * His position allowed him to appoint people to key party positions. He used this to advantage by appointing his supporters and expelling members likely to support Trotsky. This also made him a popular ally. Other contenders wanted him on their side because he could deliver votes in the congresses.

Stalin used this fact and manipulated it to his benefit. * Stalin’s position was further enhanced by the launching of the ‘Lenin Enrolment’ between 1923 and 1925. The aim of this membership drive was to increase the number of industrial workers in the party ranks. Over 50,000 workers were recruited (doubling the party’s membership). These new members were on the whole poorly educated and politically naive. Stalin appealed to these new members. * His position also gave him to access to inside information. Even Lenin’s home had been bugged in order to provide Stalin with information.

Stalin was politically astute * Stalin made full use of Lenin’s funeral to advance his own position. He gave a speech at the funeral paying tribute to Lenin. At the funeral Stalin was able to present himself as the heir to the ‘Lenin legacy’. * He tricked Trotsky into not attending. Following on from the funeral he successfully took on the mantle of Leninism to transfer Lenin’s prestige to himself. * He was also careful to stay in the background and appear to be a moderate peacemaker. This meant that his opponents were slow to realise his intentions.

He also skilfully out manoeuvred his opponents playing them off against each other until he was left standing. * He capitalised on Lenin’s attack on factionalism. Stalin used this as accuse to expel Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev from the party when they joined sides in 1926 and tried to oppose him. Stalin’s policy * Stalin adopted policies that were popular amongst most people in the Communist Party. He was responsive to the times and people’s wishes. His differing stances on the NEP and then his decision to move towards rapid industrialisation in the late 1920s were supported by the majority of the party.

The NEP had never been a popular policy and this gained him significant support. * Socialism in One country was a much more popular policy for most than Permanent Revolution. Many felt that trying to spread socialism would cause further problems. It also placed Russia in a unique position, providing the country with a specific historic role. Stalin was underestimated * Stalin was perceived as dull and mediocre. So no one saw him as a great threat until it was too late. * Trotsky allowed Stalin to build up his power base without any attempt to build up his own.

Trotsky and others saw Stalin as intellectually inferior and did not accept that he could pose a threat to them. Luck * Lenin and Svedlov died at the right time for Lenin. * Stalin was fortuitous that Lenin’s testament was not read out and that Trotsky was ill for most of the power struggle. In his testament, Lenin had been quite damning of Stalin writing; ‘he is too rude’ and recommending his removal from the Politburo. Trotsky’s weaknesses * Trotsky made little attempt to develop his own power base. * Trotsky was seen by many to very arrogant.

He could be dismissive of his colleagues particularly if he felt that they were not his intellectual equal. He did not make an effort to get on with other party leaders and was seen by many as the person most likely to cause a split within the party. * He also suffered from the fact that he had only joined the Bolshevik party in 1917. Many felt that he could not be trusted. * Unlike Stalin Trotsky was not politically astute. He did not like the ‘drudgery of politics’. He was no good at political intrigue, making alliances and trade-offs.

Global and Societal Considerations

Global and Societal Considerations.

 Note: Developing a business proposal requires specific steps that need to be executed in a sequence. The assessments in this course are presented in sequence and must be completed in order. Preparation Assume the business stakeholder(s) signed off on taking the proposed information technology project to the next step. However, they had one additional requirement: the information technology solution should be able to be used by individuals in their overseas offices in Greece and Switzerland. Hay, D. C. (1997). The Zachman framework: An introduction. Retrieved from Singer, W. (2007). The Zachman enterprise framework. Retrieved from Review the Zachman framework and evaluate the changes this new requirement will make to your proposed solution. Evaluate both human resources needs and new information technology requirements. The cultural and societal impacts are as important as the technology impact. Consider the following as you evaluate the impact of expanding to an overseas market: Hardware. Software. Infrastructure and networking. Security safeguards. Human resources. Training. Maintenance. Directions Add another slide to your PowerPoint that you can include in your proposed solution. In addition, write a one-page summary describing the major impacts a company faces when it becomes a global enterprise. Be sure to include both the cultural and societal impacts, as well as any added technology impacts.

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