Lab Exercise 10 – MITOSIS AND DEVELOPMENT IN MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMSStudent Learning OutcomesBe able to list and identify the phases of a cell’s life cycle known as Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Interphase.Be able to draw a pie diagram indicating the relative proportions of time a plant, like Allium (onion), spends in the different mitotic phases.Be able to diagram and describe the stages of embryonic development common to all animals (zygote, morula, blastula, and gastrula).Be able to diagram and describe the function of a fertilization membrane surrounding a fertilized Sand dollar egg.Be able to contrast the end results of the 2 kinds of cell division observed in Eukaryotic cells: Mitosis and Meiosis.IntroductionThe tremendous diversity of structure and function that eukaryotic cells assume is remarkable when you consider that most multicellular organisms begin life as a single fertilized egg, the zygote. Through repeated divisions, this cell gives rise to all the cells that make up the organism. The series of events experienced during cell division by actively reproducing cells is termed mitosis. Mitosis also serves as the basic mechanism of reproduction in unicellular organisms. In this lab, you will examine several essential aspects of mitosis, and of the role of mitosis in the early development of multicellular organisms.Mitotic processes are rather easily observed in situations where rapid increases in cell numbers are occurring. Two cell types that will be used in this lab are 1) the cells produced as a consequence of fertilization in the sand dollar, Dendraster, and 2) cells in the growing root tips of the onion, Allium.Mitosis in PlantsAt no time other than cell division can a cell’s chromosomes be observed. Although it is also possible to see chromosomes during meiosis, today we will examine mitosis in a rapidly growing tissue, the root tip of the onion Allium. Although animal and plant cells differ somewhat in structure as well as in some of the fine points of mitosis, the mitotic phases are essentially the same in all eukaryotic cells. While the process is continuous and there is some gradation among the various steps, four general phases can be identified: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, the division of the cell’s cytoplasm, which also takes the two new nuclei into separate daughter cells. When a cell in a growing tissue phase is not in mitosis, we say it is in Interphase (this phase is not regarded as one of the phases of mitosis). During this relatively long period, the DNA is replicated in the nucleus and extra amounts of other cellular components are synthesized, in preparation for distribution to future daughter cells. No evidence of this activity can be seen until the next mitosis, when the nuclear membrane dissolves and the chromosomes condense into the short, thick, stainable bodies which are visible through the light microscope.For any given species, there is usually one characteristic number of chromosomes (n) found in the gametes and double that number (2n) found in cells of the sexually reproducing adult. There is wide variation in the number of chromosomes characteristic of species, and the n does not necessarily indicate how much hereditary material is present. In some species, there is a large n but the chromosomes are very small, while other species have fewer, larger chromosomes. The chromosomes of onion cells are large and relatively few (2n=14), making them easier to study than the cells of many other organisms. Observation of Mitotic Phases in Onion (Allium) Root Tip CellsThe growing onion root tip is one of the most widely used materials for the study of mitosis, since it is easily cultivated in quantity and preparations of the dividing cells are easily made. There are regions of rapid cell division in root tips; therefore, the chances are good that within such tissues one can identify every stage in mitosis. The following study will involve an examination of preserved and stained thin sections of onion root tips, with the stains making the chromosomes of the cells quite visible.You will need a microscope for this portion. Be sure to use two hands. Make sure that the cord is not dangling to prevent a tripping hazard. Before using the microscope, check for the condition the microscope was left in from the prior class. Was the microscope placed back in its assigned compartment with the arm facing out toward you?Was the cord wrapped between the stage and objectives with the plug tucked inside the cord?Was the cord relatively untangled?Was the ocular lens clean? (If not, clean the dirty lens with the appropriate lens cleaner and lens paper (not a paper towel).Was the light turned off?Check that the Condenser is at its highest point, directly below the stage. There is a knob connected to the Condenser that allows it to be moved up and down.Was the mechanical stage centered so that the stage clips don’t hang over the edge of the stage?Was the scanning objective lens (4x) (not another objective) placed over the stage? If not, rotate the nosepiece until the scanning objective is facing the stage. Was the stage lowered to the lowest setting possible position? If not, use the coarse focus knob to do so, not the fine focus knob.Were there any slides remaining on the stage? If so, remove the slide and notify your instructor. It is important that the slide is placed in the correct box, or it may get lost.If any of these conditions were problematic, please let your instructor know.Procedure:Plug in the cord and turn up the light intensity.to its maximum value and adjust the iris diaphragm to its most closed setting. As you proceed you can increase the light passing through the specimen by gradually opening the iris diaphragm.Adjust the distance between the oculars: Without placing the prepared slide on the stage yet, look through the oculars. You are likely going to see two circles of white light. Do not try to focus your eyes on any one thing, as nothing is in focus yet. Slowly, move the two oculars together and/or further apart until you see the single Field of View.Lower the stage using the coarse focus knob, and make sure the (shortest) scanning objective is facing the stage, so that there is no chance of the slide scratching any objective lenses. Obtain a slide of Allium root tips. Hold the slide above a sheet of white paper, and note the series of dark streaks on the slide. Each streak is a very thin longitudinal section through an onion root tip.Before looking through the eyepiece (ocular), open the stage clip, and place the slide on the stage of the microscope beneath the objective, with the coverslip visible on the upper side. The stage clip should be holding the slide in place, not pressing the slide under it. Center the object below the objective without looking through the oculars. Nothing is in focus yet. Coarse adjustment with scanning lens: With the scanning lens in place, move the stage up to its highest point without looking through the oculars. Nothing is in focus yet. Looking through the ocular with your right eye only (squint or cover your left eye), bring the specimen into focus by turning the coarse focus adjustment knob slowly until the specimen is generally in focus. Then turning the fine adjustment knob will bring the specimen into sharper focus.Focus your left eye: Viewing the specimen with both eyes through both oculars, turn the left ocular diopter until the specimen is clear in both eyes.Adjusting on low and high power objectives – use fine adjustment knobs only: If you wish to view the specimen using higher magnification, center the specimen in the field, and carefully rotate the revolving nosepiece to bring the next higher power objective into place beneath the body tube. The specimen will no longer be in focus. In order to sharpen the image of the specimen, adjust the focus using only the fine focus adjustment knob. (Again, the light may have to be adjusted with the iris diaphragm.) Each time you move to the next higher power objective, be sure you center the specimen beforehand.Locate one of the root longitudinal sections under scanning power and then move to low power, to determine whether it shows clear mitotic stages. Since each section is very thin, not all will be equally good for study. A good section will have many cells showing the dark, strap-like, chromosomes. Notice that the “best” area for mitosis is not at the very tip end of the root or high up the root where it was cut, but above the root cap (See Figure 1).After preliminary examination under low power, change to high-dry power, being very careful not to break the slide. Keep in mind the sequence in which the different stages occur, but do not try to find them in sequence. Thus, if you happen to find an Anaphase first, study it before proceeding to another stage. Chances are that most of the cells will be in interphase. (You may even see cells which appear to have no nucleus. Remember that this is a very thin section and the slice you see captured the edge of some cells, missing the nucleus.) Keep this slide for the rest of the lab exercise.Obtain one of the folders entitled Plant Mitosis (set #55), view it through the mini-scope, and use it to become familiar with the stages of mitosis. Figure 4 shows these stages also. Refer to the plant mitosis model sequence on the side lab bench to help you visualize the process.Scan the prepared slide of the Allium root tip until you can reliably identify the four mitotic phases. Be able to describe the chromosomal changes which occur during each phase. (It is not necessary to be able to count every chromosome; just describe their positions, shapes, and orientations.) For your information, descriptions of these phases follow.Mitotic PhasesProphaseDuring Prophase the chromosomes become distinguishable in the nucleus. The nuclear membrane breaks down and the chromosomes become distributed haphazardly through the cytoplasm. At this stage in the onion root tip the chromosomes often appear as a partially coiled mass. These elongated chromosomes later become condensed into shorter chromosomes and the nuclear membrane disappears. Even at this early stage each chromosome has doubled, although this will be difficult to see on the slide.MetaphaseDuring Metaphase the chromosomes become arranged near the center of the cell, with the ends of the chromosomes generally pointing away from the midline. This stage is apparently a preparation for the equal division of chromosomes between the daughter cells, a process that begins in the next phase. During or somewhat before Metaphase, small, threadlike structures (spindle fibers), form in the dividing cell. Some of them appear to be attached to the chromosomes and seem to provide the machinery for the movement of the chromosomes, although the way in which this is accomplished is not yet understood. These fibers usually appear most clearly in Anaphase. The composition of the spindle fibers is not known. It has been suggested that they form by the aggregation of protein molecules. Under the electron microscope these fibers appear as fine, straight, hollow tubules. Although they lengthen and shorten during Mitosis, they do not appear to get thicker or thinner. This suggests that they do not stretch or contract but that new material is added to the fiber or removed from it as the spindle changes shape.AnaphaseAt the beginning of Anaphase, the two members of each of the previously doubled chromosomes separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. This stage can be recognized in the onion by the two groups of V-shaped chromosomes on opposite sides of the cell. The sharp end of the V is pointed away from the center toward the cell wall. An onion cell has 14 chromosomes; hence it is seldom possible to see all of them at one time. Reduce the light coming through the objective of the microscope and see if you can find any spindle fibers near the center of the cell. They will appear as very fine lines between the two groups of chromosomes, but they are not often visible in a study of this kind.TelophaseCell division is completed during Telophase, and reorganization of the cell contents of the two daughter cells begins. It is often difficult to distinguish between late Anaphase and early Telophase in the cells of the onion root tip. During Telophase, however, a cell plate starts to form as a fine line across the center of the cell. When complete, the cell plate will divide the original cell into two daughter cells. In some cells it will be indistinct. As Telophase progresses, the nuclei begin to reorganize, and the chromosomes become indistinct. In both plant and animal cells, the daughter cells resulting from mitotic division have the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the original cell from which they came. Thus, in the onion each daughter cell has 14 chromosomes, just as the original cell had.Figure 1. A simplified drawing of a longitudinal section through the root tip of an onion (Allium).Refer to the laboratory models and charts, your slides, or your textbook’s diagrams of the mitotic phases in plants. In the spaces below, make realistic rough sketches (not cartoons) of each stage of the cell cycle (including interphase) as one onion root tip cell divides into two daughter cells. Take a picture of your drawing and insert it in the appropropriate location below.Insert diagrams here:List the main actions that happen during this phase here. Use arrows and words to label important parts:Prophase:Metaphase:AnaphaseTelophase:Interphase:Figure 2. Diagrams Showing the Different Phases an Onion Cell Moves Through during a Mitotic Cell Division.Durations of Phases in the Cell CycleThe cell cycle is the name for the entire sequence of events from one division to the next, including all the steps of mitosis, plus cytokinesis and interphase. The time it takes for the cell cycle varies widely, with cells of developing embryos dividing the fastest. (You may have observed the first cleavage of the sand dollar less than an hour after fertilization.)As you will observe, some of the mitotic phases take longer than others. Now that you can identify the various stages of mitosis, you are ready to determine the relative percent of time spent in each phase during the life of a cell. We do not have enough lab time to sit at the microscope and watch one live root tip cell go through its entire cycle, since that might take many hours. Therefore, we will examine a group of cells in a root tip at one point in time and deduce the relative time spent on the different phases of the cell cycle. In order to make this determination, some assumptions are necessary:a. In the growing region of a root tip, all of the cells are assumed to have the same overall cell cycle time (including interphase).b. The phase of the cycle which takes the most time (i.e., Interphase) will be that phase which is seen in the greatest number of cells. c. Since cells quickly pass through phases which require less time, the phase which takes the least time will be seen in the fewest cells. d. If we census a large block of cells in the growing area of a root tip, identifying the phase of each one, the relative numbers will tell us which phases require more time and which require less time.Procedure:1. A pair of students should work together observing the Allium root tip cross-section through the microscope. Plug in the cord and turn up the light intensity.to its maximum value and adjust the iris diaphragm to its most closed setting. As you proceed you can increase the light passing through the specimen by gradually opening the iris diaphragm. Adjust the distance between the oculars: Without placing the prepared slide on the stage yet, look through the oculars. You are likely going to see two circles of white light. Do not try to focus your eyes on any one thing, as nothing is in focus yet. Slowly, move the two oculars together and/or further apart until the two circles of white light become one circle of light. This circular field of light is the Field of View.Prepared slide: Hold the prepared slide up to the light and examine it. You will see two or three tube shaped images which have been permanently mounted, using resin or some similar material, between the surfaces of the slide and the coverslip. These are two or three root tips that would normally cut off the tips of green onion, AlliumWith other items, often a stain is used in preparation to allow the observer to clearly see the specimen if it is transparent. By placing the slide on the white paper next to this text, you will see the color of the stain which will help you locate where the specimen is. Generally, it is in the middle of the coverslip, but in some preparations, it is off slightly to one side. Place the slide on the stage: Lower the stage using the coarse focus knob, and make sure the (shortest) scanning objective is facing the stage, so that there is no chance of the slide scratching any objective lenses. Before looking through the eyepiece (ocular), open the stage clip, and place the slide on the stage of the microscope beneath the objective, with the label and coverslip visible on the upper side. The stage clip should be holding the slide in place, not pressing the slide under it. Place the slide so that you can easily read the words on the label. They should not be upside down on the lower side or facing away from you. Center the object below the objective. A specimen should always be viewed first using the scanning objective.Coarse adjustment with scanning lens: With the scanning lens in place, move the stage up to its highest point without looking through the oculars. Nothing is in focus yet. Looking through the ocular with your right eye only (squint or cover your left eye), bring the specimen into focus by turning the coarse focus adjustment knob slowly until the specimen is generally in focus. Then turning the fine adjustment knob will bring the specimen into sharper focus.Focus your left eye: Viewing the specimen with both eyes through both oculars, turn the left ocular diopter until the specimen is clear in both eyes.Iris diaphragm: The light coming through the microscope may be either too bright or too dim. If the amount of light is not satisfactory, it can be adjusted by carefully regulating the size of the opening of the iris diaphragm by moving the lever beneath the stage. The iris diaphragm is part of the condenser which concentrates the light coming from the light source.Once again, locate the growing region of the root tip, where cells in mitotic phases are evident. This is above the root cap which comprises cells that are long. Above the root cap the cells are very small. Then you will see cells become much more organized in lines or rows of cells. Some of the cells in this region have clearly delineated nuclei, whereas the nuclei of others look more like little spiders or dark squiggles. If you continue up further, the cells are much more rectangular and elongated, and the nuclei become more pale or even appear to be lacking altogether. You may not be able to see all of this detail yet, but you need to be in the area above the root cap. Once you go to the next step, review looking at these three areas: the root cap, the area above the root cap and the elongated part. Adjusting on low and high power objectives – use fine adjustment knobs only: If you wish to view the specimen using higher magnification, center the specimen in the field, and carefully rotate the revolving nosepiece to bring the next higher power objective into place beneath the body tube. The specimen will no longer be in focus. Only research grade, precision microscopes are parfocal, keeping specimens in focus as the objective lens is changed. Adjust the focus using only the fine focus adjustment knob. (Again, the light may have to be adjusted with the iris diaphragm.) Each time you move to the next higher power objective, be sure you center the specimen beforehand. Use the objective which you can identify the phases most easily.While looking at the root tip under the microscope, one member should identify the mitotic phase (or Interphase) for each cell observed, moving longitudinally up and down the root tip. The other member of the team will keep a tally (Table 1) of the number of cells in each phase. Skip those cells with no visible nucleus (what happened to these cells?), but count all of the others, including those in Interphase. (Try to avoid counting the same cell twice.)The cell phases should be tallied until 100 cells have been observed and counted. You should trade places after 50 cells so that both of you get the practice of identifying the mitotic phases.) Record your tallies in Table 1 below.Table 1. Number tally of onion root tip cellsin different phases of the cell cycleGroup TallyOther Group CountsClass TotalPercent of TimeClass Avg.InterphaseProphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophaseTotal CellsCalculate the percent of the cells’ total cycle time spent in each phase using the following formula:percent of time spent in phase = number of cells in phasetotal number of cells countedRecord the values in Table 1 and in the class data table on the board.Question 1. Based on your calculations which phase plant cells spend the most time. Be able to explain why.Replace this text with your answer.Question 2. Why is a class average more likely (than your group’s data alone) to reflect the true percentage of time spent in each phase?Replace this text with your answer.Question 3. Using the class averages for each phase (Table 1, previous page), use google docs, excel, or this online chart tool to draw a “pie chart” that graphically demonstrates the relative amount of time an average onion root tip cell spends in each phase of mitosis. Remember to give your chart a title.Replace this text with your answer.Question 4. Compare your chart with a general pie chart for plant mitosis found in your textbook or some other reference. Describe the similarities and differences. Replace this text with your answer.Question 5. Speculate on why our class’ pie chart percentages may not agree exactly with those seen in your reference. Replace this text with your answer.Clean upRemoving slides: When you need to remove a slide, be sure to rotate the nose piece to the scanning objective. Then using the coarse adjustment knob, lower the stage to its lowest position. Then open the stage clip and remove the slide. Be sure the slide goes back to the correct slide box. Keep your “e” slide for now, since you still need it.Return the prepared slides to their appropriate slide boxes.II. Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development in Sand DollarsThe development of the zygote into a complex of interdependent cells, tissues, and organs that make up an adult animal is one of the more fascinating processes in biology. Using the following procedure, you will examine the process of fertilization and the resulting mitotic divisions which quickly follow. The complete developmental sequence from zygote to adult cannot be accomplished within a one-lab time frame. However, several increasingly complex larval stages could be observable over the next few days (depending, of course, on larval mortality rates in the lab).The most abundant sand dollar found along the San Diego coastline is a small organism (up to 3 1/2 inches in diameter) living in sandy areas below the surf zone. A member of the Phylum Echinodermata, the sand dollar is covered with a very short blanket of movable spines (used for locomotion), among which are short, moving hair-like projections called cilia. Sand dollars filter small nutrient particles and plankton from the sea water. They have provided many generations of biologists with a ready source of gametes for reproductive and developmental studies. Each female will produce millions of eggs and each male will eject even more sperm.A. Observation of Adult Sand DollarProcedure: Take a few moments to study an adult sand dollar. The focus knobs are found on the arm of the dissecting microscope. The magnification can be changed by rotating the knobs on the head of the microscope. Then turn the Top light on. Place a few paper towels on the stage of a dissecting microscope, and then place a sand dollar on the paper towels. Question 6. Are the aboral (top side) and oral (under side) surfaces similar? If not, how do they differ?Replace this text with your answer.Question 7. Closely observe the flat oral surface. Locate the main opening in the center, surrounded by the five-pointed star-like structure. The star-like structure is often difficult to see in a sand dollar as it is covered by many of the moveable spines. However, this structure is much more easily seen in a relative of the sand dollar, an urchin. View the following video to observe this structure, Urchin teeth. What is this structure’s function?Replace this text with your answer.Clean upBe sure to return the sand dollar to its water as soon as you are done observing it to prevent it from overheating and drying out.Throw the paper towels in the trash, and turn off the microscope light.B. The Gametes: Eggs and SpermThe external anatomy of sand dollars will not reveal their sex, but by injecting them with a few milliliters of an isotonic potassium chloride solution, they can be induced to shed their gametes. Due to the decreasing numbers of echinoderms, such as sand dollars, in general, we will observe the gametes using videos.Question 8. Observe the following short video: Video “Fertilization of Sand Dollar Eggs” (1:07) fertilization of sand dollar eggs.Draw an egg and a few sperm cells, including all the subcellular detail of the egg that is apparent. Take a picture of your drawing and paste it here.Replace this text with your drawing.Question 9. Describe the sperm movement. Does it appear to be directed or random?Replace this text with your answer.Question 10. In the spaces below, briefly describe the form (shape) of an egg and a sperm. Then describe the mobility (movement), if any, of the two kinds of cells. Now compare the gametes’ sizes (make sure you are viewing them both at the same magnification).SpermEggFormMobilitySizeSuggest a possible explanation for the observed differences.Question 11. Surrounding the egg cells, you will notice a protective gelatinous material containing colored granules. This material is outside the cell membrane of the egg. (Label this material in the image labeled Unfertilized Egg in your drawing.)C. FertilizationQuestion 12. It is usually not possible to observe fertilization (nuclear union) but you can tell when it has occurred, for a fertilization membrane will develop around each fertilized egg, inside the egg’s gelatinous cover. (Label this on the image of the Fertilized Egg in Figure 4.) This halo-appearing membrane emerges from the surface of the cell and signals the formation of the zygote. Draw a fertilized egg showing the fertilization membrane. Take a picture of it and paste below. What might be the function of the fertilization membrane?Replace this text with your drawing.D. Mitosis and CleavageCleavage is a form of mitotic cell division which is not accompanied by cellular growth. In fact, each successive cleavage will increase the number of cells while their volume is halved. Thus, the total mass of the embryo remains the same while the cells proliferate.The cleavage sequence includes all the stages from zygote through blastula. However, even though all the mitotic stages (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, etc.) are occurring with each cleavage stage, we would not be able to actually see the sand dollar chromosome. This is due to their small size, the large quantity of opaque cytoplasmic material in the cells, and the need for a specialized staining technique to make them visible. Chromosomes will be more easily observed in the stained onion root tip cells found on prepared slides used in Part I of today’s experiment.In mitosis the nucleus divides in a process known as karyokinesis, which apportions identical chromosomal material to each of the two daughter nuclei. This is soon followed by the more obvious cytokinesis, or division of the cell body. This first mitotic cell division requires only a few minutes and should occur within an hour after fertilization. Subsequent divisions will probably occur at longer intervals. For your reference, data are available for the time frame of cleavage in the sea urchin, a relative of the sand dollar (see Table 2).Question 13. Draw arrows between each of the stages in Figures 1 and 2. Then on the top of the arrow, label what process is happening (formation of fertilization membrane, first cleavage, etc.) based on what is listed in Table 2 below. On the bottom of the arrow, label how long the process takes (e.g. 2-5 minutes, etc.). See the example on Figure 1.Table 2. Approximate Time Sequence for the Development of Fertilized Sea Urchin Eggs(Note: cell division is temperature dependent)
formation of fertilization membrane
2-5 minutesfirst cleavage50-70 minutessecond cleavage78-107 minutesthird cleavage103-145 minutesblastula6 hourshatching of blastula7-10 hoursgastrula12-20 hourspluteus larva24-48 hoursQuestion 14. On entering the egg, the sperm nucleus carrying the male chromosomes unites with the nucleus of the egg to produce a zygote with the chromosomes of both egg and sperm. What is the relative chromosome number of the zygote compared to the gametes? THINK!Replace this text with your answer.E. Early Cleavage Stages (See also Figure 4)Procedure:Obtain a mini-scope and one of the folders entitled Cleavage (set #60) from the lab prep table. Observe the first three frames and read the text paragraph in the folder. Question 15. Were the photographs of all the stages pictured in frames one through six taken at the same power magnification? Within individual frames in the early cleavage stages, how do the individual cell sizes compare? Replace this text with your answer.How does the size of the entire cell mass compare at these different stages?Replace this text with your answer.Obtain a glass prepared slide of starfish early development stages and observe it under the compound microscope. (The starfish’s developmental stages are similar to those of the sand dollar since they are close relatives.) Identify an unfertilized egg, fertilized egg, two cell stage, four cell stage, eight cell stage, 32 cell stage, morula, blastula, gastrula, and larval stages.Question 16. How does the size of the entire cell mass (such as the 8 cell stage, 32 cell stage, etc.) compare at these different stages? Do you see the same or different trend in starfish, as you did in sand dollars?Replace this text with your answer.F. Late Cleavage Stages (See also Figure 5)Procedure:1. Observe Frame 5 (“mass of cells”) through the mini-scope.Question 17. What stage (cell number) appears to be pictured? The mass of cells you see is called a morula. Draw the morula. Be sure to label it as a solid sphere of cells.Replace this text with your answer.After the sixth or seventh division the cells undergo their first morphogenic migration, meaning that cells move quite a distance from one area of the embryo to another. The cells in the center begin to move to the outside, leaving a hollow center. The hollow ball of cells is known as a blastula.Question 18. Draw a blastula. Be sure to label it as a hollow, fluid-filled sphere. Replace this text with your drawing.Question 19. Compare the size of a blastula to that of an unfertilized egg. Has the embryo actually grown? Estimate the number of cells the blastula contains: Replace this text with your answer.3. The cells of the blastula continue to divide and sometime between 12 and 24 hours, depending on temperature, the blastula will hatch, leaving the fertilization membrane. Use the mini-scope and the sea star development slide to observe the various stages of cleavage development.Question 20. Describe how you tell if an embryo is a simple mass of cells (“morula”) or actually a blastula (fluid-filled sphere of cells). (Hint: remember how “depth of field” is perceived through the microscope.)Replace this text with your answer.4. To appreciate the three-dimensional shapes of the developmental stages, examine the sequence of animal cleavage models on the side lab bench in the laboratory.G. GastrulaIn the late blastula phase, the cells undergo their second morphogenic migration. At one point on the blastula surface the cells migrate inward toward the other side of the sphere and results in the formation of an embryo composed of two primary cell layers. The outer cell layer is the ectoderm and the inner one the endoderm. Within a short time the mesoderm will begin to form between these layers and by midgastrulation these three germ layers will have developed. All subsequent tissues and organs will develop from these three primary germ layers. Procedure:Refer to Frames 7 and 8 of the mini-scope Cleavage folder and also observe gastrulas on the prepared slide of starfish development. Question 21. Draw a gastrula. Label the ectoderm and endoderm (using arrows to point to parts).Replace this text with your drawing.Question 22. A gastrula will develop into free-swimming “pluteus” larvae in a day or two. In contrast a seastar forms a bipinnaria larva. What does gastro- (as in gastrointestinal tract) mean?Replace this text with your answer.Questions 23. At what point in development would you logically expect the larvae to be capable of growth (growing in size)? Explain your answer.Replace this text with your answer.When the sand dollar embryos reach the larval stage, they have a complete digestive system and are capable of feeding. They consume phytoplankton and become significant members of the zooplankton trophic level. The free-swimming larvae will, in time, metamorphose into tiny sand dollars and settle to the bottom of their marine environment. Those which settle in an appropriate sandy area will become the new generation and they will compete with their parents for the available habitat.As a review, observe the following short video of a sea biscuit, another echinoderm relative of a sand dollar. “Sea Biscuit’s Life” (3:36) A Sea Biscuit’s Life Identify the unfertilized egg, fertilized egg, two cell stage, four cell stage, eight cell stage, 32 cell stage, (skipped in the video: morula, blastula), gastrula, and larval stages.Clean up.Returning your Compound Microscope to the Cabinet:Rotate the nose with the objectives so that the scanning objective is facing the stage. Lower the stage to the lowest setting possible setting, using the coarse focus knob, not the fine focus knob. Remove your slides. Center the mechanical stage so that the stage clips don’t hang over the edge of the stage?Turn the light intensity knob down to “1.”Turn off the light.Check to see if the ocular and objective lenses are clean. (If not, clean the dirty lens with the appropriate lens cleaner and lens paper (not a paper towel).)Wrap the cord between the stage and objectives with the plug tucked inside the cord.Place your microscope back in its assigned (numbered) compartment with the arm facing out toward you.Clean up of the remainder of the lab materials.Return any prepared slides to their appropriate boxes.Remove the coverslip from your wet mount slides. Then rinse off the slides.Place any wet mount slides (not prepared slides!) in the container marked “Used slides.” Place the coverslips in the trash.Wipe down your lab bench with lab bench cleaner and paper towels.Wipe down side lab benches with lab bench cleaner and paper towels.Push in your chair.Figure 4. Early Stages in the Developing Sand DollarFigure 5. Later Stages in the Developing Sand DollarI. Review of Sand Dollar DevelopmentAnswer the following questions with reference to the letter designations in the chart below.ProcessesStagesa. fertilizationf. larvab. morphogenic migrationg. gametesc. hatchingh. blastulad. cleavagei. zygotee. metamorphosisj. gastrulaQuestion 24. Which of the following represents the sequence of occurrence for the developmental processes? Use the highlighter tool ( ) to highlight the correct answer.1. a, b, c, d, e2. a, d, b, c, e3. b, e, d, c, a4. e, d, b, a, c5. a, d, e, c, bQuestion 25 . Which of the following represents the sequence of occurrence for the developmental stages? Use the highlighter tool above ( ) to highlight the correct answer.1. f, g, h, i, j2. j, h, i, f, g3. g, h, i, j, f4. g, i, h, j, f5. i, g, f, j, h
I want to do home work for bio 120 it is 25 questions
IWCC Metaethical Relativism Philosophy Exam Questions
IWCC Metaethical Relativism Philosophy Exam Questions.
According to Enoch, how would we respond moral questions if we *are* objectivists?Group of answer choicesJust as disagreement about whether climate change is occurring feels like an attempt to discover an independent, objective scientific truth, so disagreement about whether abortion is permissible in certain cases feels like an attempt to discover an independent, objective moral truth.Just as disagreement about whether dark chocolate or milk chocolate is better seems trivial and merely about one’s own preferences, so disagreement about whether abortion is okay or not seems trivial and merely about one’s own preferencesJust as top hats would be in fashion if everyone were to like them and wear them, so gender discrimination would be permissible if everyone were to be okay with itJust as it’s funny to say that “It’s a good thing I don’t like spinach, because if I did, then I would want to eat it–but it’s disgusting” so it would be funny to say “It’s a good thing I didn’t grow up in the 18th century, because if I did, then I would think racism and slavery were okay–but they aren’t!”Flag this QuestionQuestion 21 ptsAccording to Enoch, how would respond moral questions if we are *not* objectivists?Group of answer choicesJust as it seems appropriate to say that “It’s a good thing I didn’t grow up in the middle ages in Europe, because it I had, then I would have believed that the Sun orbits around the Earth–and that’s false!” so it makes sense to say “It’s a good thing I didn’t grow up in the 18th century, because if I did, then I would think racism and slavery were okay–but they aren’t!”Just as disagreement about whether climate change is occurring feels like an attempt to discover an independent, objective scientific truth, so disagreement about whether abortion is permissible in certain cases feels like an attempt to discover an independent, objective moral truth.Just as disagreement about whether dark chocolate or milk chocolate is better seems trivial and merely about one’s own preferences, so disagreement about whether abortion is okay or not seems trivial and merely about one’s own preferencesJust as smoking would still be harmful even if we were all to believe that it was harmless, so gender discrimination would be morally wrong even if we were all to believe that it was okayFlag this QuestionQuestion 31 ptsWhat is an example of a descriptive statement?Group of answer choicesIt is morally wrong to stealStealing in most cases is morally wrongLots of people find stealing to be abhorrentYou morally ought not to stealFlag this QuestionQuestion 41 ptsWhat is an example of a normative ethical statement?Group of answer choicesStealing in most cases is morally wrongOur culture believes that stealing is almost always morally unacceptableLots of people find stealing to be abhorrentJohn took Erin’s bike even though John believes that stealing is morally wrongFlag this QuestionQuestion 51 ptsWhat is an example of a metaethical statement?Group of answer choicesYou morally ought to help people starving to deathThe statement “war is wrong” (when said by me) is true if and only if I disapprove of warLying to benefit yourself is morally wrongKilling in self-defense is morally permissibleFlag this QuestionQuestion 61 ptsWhat is an example of a metaethical statement that defines a normative moral concept?Group of answer choicesWhen I say “Lying is morally wrong” that just means that my culture disapproves of lying.The statement “Lying is wrong,” when said by me, is true only if I disapprove of lying.What makes lying wrong is the fact that God commands us not to lie.The wrongness of lying is constituted by my culture’s disapproval of lying.Flag this QuestionQuestion 71 ptsWhat kind of statement does a normative ethical statement make?Group of answer choicesGives the truth conditions of normative ethical statements.Describes the beliefs and customs of a culture.Analyzes the nature of moral properties or facts.Says that some action is morally required or wrong or permissible.Flag this QuestionQuestion 81 ptsWhat is metaethical relativism? Group of answer choicesWe do not have any obligations. We do not have any duties. We are not required to do anything. Nothing we might do is wrong. What makes lying wrong is the fact that God commands us not to lie.What makes lying wrong for me is the fact that I disapprove of lying.What makes lying wrong for me is the fact that my culture disapproves of lyingFlag this QuestionQuestion 91 ptsWhat is metaethical subjectivism? Group of answer choicesWhat makes lying wrong for you is the fact that you disapprove of lying.We do not have any obligations. We do not have any duties. We are not required to do anything. Nothing we might do is wrong. What makes lying wrong for you is the fact that God’s desires that we not lie or commands us not to lie.What makes lying wrong for you is the fact that your culture disapproves of lying.Flag this QuestionQuestion 101 ptsWhat is theistic voluntarism? Group of answer choicesWhat makes lying wrong for you is the fact that your culture disapproves of lying.What makes lying wrong for you is the fact that you disapprove of lying.What makes lying wrong for you is the fact that God’s desires that we not lie or commands us not to lie.We do not have any obligations. We do not have any duties. We are not required to do anything. Nothing we might do is wrong. Flag this QuestionQuestion 111 ptsWhat is moral nihilism? Group of answer choicesThe wrongness of lying for me is constituted by my culture’s disapproval of lying.The wrongness of lying is constituted by God’s commanding us not to lie.We do not have any obligations. We do not have any duties. We are not required to do anything. Nothing we might do is wrong. The wrongness of lying is constituted by my disapproval of lying.Flag this QuestionQuestion 121 ptsWhat is metaethical objectivism? Group of answer choicesThere are moral properties or moral facts that exist independently of the moral codes of any culture, and of the attitudes and feelings of any individual person, and of the commands and desires of any divine being.The term “morally wrong” just means “God forbids it” or “God desires that we avoid it.”The term “morally wrong” just means “I disapprove.”The term “morally wrong” just means “my culture disapproves of it.”Flag this QuestionQuestion 131 ptsWhat metaethical theory claims that what makes any normative moral statement true or false is determined by the moral code of the speaker’s culture? Group of answer choicesTheistic voluntarismMetaethical objectivismMetaethical subjectivismMetaethical relativismFlag this QuestionQuestion 141 ptsWhat metaethical theory claims that what moral concepts such as ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ are defined in terms of one’s preferences and attitudes? Group of answer choicesMetaethical relativismMetaethical subjectivismMetaethical objectivismTheistic voluntarismFlag this QuestionQuestion 151 ptsWhat metaethical theory claims that moral concepts such as ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ are defined in terms of God’s commands or desires? Group of answer choicesTheistic voluntarismMetaethical relativismMetaethical subjectivismMoral nihilismFlag this QuestionQuestion 161 ptsWhat metaethical theory claims that no normative moral statement is true? Group of answer choicesMoral nihilism Metaethical objectivismMetaethical subjectivismMetaethical relativismFlag this QuestionQuestion 171 ptsWhat is metaethical subjectivism? Group of answer choicesWhat makes any normative moral statement true or false is determined by the speaker’s preferences and attitudes.We are only morally responsible for acting according to our sincerely held moral attitudes and feelings.You believe what you believe; other people believe what they believePeople differ in their moral attitudes and feelings.Flag this QuestionQuestion 181 ptsWhat is metaethical objectivism? Group of answer choicesAll cultures have the same moral code.There are moral properties or moral facts that exist independently of the moral codes of any culture, and of the attitudes and feelings of any individual person, and of the commands and desires of any divine being.All moral rules are absolute and do not have any exceptions. For example, lying is always wrong, no matter the situation. We are able to approach moral decisions in an impartial, unbiased way.Flag this QuestionQuestion 191 ptsWhat is an objection to metaethical objectivism?Group of answer choicesWe ought to follow the moral code of our own culture.We ought to be tolerant of other cultures.If this view were true, there would not be any differences or disagreements across cultures. But there is.We ought to obey God.Flag this QuestionQuestion 201 ptsOne argument against metaethical objectivism relies on the following premise: “If we acquire our moral attitudes and feelings from our cultural upbringing, then there are no objective moral truths.” What response addresses this premise?Group of answer choicesMetaethical subjectivism is falseThe differences we find in the moral codes of different cultures are not substantial and underlying those differences are deep similaritiesWe do not acquire all of our moral beliefs from our culture—some of them arise as a result of human biologyThe mere fact that we acquire our beliefs from a particular source does not logically mean that there are no objective facts pertaining to that topicFlag this QuestionQuestion 211 ptsWhat is an objection to metaethical relativism?Group of answer choicesIf this view were true, we would not be acquiring our moral attitudes from our cultural upbringing. But we are.If this view were true, noteworthy moral reformers would be making incorrect normative moral statements and would be encouraging people to do what is morally wrong. But many of these reformers were engaged in worthy and good projects.If this view were true, God could desire that we torture babies for fun or that we inflict gratuitous harm on each other or other similar such horrible things. Afterall, those things wouldn’t be inherently wrong. There’s nothing wrong with those things separate from God’s desires. But those things are wrong, regardless of God’s desires concerning them.Disagreements about distinctively moral topics do not just seem like they’re just expressions of different attitudes, which this view says they are. They seem to involve the idea that one of those attitudes is mistaken.Flag this QuestionQuestion 221 ptsWhich example is used to highlight how some moral differences across cultures are due to disagreements about the best means to achieve some agreed upon goal or end?Group of answer choicesThe example involving the tourist and A-okay.The example involving the nomadic caribou hunters.The example involving the showing of respect and love for the deceased parent by engaging in certain practices to assist them in the afterlife.The example involving the Amish tradition of avoiding modern technology and living in small, close-knit communities.Flag this QuestionQuestion 231 ptsWhat does Enoch think of arguments against metaethical objectivism that are based on the existence of disagreement?Group of answer choicesHe claims that such arguments fail to take into account the existence of disagreement on topics accepted by everyone as being objectivist.He argues that the only possible response to make is to outright deny that there is any disagreementHe thinks that they successfully undermine metaethical objectivismHe is not quite sure what to say about such argumentsFlag this QuestionQuestion 241 ptsHow does Miller respond to the “arbitrariness” objection?Group of answer choicesThere is no problem: God’s desires are arbitrary, but this is not a problemThere is no problem: God’s desires are not arbitrary. They *are* based on reasons. But these reasons are not independent *moral* truthsThere is no problem because God’s desires are not arbitrary: they are responses to his knowledge of an independent moral realityThis is a problem. Theistic voluntarism should be rejected on this basisFlag this QuestionQuestion 251 ptsAccording to Donaldson, which metaethical theory recommends following the cultural norms in the country in which you are doing business?Group of answer choicesEthical imperialismCultural relativismEthical egoismMetaethical objectivismQuiz saved at 7:06am Submit QuizQuestionsHaven’t Answered YetQuestion 1Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 2Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 3Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 4Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 5Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 6Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 7Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 8Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 9Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 10Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 11Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 12Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 13Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 14Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 15Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 16Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 17Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 18Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 19Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 20Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 21Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 22Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 23Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 24Haven’t Answered YetQuestion 25Time Elapsed: HideAttempt due: Jul 3 at 11:59pm
IWCC Metaethical Relativism Philosophy Exam Questions
CCC Depression in US Adults During the COVID 19 Pandemic Research Paper
essay writer CCC Depression in US Adults During the COVID 19 Pandemic Research Paper.
OverviewHere we are: The Research Paper!It might sound a little frightening, but you have been building it all semester; you’ve got this!This Prompt will serve as the guideline for the Research Paper for this class; further, you should revisit “Research Paper Preview” and “Research Tips and Advice.”I know that seems like a bunch of information, but it should all be review, so it is just a quick look. More importantly, all of the information in the Pages and Modules will be utilized in one way or another in the Research Paper; it is not just “busy work.” Please know that there are rules and requirements that govern research papers sprinkled in these Pages.In the Research Paper for this class, you will be expected to write an Argument on a topic of your choosing; it should be the same topic that you have worked with for your research steps. In terms of essay structure, you will want to make use of the “Argument Template” Page.Instructions:To begin this assignment, compose your Research Paper by addressing the following requirements:Choose a shape } Position or Proposal Argument.Revisit the Page (Position or Proposal) in Module 11 that details your shape prior to writing the essay as the Pages give you instructions to complete the assignment.Create a Title Page.Offer a Full-Sentence Outline (Step 6) that aligns with your Research Paper; if ideas to be included have changed since Step 6, make the appropriate changes to the outline.Write a Thesis Statement that states a stance (Position) or offers a solution (Proposal).Offer clear, fully-developed Body paragraphs, making sure that compelling and convincing evidence is used.Acknowledge the Opposition and address it via Refutation or concession.Make use of transitions.Ensure that all borrowed material, quotes, paraphrases, and summaries, from sources is parenthetically cited to avoid plagiarism. Do not Plagiarize; your Research Paper is being scanned by a Plagiarism Checking Program in Canvas.Offer a MLA Works Cited Page (Step 7); if the sources have changed, then rewrite the page so that it reflects only the works that have been cited.Write 1800-2500 words.SubmissionYou may submit/upload this assignment as a .doc or .docx.When you have composed your Essay, name and save your document, then upload the file by selecting “Submit Assignment.”GradingPlease see the grading rubric for this assignment below. If accessing this course by using the Canvas Student App, you will not see the icon. Instead, please use the menu to locate the rubric.RubricThe associated rubric will be used to provide feedback–please be sure to review the rubric before starting and before submitting your assignment.
CCC Depression in US Adults During the COVID 19 Pandemic Research Paper
US Increased British Colonization of North America Prior to 1700 Discussion
US Increased British Colonization of North America Prior to 1700 Discussion.
You must answer these three questions straight to the point. Briefly explain how ONE specific historical event or development supports one of the following as the most significant factor contributing to increased British colonization of North America prior to 1700.Desires of colonists for religious freedomRoyal economic and legal policiesExtensive transatlantic trade networksBriefly explain how ANOTHER specific historical event or development supports your choice in (a).Briefly explain how ONE specific historical event or development supports one of the other factors as less significant to British colonization of North America prior to 1700.“Throughout the early period of colonization, there was continuing tension between hope that the environment might meet English expectations and requirements and accommodation by the English settlers to the environment actually encountered. The steady accumulation and assimilation of facts about the climate of eastern North America threatened the classical concept of climates — the belief that climate is constant in any latitude around the world. Yet colonists and promoters struggled to adapt the old concept to fit new evidence. … Newfoundland came to be rejected for colonization, although its importance as a fishing ground continued. New England was finally perceived as a rough country where settlement was possible. … In the early seventeenth-century southern mainland colonies, settlers continued to base their expectations on latitude and to hope they could eventually produce commodities comparable to those England imported from southern Europe.”Karen Kupperman, “The Puzzle of the American Climate in the Early Colonial Period,” American Historical Review 87 (1982): 1288–1289.“Summer and winter, rain and snow, ceased to come predictably in the Southwest somewhat earlier than elsewhere in the northern hemisphere. … [D]ense populations had been living at the edge of the land’s agricultural carrying capacity. … Perhaps the extraordinary religious fervor, political capital and material resources devoted to agricultural ceremonies … shows a cultural recognition of just how unstable the balance was. In the arid Southwest, the balance had always been particularly delicate, and collapse appears to have come suddenly — not with the onset of global cooling in the 1300s, but after a fifty-year-long local drought struck the Chaco Canyon area after 1130. … All of the major Puebloan and Hohokam urban centers were gradually abandoned in favor of new pueblos … the former, stratified system of smaller supporting villages apparently disappeared in favor of a more egalitarian settlement pattern.”
US Increased British Colonization of North America Prior to 1700 Discussion
An Analysis and Critical Evaluation of Nursing Education: Past, Present and Future
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp An analysis and critical evaluation of nursing education: past, present and future. Introduction: Nursing profession in Thailand has been established for 100 years. The advanced progression from the initial period can be evidenced by the lowering of infant and maternal mortality rates and the raising of the life expectancy rate at birth (Thaweeboon et al., 2011). During this transformation, the period has developed from a hospital-based, training module trained by female physicians, to the development of doctoral degrees educated by nurses who are responsible at the doctoral level. In recent years, due to the noticeable impacts of globalisation in Thai nursing and comprehend the consumer, technology, expenditure, clinical performance, managed care, health policy, workforce, and integration (WHO, 2000). Furthermore, the substantial development of professional nursing had been influenced by Western nations, especially the United States (Liu, et.al, 2015). For instance, Thailand is undergoing health-care reform focusing on equity, quality, and efﬁciency, particularly in areas such as accessibility and transparency. These responsibilities include health promotion, disease prevention, care and rehabilitation of patients both in hospitals and in the community. Many happened about nursing during the early years of nursing education in Thailand. The founding of the nursing profession helped not only to bring even more emphasis on the roles that nurses played but also drawn the attention of politicians and representatives to the significance of Thai nursing education. Understanding the advanced improvement of the nursing profession in Thailand and the evolution in particular areas of nursing education could provide new insights and perspectives regarding nursing professional development. This essay intends to evaluate the advanced progress of nursing education in Thailand. This essay will determine a historical nursing education in the initial time, then comparing its programs with the current years and speculate as to its future directions. According to Anders and Kunaviktikul (1999), nurses and midwifery employees encompass 70 per cent of all the health personnel of Thailand’s health care system. With regard to the nursing staff, shortages are projected in the future due to an ageing workforce (Kunaviktikul, 2006). Therefore, this could not be achieved without development in nursing education. In addition, the maintaining of education level for all nurses, both in the clinical setting and the community setting, is considered valuable due to the ever-changing circumstance in a globalising world, the improvement of technologies, and the emergence of new diseases. Nursing education in Thailand began in 1896, developed from training system to hospital – training and then to higher education scheme. According to the Queen’s Sripatchariantra of King Rama V, it became evident that the first school of nursing and midwifery has established at Siriraj hospital in 1896. Priority to decreasing maternal and infant mortality rates. The early nursing program trained by male physicians from foreign nations. All of the nursing modules were a hospital-based at a diploma level (Thaweeboon et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2015). Therefore, the nursing profession was likely to assistants’ doctor rather than independent. Because of many people living in rural and remote areas, where health-care services were commonly non-existent, thus the government has supported the concept of vital health services that were intended to meet the everyday needs of the population. (Thaweeboon et al., 2011). In 1956, the first program of the baccalaureate degree in nursing education started at the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the Siriraj of Mahidol University. After World War II, the number of nursing schools increased due to the shortage of nurses. Thus, a short nursing program has established as such a two-year technical nurse and one and half year practical nurse (Thaweeboon et al., 2011). In 1971, with the establishing of the first Nursing Faculty at Khon Kaen University. As university-base programs, therefore, nursing became an independent profession (Kunaviktikul, 2006; Liu et al., 2015). Then, the master’s degree level in nursing had existed in the country since 1973 at the education faculty of Chulalongkorn University (Kunaviktikul, 2006; Liu et al., 2015). Regard to Anders and Kunaviktikul (1999) the nursing curriculum was mainly concerned with supportive of the National Health Policy. The international doctoral nursing program began in 1999, by the collaboration among the Faculty of Nursing at Mahidol University, Chiang Mai University, and Khon Kaen University (Liu et al., 2015). Therefore, the strength area of nursing education in Thailand is midwifery. In addition, with the establishment of the international doctoral nursing program, it can increase the highest level of nursing education development in Thailand (Liu et al., 2015). During the past decades, as a result of the number of nursing schools has increased considerably under both private institutions and governmental. The Nursing Council of Thailand was established in 1985, primarily goals to education and research and regulate the professional conduct of nurses and midwives. Through this long development, the School has progressively made Thai nursing a strong profession,with international standards and recognition (Thaweeboon et al., 2011 ) (Wittayasooporn, 2015) Meaningful improvements of Thailand’s nursing education in the 1990s was included establishing of quality assurance system, leading to achieving international standards, such as ISO 9002, ISO 1400; magnification a system for licensing and relicensing of professionals by the Nursing Council. (Citation) Wittayasooporn Regard to WHO (2000) there were 66 nursing schools which fell under the authority of several divisions, Ministries of University Affairs, Health, Interior, Defense; Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; Red Cross, and the private sector. At present-day, the nursing curriculums in Thailand includes at least 84 undergraduate, 45 masters, 12 doctoral programs and two programs of post-master internship training. (citation) There are now 85 nursing schools providing different levels of nursing education around the country in Thailand (Liu et al., 2015). In recent year, several university schools of nursing in Thailand has cooperated with the school of nursing from abroad and hosting international nursing conferences. Association with Japanese and Taiwanese nurses, for example. (Wittayasooporn, 2015) (Citation) For nursing and midwifery services, the main activities within the past ten years focused on the improvement in the quality of nursing services at all levels of the health system. The Nursing Division had initiated the Quality Improvement Project in 1987 to improve the quality of nursing care in the country in both hospital and community settings. (Citation) Activities under this mission included job analysis to verifying required improvements; advance and development of principles for patient care, and development of several nursing routine manuals. Primarily only 19 provincial hospitals were elaborated in this development. Nurses and customers were satisfied with this initiative, and therefore, it was established to every hospital throughout the country. Future trends With the population growing older and living longer, demand is likely to rise further, and the Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council estimate that there will be a shortage of 50,000 nurses by 2020. (Anon, 2016). Kunaviktikul (2006) suggests that the up-to-date in nursing point to a substantial increase in demand for health care and the need for health-care personnel to be informed of the newest information on medical innovations and latest treatments. Therefore, patient care-centre tend to considerable importance in the healthcare system. Nursing education is very likely to changes and improvements on alternative and complementary therapies, for instance. According to WHO (2000), nursing education should focus on community-nurses in the conducted with an emphasis on prevention and control of infectious diseases. As Thailand is a tourist country. It has some experience in providing multicultural nursing care for various tourists. (Liu et al., 2015). Therefore, the results of reviewing the selected countries’ programs of nursing education can be used to establish academic credit recognition of the international exchange programs, and certainly to expand nurses’ horizons of intercultural nursing care. (Liu et al., 2015). Another improvement for the future of nursing education in Thailand is for institutions to work in collaboration with each other, not just nationally but also internationally as a partnership.( Kunaviktikul,2006) Furthermore, to meet future challenges, ongoing research is vital to provide evidence-based teaching, critical thinking, and learning strategies that are appropriate to the environment and the present day (Kunaviktikul, 2006) Linking among research, education, and practice in nursing is also of vital importance for the improvement of nursing. Collaboration between nursing institutions should be actively encouraged to allow for cross-cultural research, education, and the sharing of knowledge for the beneﬁt of all involved. (Kunaviktikul , 2006). This is because based on Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council’s mission, they would like to upgrade the professional level of nurses to the same as other health alliance professions. Therefore, baccalaureate prepared nurses are currently required as the minimum level of nursing education in Thailand. In addition, the requirement is also related to the fact that different levels of nursing students hold different nurse working licenses in Thailand. When nurses with different levels of education work in clinical settings, they have different responsibilities. However, various nurses working in the same unit with different responsibilities makes patients confused about what kinds of nurses they should call to help them under different situations.(Liu et al., 2015). The changes in students’ profiles are requiring more male nurses to provide the nursing care to priests/monks, (2) education mobility: changes from classroom teaching to community or projects based areas teaching, (3) a shortage of registered nurses, with unequal distribution, (4) a shortage of qualified nursing faculty, (5) education technology (e-learning and distance learning), (6) changes in the health care settings from inpatient to community based, (7)an aging population, and (8) disaster nursing. .(Liu et al., 2015). With the exception of Thailand, the epidemiologic data in the other three countries suggest a need to address the health care issues associated with aging. Course content could address such topics as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, vision changes, depression, urogenital changes, difficult mobility, widowhood, and alterations in bodily appearance and function. Particular emphasis should be made in the women’s health curriculum on health promotion activities that are congruent with each country’s cultural values and beliefs. Thailand. Nursing education, in Thailand, should address prevention of anemia among pregnant women, access to healthcare services by women, and continuity of care from the hospital to the community. Consistent with the emphasis given on women’s rights and their quality of life in Thailand, nursing courses should focus on the changing healthcare needs of women, issues of abuse and violence, and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Nurses need to receive knowledge and skills in the assessment of women’s healthcare needs, factors contributing to abuse and violence, the availability of societal resources for abused women, and the use of preventative measures in the spread of HIV/AIDS (e.g., the use of condoms). CONCLUSION Looking at the history of nursing education, the beginning of nursing education in the aforementioned countries was at a similar time and it usually started at the hospital based nursing education level. During the development of nurse education, special historical events happened in each country. Some of those events contributed to the development of special nursing programs to ﬁt the society’s needs. . (Lambert et al. 2004). Although in Thailand, currently the lowest level of nursing education is baccalaureate, it may not be appropriate for other countries. On the other hand, the global shortage of nurses is recognized around the world. Furthermore, as our world is facing the problem of aging populations, the nursing program should focus on gerontology. Last but not least, with the increase in health care expenses, community based nursing programs should be considered in order to reduce the expenditure.(Liu et al., 2015; Kunaviktikul, 2006). The monitoring of population growth, infant mortality, life expectancy, leading causes of death, and current healthcare concerns is one way to assist in keeping nursing education related to women’s health relevant and current. Women’s healthcare has a bright future as long as all healthcare professionals maintain a creative and knowledgeable approach to educating the next generation of providers. (Lambert et al. 2004). Five issues and challenges: that impact the career pathways of nursingstudents and nurses in Thailand including the identity of the nursing profession, limited faculty resources, English language barriers, transitions of nursing education, and the provision of culturally competent care. References Anon. Public and Private Nursing Schools in Thailand: How does type of training institution affect nurses’ attitudes and job choices? (2016) 2 pp.https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-outputs/public-and-private-nursing-schools-in-thailand-how-does-type-of-training-institution-affect-nurses-attitudes-and-job-choices Kunaviktikul, W. (2006). Nursing and nursing education in Thailand: The past, the present, and the future. Nursing