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I need a case study approach done on my topic

I need a case study approach done on my topic. Can you help me understand this Writing question?

Please review/research what a case study approach entails before embarking on this question first. The topic is:
The impact non-profit organizations have on the homeless community specifically women with children and the ways they can prepare them for the future.
DO NOT DEVIATE FROM THE TOPIC. Follow this topic precisely. Complete each item below!
1. I want a study done on 20 people including, interviews, analytical techniques, data collection and a survey.
2. The case study will involve social workers, CEO/COO of about 5 different shelters, behavioral health counselors, Vocational Specialist, Substance Abuse Counselors, and Housing Providers (transitional homes/landlords).
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this case study?
4. I want a colorful chart and graph showing the results of the case study.
5. This should be at the least 10 pages.
I have uploaded my proposal for this topic for assistance in doing this assignment –ONLY assistance.
I need a case study approach done on my topic

Neo-slavery in Brazil Neo-slavery can be defined as full control of a person by another for economic, political, or social purposes. Agriculture in Brazil has been associated with neo-slavery that manifests in many forms. Affluent landowners control and oppress poor workers in four main ways. Debt, Deceit, coercion and violence are ways in which neo-slaves get to harvest sugarcane and clear large tracks of land that favor cattle farming as well as logging. Notably, Brazil is the largest exporter of sugarcane in the world hence triggers the need for the availability of cheap labor. In this regard, the large number of slaves that are approximately 100000 in Brazil is attributed to economic desire (Vianna 14). In Brazil, neo-slavery occurs in large agricultural plantations that are in remote areas where the public cannot see. Further, slaves cannot easily escape from their area of work. Neo-slavery in Brazil begins with the hiring of a contractor or foreman by affluent landowners. The contractor who is popularly known as gato recruits poor men from villages and cities. Since poor men are desperate, they fall into trap of contractor who promises them decent wages. The poor men are transported to plantations that are in remote areas and made to work tirelessly with no pay. They are told that they are forever indebted to land owners since they did not pay for their transport or food. Violence is pronounced as they work under the supervision of armed guards. Indigenous communities counter the practice of neo-slavery in Brazil in two main ways. The counter-narrative is the most powerful way that is adopted by indigenous communities and refers to the sharing of experiences of neo-slavery. As a result, neo-slavery practice is made known to the public, and the number of people who fall into such traps is reduced. Secondly, indigenous communities support operations initiated by the government of Brazil such as mobile inspection units. For example, in 2005 7000 slaves were saved due to the cooperation of indigenous communities with mobile inspection units (Burrows and Wallace 17). Indigenous Resurgence Sociologists have focused on highlighting reasons why there has been an Indian resurgence in Brazil. Brazil’s movements have played a crucial role in promoting antiracism. Many scholars postulate that the demographic transition of an indigenous resurgence in Brazil is founded on cultural and material reasons. Number of Indians in Minas Gerais, who assume their identity is on rapid escalation. Material incentives that are attached to legal rights, is one of the reasons why most Indians want to be self-identified. Legal rights are attached to democracy that is based on the effects of globalization. It should be noted that indigenous people were exposed to intense maltreatment based on the fact that most of them were slaves. As a result, the government of Minas Gerais is attempting to compensate indigenous people by ensuring that their rights are respected. Land ownership is one of the reasons why Indians want to be identified as indigenous people, as opposed to the earlier trends where Indians hid. Further, change of policies in social movements like in the Catholic Church would ensure reduced oppression among indigenous communities (Little 22). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Warren, material and cultural factors are not the only reasons as to why there is an Indian resurgence in Minas Gerais. The Law of Whites is associated with racism while that of Blacks focuses on antiracism. For example, Whites felt that the adoption of cultural practices by Blacks was not enough to convert them to the White race. On the other hand, the law of Blacks acknowledged the fact that Indians should accept cultural changes as a way of being civilized. Indigenous Efforts Indigenous efforts by Indians to counteract White supremacy have been perceived by many scholars as being racist. In the process of identity formation, Indians had to come up with practices that would ensure that they would not be discriminated against by the White race. As a result, Indians came up with a way that would place them at the same level as the White race. Indians constructed schools that would benefit fellow Indians, as a way of keeping them in touch with civilization. It should be noted that Indians were not as literate as the White race. Efforts to construct schools for Indians were meant to bridge the gap between Black and White races. The issue of racism is based on the fact that schools were meant for a specific race (Warren 15). Racism can either be positive or negative, but involves treating people differently because of their race. Even though the construction of schools was meant to improve the livelihoods of Indians, positive racism was evident. There are however arguments that there was no racism in the construction of schools meant for Indians. It should be noted that Indians were reacting to intense forms of negative racism in Brazil society. Further, the fact that the White race did not allow Indians to school in their schools, ruled out the possibility of Whites schooling together with Indians. Racism was a form of discrimination that rendered Indians inferior to the White race. Indians did not have a chance to school before, since they were being discriminated against. Their effort to construct schools for fellow Indians was not a form of racism, but rather a way to counteract it (Ellis 19). Wasteland Wasteland is a documentary that features pickers or scavengers who live in abject poverty. Vik Munoz lives in a damping site and just as other peasants survive on what affluent people consider poison. According to Munoz, waste damped in Rio city garbage is poisonous in one way or the other. For example, pickers come across dead bodies that are damped in the garbage sites. Once rich people damp their waste, they assume that they are getting rid of poisonous material which instead ends up in the hands of scavengers. Notably, scavengers like Munoz use waste products to make portraits that are sold to the affluent. The issue of Brazil poison arises from fact that people do not seem to consider the feelings of peasants who live or work in damping sites. According to Munoz, scavengers survive on the same poison released by the affluent. Some pickers eat food remains that are damped in city garbage. Portrait made out of waste material, which is regarded as poison is once again returned to the affluent (Kottak and Conrad 19). Even though garbage pickers are most vulnerable to waste deposited in city garbage, the affluent have a significant share of the same poison. In this regard, poison in Brazil is a cycle that affects affluent as well as peasants. The art presented in the wasteland documentary poses a challenge to the cycle of poison in Brazil. The affluent will now be cautious when depositing their waste, as the same waste is likely to be returned to them unknowingly. We will write a custom Essay on Neoslavery and Indigeneous Efforts in Brazil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When people deposit waste and assume that it has vanished, it lands on people who could be negatively affected. Scavengers, who are extremely poor, make portraits and other products from waste and sell them to the affluent. In this regard, scavengers benefit from poison released by the affluent. Finally, the affluent are exposed to the negative effects of poison when they purchase waste products (Little 20). Dirty Wars Dirty war was a period characterized by political tension between communists and capitalists. Latin America was a communist region that faced opposition characterized by terror and the death of innocent citizens. Countries like Brazil were fought by capitalistic states like the US and its allies. The economic crisis was the inevitable aftermath of the dirty war in Brazil. Notably, the socialism model was meant to improve the economy by ensuring the fair distribution of resources among all citizens. Backed dirty wars, were meant to reduce the escalation of communists especially in Latin America (O’Daughtery 18). Dirty wars led to the loss of property that is directly proportional to economic degradation. Loss of property meant that goods that could be used in trade to boost the economy of Brazil were lost. Further, the war period was characterized by insecurity that was not conducive for income-generating activities. For example, foreign direct investments only occur in states that are peaceful and secure. As a result, the economy of Brazil worsened during dirty wars. The corruption that is negatively related to economic progress, increased during dirty wars in Brazil. Since Brazil was insecure and unstable, other powerful states took advantage and exploited it thereby worsening its economy. An unstable state is prone to external interference that is based on economic interests. For example, during dirty wars in Brazil exports and import operations were managed by England. Increased foreign dependence was well pronounced during the dirty wars in Brazil. Brazil depended on external support from other states, which resulted in economic exploitation thus rendering the economy worse (Ellis 23). Social History Over the last three decades, there have been tremendous changes in the social history of Europe and Brazil. The social transition has some similarities as well as differences. In Europe, social transition dates back to the time of the shift from the agricultural revolution to the industrialization revolution. The shift has had different social effects in Brazil and in Europe. In Europe, this marked use of machinery in place of manual jobs. Notably in Brazil, the social transition was associated with increased slavery and captivity. Europe depends on electronics for export, while Brazil majors on agricultural products like sugarcane. There are instances of similarity in the social history of Brazil and Europe, because they all advocated for communism. Brazil and Europe felt that socialism that ensures equitable sharing of resources should be promoted, so as to counteract the privatization index. In this regard, both states advocated for public ownership and governance of resources. The socialism model was however opposed by capitalists and shifted the trend of social transition in Brazil and Europe. Since Brazil was a smaller state, dirty wars that were meant to reduce the incidence of communists affected it more than Europe. As a result, the economic situation negatively affected social transition in Brazil. Gender inequity in Brazil can be attributed to social exposure during the colonial period as well as in dirty wars. On the other hand, Europe was strong and politically influential than small states like Brazil. In this regard, social transition in Europe was not critically affected during the cold war. Currently, the EU that comprises mostly of communists states is facing recession threats that are likely to affect economic growth. Even though Brazil is the world’s largest sugarcane exporter, it is the sixth country with the highest cases of malnutrition (Little 13). The Man Who Copied The man who copied is a play that involves Andres, a photocopier who falls in love with Silvia. Andres attempts to buy a gift for Silvia but realizes that he does not have enough money. He decides to photocopy money to pay for the gift and he succeeds. The act of photocopying money would have negative effects on the economy of Brazil. After Andres manages to pay for the gift with fake money, he feels encouraged to continue with the practice. Not sure if you can write a paper on Neoslavery and Indigeneous Efforts in Brazil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Undetected currency fraud will have negative effects on economy, locally as well as internationally. There is a mention that he continues with the practice of photocopying without being caught. Large-scale circulation of money would result in inflation. The products would be limited, while money circulation would be high leading to further weakening of the currency. After Andres succeeds in photocopying money, he indulges in robbery to get more money. Increased circulation of money would lead to increased prices of products, as a way of getting money from public. Notably, money is not evenly distributed thus gap between affluent and poor would be broadened. Since prices are higher for most individuals, there would be significant drop in living standards of people of Brazil. Further, Andres goes forth to win a lottery which increases money available to public. Free circulation would lead to inflation and potential recession. Local firms would be affected especially those that are entrapped in fraud scenario. Silvia abets Andres in financial fraud with an aim of meeting her father. Fraud would lead to loses, since in instances when Andres used photocopied money products had no value (Kottak and Conrad 16). Culture Central to Antiracism In earlier years Indians have been discriminated by White race in Brazil. Indigenous people feared being associated with their identity, due to low self esteem aligned with it. However, with social transitions being prominent in Brazil, culture has a lot of significance in eradication of racism in Brazil. Culture is essential in identity formation and explains why there is indigenous resurgence in Brazil. Despite the fact that Whites fail to acknowledge efforts by Indians in adopting social transitions brought about by globalization, cultural practices remain potential solution to racism in Brazil. Social transitions highlight cultural practices and align them with different races, so as to constitute wholesome association with no discrimination (Spradley and Mccurdy 18). Cultural consideration influences structure of policies that affect index of racism in Brazil. For example, international relations have expounded on guidelines to ensure that all races are represented. With operation of international laws and other global measures that promote human rights, racism is reduced in Brazil. Notably, international governance ensures that all interests of individual states are represented at global level. International policies are formed on basis of cultures practiced by different people. Domestic policies modified in international level, ensures that different cultural practices are respected and represented. As a result, social transitions have increased culture appreciation and acceptance as opposed to rejection. Culture acceptance reduces instances of racism, as diversity is seen as potential economic and political stability. Indigenous communities in Brazil attempt to bridge gap between them and white race, by appreciating and accepting their culture (Ellis 10). Equity between Indians and white race that is brought about by culture transition and acceptance reduces racism in Brazil. Racial Policies in US Racism is well pronounced in US and traced in its early history. As early as 17th century, slavery of Blacks was well spelt in US. Economic demand and market integration were considered as reasons why cheap labor associated with racism and violence was rampant. Blacks were seen as being inferior to White race and could not enjoy amenities secluded for Whites. As a result, Blacks were powerless despite the fact that they were crucial in economy of US. Socialization, empowerment and fashion are terms that have been used to refer to emergence of racial policies. Policies were developed to compensate Blacks and eradicate racism that was characterized by high degree of violence (Warren 11). Such racial policies are crucial in eradicating racism in US, as they were structured to meet certain objectives and goals. Poverty eradication is one of objectives in most racial policies. Africans were being made to work on large tracks of lands and were not paid. Affluent landowners used Blacks for economic prosperity without minding their welfare. As a result, most slaves lived in abject poverty as they could only grow subsistence food. Racial policies were thus meant to improve living standards of Blacks. Historical consideration that has led to establishment of any racial policy is essential in eradication of racism in US. Activities to eradicate racism in US cannot be stopped until goals set in racial policies have been realized. Further, historical developments on racial policies are essential in determining future trends in antiracism. Existing gaps are identified and recommended for future consideration, which ensures that racism is eradicated in US (Neate and Platt 18). Works Cited Burrows, Edwin and Wallace, Gotham. A History of New York to 1898, Oxford University: University Press. 1999. Print. Ellis, Edward. The Epic of New York: A Narrative History, New York: Basic Books. 2004. Print. Kottak, Peter and Conrad, Philip. Window on Humanity: A Concise Introduction to General Anthropology, New York: McGraw Hill press. 2005. Print. Little, Johnathan. Twentieth-Century American Dramatists, Michigan: Gale publishers. 2000. Print. Neate, Patrick and Platt, Damian. Culture is Our Weapon: Making Music and Changing Lives in Rio de Janeiro, NY: Penguin Press. 2006. Print. O’Daughtery, Maureen. Consumption Intensified: The Politics of Middle Class Daily Life in Brazil, Durham: Duke University Press. 2011. Print. Spradley, James, and Mccurdy, David. Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology, New York: Pearson Education press. 2009. Print. Vianna, Hermona. The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National Identity in Brazil, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 1999. Print. Warren, Jonathan. Racial Revolutions: Antiracism and Indian Resurgence in Brazil, Durham: Duke University Press. 2001. Print.

Experiencing a Strange Sort of Judgment

Experiencing a Strange Sort of Judgment. Help me study for my Writing class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Experiencing a Strange Sort of Judgment
Construct two different exercises that can be done in a classroom to illustrate the principles behind each of the two discussion assignments for the week. These exercises should take the form of some type of game or activity that enables the students not to only comprehend the principles in question but also to experience them in action.
So that you have an idea of what the assignment is, an example of such a game or activity on a completely different topic is that of The Swedish Fish Experiment (Immerwahr, 2012) regarding Hobbesian political theory.
Be sure to identify the target audience for this exercise (grade level, socio-economic status, cultural background, and so on).
The first exercise should focus on the principle behind “The Law Kills” discussion post that you determined as part of that assignment. Without prejudicing your own reflections on the subject, this principle involves the role of the Law in bringing people up short, in making them realize that their efforts are for naught because all has already been done for them in Christ, and that to rely upon the Law is to reject the gift given them in Christ.
The second exercise should focus on the principle articulated explicitly by Capon (2002) in “The Out are Already In” discussion post.
Be sure to explain how each exercise should work in detail and the possible scenarios that could arise as part of the activity. Connect the desired outcomes of the game explicitly to the Required Studies to show how the exercise functions as an experiential illustration of the principles in question.
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Experiencing a Strange Sort of Judgment

International Economic analysis Product: Disneyland in India, management homework help

python assignment help International Economic analysis Product: Disneyland in India, management homework help.

Requirements: Country: INDIA Product: Disneyland in India Summary Introduction Graphs References with web links ConclusionAssignment: Every nation interacts with other nations. Sometimes that interaction is structured through various trade agreements. Other times it is more casual but there are no nations that are totally closed off from the Global Economy. Those interactions may have an impact on the success or failure of any new marketing strategy. Consider some of the following as you analyze the nation’s place in the Global Economy: What international trade agreements is this country part of?What is the country’s relationship to the WTO?Who are the country’s major trading partners?What does the country export?What does the country import?What trade barriers are in place in this country?How strong (weak) is the nation’s currency?How will global problems such as the slowdown in China’s growth or the falling price of oil impact this nation? Here is what we want you to do with this assignment. Dig deeper into the international data for example the WTO databases of trade barriers or the USTR report on trade barriers by country to get a sense of the trade barriers. Look at their exchange rates to see if there is any exchange rate risk What kind of trade agreements do we have with that country? Who are the commercial officer contacts for that country at the US Embassy in that country? What is the US Commercial guide for the country saying about potential in that country? What are Foreign Direct Investment trends in that country and is it easy to move investments in and out of that country. Suggested Resources: integrated trade data on countries (wto antidumping etc for goods and services) (trade data)Trade barriers latest report
International Economic analysis Product: Disneyland in India, management homework help

Britannia The Best Known Brands In India Marketing Essay

The objective of this project is to identify the problem faced by Britannia Industries Limited in the SCM area and provide a solution to it. The main problem identified is the “Bullwhip Effect” and the proposed solution is to implement an ERP based solution. Organization Background Britannia is one of the best-known brands in India, one of the largest biscuit manufacturers in the country, The Company known as Britannia Industries Ltd. today began in 1892 in a ordinary house in Kolkata. The initial investment to form the company was 295 Indian Rupees (US$7) at today’s exchange rate. More than 100 years later, sales have reached approximately 18.7 billion Rupees (US$400 million). Britannia begins with the business producing electricity, Britannia mechanized its operations, and in 1921, it became the first company east of the Suez Canal to use imported gas ovens. Britannia’s business was flourishing. But, more importantly, Britannia was acquiring a reputation for quality and value. As a result, during the World War II, the Government reposed its trust in Britannia by contracting it to supply large quantities of “service biscuits” to the armed forces. And therefore the company was incorporated in 1918 as Britannia Biscuits Co. Ltd. in Calcutta and in 1924, Peek Frean UK acquired a controlling stake in the company, which was later passed on to Associated Biscuits International UK (ABI). During the 1950s and 1960s, Britannia expanded its operations beyond Calcutta to Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai. In the year 1978 company went for public issues and Indian shareholding crossed 60%, firmly establishing the Indian ness of the firm and formed Britannia Industries Limited (BIL). Four years later in 1983, it crossed the Rs100 crores revenue mark. In 1987, Nabisco acquired ABI. Then in 1989, JM Pillai, a Singapore-based non-resident Indian (NRI) businessman, and Grouped Danone acquired Asian operations of Nabisco and the controlling stake in Britannia. Later, Danone and Nusli Wadia took over Mr. Pillai’s holdings. Britannia has been jointly owned by Danone and Wadia Group since 1997. The two along with five other companies form a holding company called Associated Biscuits International Ltd., which owns a 51% share of Britannia. The remaining 49% share is held by the public and financial institutions. On the operations front, In 1997, the company unveiled its new corporate identity – “Eat Healthy, Think Better” – and made its first foray into the dairy products market. In 1999, the “Britannia Khao, World Cup Jao” promotion further fortified the affinity consumers Britannia strode into the 21st Century as one of India’s biggest brands and the pre-eminent food brand of the country. It was equally recognized for its innovative approach to products and marketing: the Lagaan Match was voted India’s most successful promotional activity of the year 2001 while the delicious Britannia 50-50 Maska-Chaska became India’s most successful product launch. In 2002, Britannia’s New Business Division formed a joint venture with Fonterra, the world’s second largest Dairy Company, and Britannia New Zealand Foods Pvt. Ltd. was born. In recognition of its vision and accelerating graph, Forbes Global rated Britannia ‘One amongst the Top 200 Small Companies of the World’, and The Economic Times pegged Britannia India’s 2nd Most trusted brand. Having succeeded in garnering the trust of almost one-third of India’s one billion populations and a strong management at the helm means Britannia will continue to dream big on its path of innovation and quality. And millions of consumers will savor the results, happily ever after. Britannia puts a lot of emphasis on its primary biscuit brands including Tiger, Good Day, Marie, Milk Bikis, 50:50 and Treat. Biscuits make up more than 80% of the company’s production – bread, cakes and dairy constitute the remaining 20%. Its brands are considered to be an excellent value by India’s price-conscious consumers. BIL is the first company to introduce the several varieties of biscuits in India, such as 50:50, glucose biscuits for children, chocolate biscuits, butter biscuits and became the household name of the country. In fact some of these brands are bigger than several multinationals in the food business in India. The Tiger brand biscuit, one of the most well-known, is extremely popular among rural consumers – with almost 50% of the brand’s value sales coming in from rural areas. Market of Britannia According to Euromonitor International, Britannia continues to have a strong presence in India’s bakery products industry. In 2001, the company had 18.9% market share for all bakery products; that number rose to 19.9% by 2004. As for the biscuit portion of the business, Britannia had 41.2% market share in 2001 and 43.6% in 2004 when Britannia was the national leader in biscuit sales. Currently Britannia Industries Ltd, accounts for about 38% in value and 32% in volume of the organized biscuits market in India. Bakery product sales increased from 13.9 billion Rupees (US$295.6 million) in 2001 to 17.2 billion Rupees (US$368.1 million) in 2004, a 7.6% compound annual growth rate. Biscuits made up 82% of Britannia’s bakery products value sales in 2001 and rose to 85% in 2004. Of Britannia’s total biscuit value sales, 82% are from sweet biscuits and 18% are from savory biscuits and crackers. In the company’s baked foods category, 87% consist of bread products, 13% are cakes. The entire biscuit market is estimated to be around 1.1 million tones per annum, and valued at over Rs 50 billion. The biscuit segments enjoy the most developed markets for any item of mass consumption, covering over 90% of the overall potential market. This implies that over 900 million Indian buys and eat biscuits, with varying frequency in any year. The market is highly competitive at the supply side, with thousands of small scale manufactures as well as others in the organized large scale sectors. After the 1997 Britannia changed its strategies from product oriented to opportunity oriented. Earlier Britannia has narrow lined products mainly for kids but when the trends. Preferences and taste of common man changed Britannia also added number of varieties in its products and they in real sense used the opportunity in making the products, Britannia widen its product line which follows the STP. They served the products for all the categories of people, now biscuit is not only meant for guest but also for the individuals by introducing tiger biscuits in small packs, The length of Britannia brand is demonstrated by the fact that it stands far above all in this fiercely competitive market, with over 46% market share by value. Targeting the key consumers and and changing the products with opportunity has worked for the Britannia and that’s why they are the leader in the biscuit range. Product Portfolio of Britannia Britannia’s entire product offering derive their premium qualities from the principles of health and taste. This key premise has led to the evolution of a lifetime menu where Britannia product exists for every stage in a person’s life. The highest consumption group for biscuit are children; here Britannia offers milk bikis with all the ‘goodness of milk’ required by younger kids. While the tiger brand is aimed for 7-14 year olds and provides them with the exuberant health required by winners of tomorrow. Treat a range of delicious cream biscuit- is meant as a treat for children during fun times. A particularly notable success has been little hearts, meant for teenagers and kids, which has completely dispelled an erstwhile industry axiom that this target group did not snack on sweet biscuit. Moving on other age groups, Britannia created 50-50 as a biscuit snack for young adults with its sweet and salty taste. The savory time pass brand is targeted at the same age group as well, Britannia mariegold, is a venerated tea-time offering that is packed with wheat energy and has found much favor with health conscious urban adults. Good day, a cookie filled with rich ingredients is a healthy everyday treat for entire family. Britannia has a range of bread and cakes entrenched in the fresh bakery segment. these products aloe the consumers to interact with the brand more often and maintain continuity of the taste with health promise. In 2004, the company was extremely active in rolling out new products. It introduced its Little Hearts brand, which are referred to as “melt in the mouth” biscuits. Little Hearts Orange (orange-flavored biscuits) and Classic retail for 10 Rupees. Britannia also added Blackcurrant Treat, Jam Treat, Good Day Gingernut and Good Day Choco-Nut to its growing biscuit line in 2004. For the bread and dairy markets, Britannia introduced NutriChoice vitamin-enriched bread and Milk Man low-fat cheese slices. There were no new product launches in 2005, instead the company worked on strengthening existing brands. It released Premium Assorted Exotic Creme Biscuits, which feature varieties of some of the most popular biscuits – Pure Magic Chocolate, Pure Magic Vanilla, Pure Magic Strawberry

Feminism in Legal Jurisprudence and Social Analysis

Discuss critically the contribution of feminist thought to social and legal analysis. Consider the extent to which you regard feminism as a distinctive and coherent approach to these fields of enquiry. Introduction This paper will critically examine the feminist contribution to legal jurisprudence and social analysis. The theoretical range and methodologies of feminist dialogue will be investigated in context of legal philosophy and social academic discourse. First, classical social theories of law will be discussed in order to asses the value of feminist analysis of social theories. In particular the feminist investigation of the socio – economic theory of Marxism will be discussed in order to understand the sociological perspectives concerning the role women played in the social order. Secondly, aspects of feminist legal inquiries looking at thematic issues central to feminist thought will be analyzed. In relation to this, internal academic criticisms between feminist factions will be addressed to highlight the sheer diversity of feminist legal jurisprudence. This essay will aim to demonstrate that feminism is a distinctive inquisitive range of inquiry, but it is not a unified approach to legal and sociological fields. In this sense its pluralism and diversity can at times leave the movement fractured and divided. But this essay argues that this does not diminish the ability of the movement to raise important ideas while tackling broad theoretical academic queries. Feminism thought: contextual origins Feminism thought originated from a historically wide ranging social debates and theories. It can trace roots back to the women’s liberation movement which gained momentum in the 60’s and 70’s along side other social struggles in the same era, notably the American civil rights movement. Feminist thought is indefinable as a single unitary theory. Feminist thought primarily is a ‘diverse, competing and often opposing collection of social theories, political movements and moral philosophies.’[1] The innermost guiding issue is to critically discuss the role of women and their experiences in various social, political and economical contexts. Issues of inequality, discrimination, institutional female representation, socialized or biological constructions of gender differences and resulting cultural implications are a just a few lines of inquiry explored by modern Western feminist thought. Thus feminist thinking is a multifarious and pluralistic academic discipline. There is ‘no single form of feminism that represents all feminists.’[2] Social feminist theories Feminist legal thought, it can be suggested, has made a substantial contribution to social analysis. It is a relatively new area of analysis for feminist scholars. Feminist social theory examines social relations between the sexes, expressly looking at how societal actions can be transported into the public domain for the emancipation of women. It is suggested feminist social theory has made pivotal contributions[3] and changes in modern society. It has worked to revolutionize existing attitudes with reference to social structures. It is argued, that recent social changes have been achieved through the committed agitation of feminist thinkers who fully participating in socially engaged issues such as women’s rights and reform. This has resulted in the ‘increased involvement of women in public life’[4] suggesting feminist legal thought has in some small way played a part to advance equality of the sexes. In this sense, social feminism is continually evolving[5] through analytic inquiries to understand female subordination which assimilates issues of class and gender. This includes the consideration of wider factors related to identity, race, and ethnicity. By focusing on such factors, Holmstrom argues social feminist academics aim to ‘help use this analysis to liberate women.’[6] In this context, feminist thought has been able to add confidently to general social theory. For example feminist inquiries of social theory have helped to change the way sociologists previously conceptualized social theories, by focusing upon reoccurring lines of inquiry. For example, first, feminist social theory discusses biological differences and socialized activity in society. Secondly the interpretative meaning and explanation of what the term ‘social’ can mean has been praised as helping to erect a broader scope of inquiry than exhibited by earlier forms of sociology. As a direct consequence it is argued ‘feminist theories have moved beyond the issue of women and point the way to a more creative form’ of intellectual inquiry.[7] Thirdly, social feminists have usually examined patterned links between males and females which are socially structured. This can be seen in the work of Catherine Mackinnon discussed below. Finally, the feminist inquiry looks into how particular social relationships are formed and the structural workings of societal institutions.[8] It’s methods of examining ‘the meaning of the “social”, how a person’s experience affects her understanding of the social world and how males and females relate to each other’ has led sociologists to rethink previously established and influential social theories.[9] Critiques of classical social theory This impact is most noticeably seen in the radical feminist analysis of traditional social theories such as Marxism. Mackinnon [10] and Sydie[11] critically reveal how classical theories of Marx, Weber and Durkheim marginalized women to varying degrees, in order to promote social and economic aspects of their theories. Thus a major criticism leveled at classical theory is that women are fundamentally ignored by male sociologists who were preoccupied with the ‘male activities, experiences and parts of society dominated by males.’[12] For example, sociological classical theories are formulated within context of industrial society and economies. Feminists argue that capitalism helped to expand the male public sphere of influence through industrial structures. This expansion in turn was balanced by the constraint of females in the domestic private section of society, with almost no engagement in public, political or economic events.[13] This can be seen in women’s electoral disenfranchisement and the suffragette movement in 18th and 19th century England. Feminist analysis of Marxist ideas A large area of feminist discourse concerns Marxist ideas. Marxism is analyzed through its historical materiality and approach. It conceptualizes history as distinct ‘succession of modes of production.’[14] Each stage of society’s historical development will progress through evolving social stages such as feudalism, capitalism and socialism. Such phases are characterized by unique modes of production. Such modes of production within the economy are made up by the integral power relations between the ‘direct producers and the owners of the means of production’ who exploit workers. Holstrom explains that within Marxist theory, issues of inequality and class division are utilized by feminist scholars to extend the range of social inquiry. Further more, they are used to examine societal divisions between the sexes, and the ‘process through which social relations of gender are created organized, expressed and directed’ as such gender relations fundamentally ‘create society.’[15] For example Mackinnon provided an influential feminist account of the social and economic theories of Marx: Marxism and feminism provide accounts of the way social arrangements of patterned and cumulative disparity which can be internally rational and systematic, yet unjust. Both are theories of power and social inequality. As Marxism exposes value as a social creation, feminism exposes a desire of the socially relational[16], internally necessary to unequal social orders. Thus, Marxist study is focused on the production of commodities for exchange and the subsequent social exploitation encouraged by this phenomenon. Feminist thought argues Marxist emphasis is placed on creative human labour which sustains the productive economy. In analyzing the modes of production and social exploitation, the societal theory neglects females who were not seen to be exploited in the same way as male workers as they did not constitute the oppressed labor force.[17] A further example of the disregard of women’s contribution to the production of commodities is the female role in the private sphere. It can be suggested that Marx ‘spends little time analyzing goods and services produced in the household and family’[18] where the trade is non commercial. Thus, feminist theory provided a valuable analytic discourse exposing the fallacy that Marxist ideas discuss all types of labour. It is in fact, limited by the barrier of gender inequalities. It failed to adequately investigate such discrepancies according to feminist criticisms. Such external activities outside the market, such as reproduction which biologically provides the supply of labour from the family, are taken for granted by Marx.[19] Thus, feminist thought crucially highlighted how Marxism failed to comprehensively debate how a woman’s domestic and familial role aided the value of labor power as an economic commodity in society. Social theory examines many aspects of gender differences and inequality, factors which the works of classical sociologists developed no such theories about. Feminists revealed deep-seated conceptual weaknesses in such theories. For example Mackinnon’s critique of Marx discusses the notion that within the idea of class relations, women were to Marx defined by nature[20] and not by society. Therefore Marxism offers no authoritative scrutiny on the role of women within class division of society. Social feminist disciplines are argued by Adams and Sydie to help voice challenging questions which are ‘women centered in perspective, questions core concepts and assumptions of sociology’[21], and asks how change can produce a more socially acceptable human society for the sexes. In summary this paper believes feminist thought has performed a pivotal function in reassessing the nature of traditional sociological theories such as Marxism. In doing so, feminist scholars have created new perceptions of sociological theories in relation to discussing women in society. Feminist Legal and Jurisprudence Feminist legal theory, developed from the Critical Legal Studies School of jurisprudential thought. Feminist legal theory, aims broadly to: Analyze the contribution of law constructing, maintaining, reinforcing and perpetuating patriarchy and it looks at the ways in which this patriarchy can be undermined and ultimately eliminated.[22] According to the writer Leslie Bender patriarchy is a term used by feminists to address the ‘ubiquitous phenomenon of male domination.’[23] Discussion of patriarchy allows feminist discourse to examine social and legal power relations, primarily as men have used institutional methods of power to subordinate women. These methods of power ‘manifest itself in the political and economic world that governs families and sexual relationships.’[24] Freeman argues that this fundamental belief in social patriarchy is the only primary notion which brings together feminist legal theoretical discourse as a whole body.[25] Theoretical lines of inquiry stemming from the Critical Legal school, demonstrates that feminist legal thinking also aspires to create a basic critic of the: ‘inherent logic of law, the indeterminacy and manipulability of doctrine, the role of law, in legitimating particular social relations, the illegitimate hierarchies created by law and legal regulations.’[26] In this sense, feminist legal theories endeavor to locate and identify the underlying imbalances in legal rules and institutional structures in society, assessing the impact upon women as a whole. In a wider context, feminist thought is seen as an inevitable progression in academic debate into the area of jurisprudence. Ashe argues it is a ‘natural progression of the engagement of female reflection to one more area of discourse’ in view of other feminist studies in sociology, philosophy and history.[27] Therefore the extent of feminist contributions to legal jurisprudence can not be underestimated. It forms a solid ‘committed inquiry’ according to Dalton[28] in order to address female subordination, analyzing fundamental questions as to how and why mechanisms operate and succeed in placing women in such social positions. Furthermore feminist inquiry into law is a vital contribution for those studying the field. For example, this author believes continued female expression and analytical work helps promote feminist legal jurisprudence within mainstream discourse. Dalton pessimistically characterizes the belief that from an outsiders view it is ‘beyond the pale’ to be a ‘women who teaches and writes as a woman, expressing women’s concerns.’[29] This paper would doubt the assertion that the role of academic feminist legal thought is viewed so disparagingly by mainstream society. Feminist legal thought may be thought of as a selective field of inquiry, but it is important for legal jurisprudence that all aspects of the law are examined from a variety of theoretical standpoints. This enables academics to discover and discuss the nature of law as an evolving social institution in a comprehensive manner. It helps to frame feminist jurisprudential within an inquisitive, exploratory framework which guides such discourse. This enables academics to focus on particular points in the discussion. This can be demonstrated by Heather Wishik,[30] in which feminist legal inquiry concentrates on answering the following analytical questions to provide a structurally coherent focus within the legal field: 1. What have been and what are now all women’s experiences of the ‘life situation addressed by the doctrine, process or area of law under examination? 2. What assumptions, descriptions, assertions and or definitions of experience – male, female or gender neutral –does the law make in this area? 3. What is the area of mismatch, distortion or denial created by the differences between women’s life experiences and the laws assumptions or imposed structures? 4. What patriarchal interests are served by the mismatch? 5. What reforms have been proposed in this area of law or women’s life situation? How will these reform proposals if adopted, affect women both practically and ideologically? 6. In an ideal world what would this woman’s life situation look like and what relationship if any, would law have to this future life situation? Such an analytical framework and inquiry demonstrates the reasoned theoretical approach plotted by feminist legal thought within jurisprudence. Locating specific questions enables feminist legal discussion to examine areas of law with purpose and structure, while sustaining its clear purpose of understanding the position of females operating within social structures. Feminist Legal Methodology To understand how feminist thought in relation to law is carried out, it is necessary to discuss the methodology of the academic school. The methodology can be simplified into three main points. First, it challenges the ‘positivist empirical tradition’ arguing that it is assumptive to accept the validity of observation and objective measurement. Feminist legal theorists therefore challenge a firmly established positivist concept within jurisprudence, that through a neutral standpoint the ‘truth or reality will emerge.’[31] Lacey discusses the ‘supposed’ neutral framework for legal reasoning such as the rule of law which is central to liberal and positivist legal philosophy. The idea of the rule of law is that it sets up standards which are applied in a neutral manner to formally equal parties. Questions of inequality and power may effect the capacity of those parties to engage effectively in legal reasoning. Gilligan on constructing moral problems in relation to gender has opened up a striking argument about the possible masculinity of the very process of legal reasoning.[32] The importance of challenging the conventional legal methodology helps to legitimately question the fundamental instutionalized legal reasoning processes which impact upon society. Finally, feminist methodology continually asks what is known as ‘the woman question’, investigating the nature of law through probing and recognizing female events which the law regulates in society. K.T Bartlett elaborated on the ‘woman question’ in Feminist Legal Methods[33] to mean ‘how the law fails to take into account the experiences and values that seem more typical of women than men or how existing legal standards and concepts might disadvantage women.’ Secondly, female practical reasoning stemming from contextual investigation is used to highlight the fundamental differences between people, and recognizes the value of the disenfranchised in society. Freeman suggests female practical reasoning is an interpretative approach[34] also used by the critical legal methods. Such influence means the interpretative approach is drawn on to ‘emancipate and uncover aspects of society especially ideologies that maintain the status quo by restricting or limiting groups access to the means of gaining knowledge.’[35] Thirdly, through the tactic of ‘conscious raising,’ sharing and increasing individual awareness of the female life experience is a tool for feminists. Such ‘conscious raising’ enables the exploration of social constructs while challenging the objective truth exhibiting itself as ‘law and the criteria for legal legitimacy.’[36] The validity of such characteristic feminist methodological traits discussed by Bartlett reveals ‘things which traditional legal methods ignore.’[37] Such an approach places emphasis on the idea of: Positionality – a stance that acknowledges the existence of empirical truths, values and knowledge. Knowledge is situated in social contexts and reflects different experiences. Thus they key lies in the effort to extend ones’ limited perspective.[38] This methodological standpoint is used as a launch pad by feminists to comprehensively consider different types of knowledge. Through experimental and far-reaching scrutiny, feminist scholars believe such a methodology will lead to heightened responsiveness achieving the goal of self determination and change in society. Freeman argues this point by stating an ‘improved methodology will result in a better understanding and ability to urge transformative practice.’[39] Categories of feminist legal thought Within feminist jurisprudence, there are many theoretical branches focusing on different conceptual points by academic feminists. Freeman identifies four main categories within feminist jurisprudence which have discussed extensive aspects of law’s relationship to the female gender in society. For example Liberal, Radical, Cultural and Postmodern approaches to feminist legal thought have provided thought provoking and powerful examinations of how women can be affected by law. Such diverse inquiries also investigate the consequences this has for female gender identity and socialized power relations. All theories are important as particular writers under each category discuss very real topical legal subjects which the reader can relate to. Examples of legal topics discussed by feminist scholars For example the legal subjects of rape, domestic violence, and harassment have been examined under English case law. R v. R (1991) has been a notable case for radical feminist attention in discussing the laws of rape, which attempt to protect women from sexual violence within and outside marriage. Feminists look at such emotive topics in order to place critical attention on women’s legal rights as citizens, examining the context of situations associated with the female experience. It can be suggested, a crucial aim of such discourse in not only theoretical, but represents genuine pragmatism to produce change which prevents rape head on,[40] and alters traditional ingrained conceptions which permeate gender relations in society. For example, rape should not be conceptualized as a phenomenon female victims should ‘have to deal with trying to avoid’ but infact it should be reformulated as an act which men must prevent.[41] It can be argued, it is imperative for feminist legal scholars to continue to question how we view issues of sexual violence and critically assess how laws might unintentionally reinforce negative male values against women. A second area of feminist legal analysis is concentrated on the notion of equality for the sexes. Laws regulating pension retirement ages and equally pay opportunities under labour laws have been an issue within liberal feminism. Aspects of inequality between the sexes have been discussed using the differences in pay opportunities between the genders, and the existence of the glass ceiling in economic corporate structures. Such examples showing the range of analysis feminist legal thought pursues, demonstrates how resourceful the discipline is. Further more feminist thinking can provide distinct and logical investigations of previously unexplored areas of law. Black letter law, statutory legislation and rules effecting social relations and power structures have been exposed by feminists questioning the nature of legal rules upon female social existence. In this respect, feminist aims of uncovering the patriarchal aspects of the legal system increase awareness and help to establish necessary debates challenging the current condition of legal structures. This essay will now discuss some of the theoretical contributions of liberal, radical, and cultural feminist thought to legal theory. Feminist responses to Liberal theories This essay believes analysis of equality and earlier liberal theories have provided a valuable contribution to legal analysis. The work of Cain[42] and Lacey both examined models of equality in a legal environment. Liberals believe in the autonomous rational individual and minimal state involvement with private agents, which theoretically displaces gender differences. It suggests all humans are equal on the basis of possessing free will. Liberal feminism is rooted in the belief that women as well as men are right bearing autonomous human beings. Rationality, individual choice, equal rights and equal opportunities are central concepts for liberal political theory. Liberal feminism building on these concepts argues that women are just as rational as men and those women should have equal opportunities with men to exercise their right to make rational self interested choices. [43] Cain directly challenges established libertarian thought, arguing it is not the point ‘ to make women into men but expand the possibilities for female life experience by freeing women from the limitations of the male constructed category of “women” if she so chooses.’[44] Nicola Lacey extends this line of argument by examining the institutional limitations which are placed on women. This is known as the public and private sphere which effects power relations between men and women. The private spheres of life, such as family domestic life are contrasted to male dominated areas of public life such as in employment. Freeman argues ‘family is seen as beyond the control of the state, as power is deemed to be in the public arena while power relations in the domestic sphere can be ignored.’[45] Lacey raises an important theoretical point, questioning the extent to which the state should legitimately intervene into the private realm, especially in the context of domestic violence and sexual abuse within family relations. It is argued the state should favor a pro interventionist policy in such cases even if it goes against traditional liberal values infringing on individual civil liberties and private autonomy. Thus, Lacey argues the ‘ideology of the public and private allows the government to clean it’s hands of any responsibility for the state of the private world and depoliticizes the disadvantages which may spill over the divide, affecting the position of the privately disadvantaged.’[46] Lacey argues the language of public and private spheres helps to support the status quo of pre existing power relations. For example, in the case of domestic violence the victims are ignored, resulting with ‘women being depoliticized and marginalized.’[47] It is suggested by Freeman that women’s injuries are ‘often not recognized by public legal culture’[48] such as in prosecutions which involve Battered Women’s Syndrome, and the application of provocation and self defense in criminal prosecutions. Olsen suggests the lack of state intervention is itself ‘a political act confirming the status quo and affirming the public private power relations.’[49] Such powerful discussions of feminist thought applied to legal analysis shows how traditional theories can be persuasively challenged from the feminist perspective to encourage new degrees of awareness and dialogue. Radical ‘identity’ theories Radical feminist thought is voiced by Mackinnon[50], claiming the dominant official voice is that of the male. It is suggested that the only significant distinction between the sexes is inequality. It is a patriarchal society where socio – legal structures facilitate the entire oppression and exploitation of women by men. Law is viewed to perpetuate the imbalance of power representing ‘a particularly potent source and badge of legitimacy’ which is systematically geared to enable male domination. Radical theories are controversial as they argue that dominance within power relations is central to accurately voicing the ‘authentic feminist approach.’[51] Such theories can be criticized for being defeatist as it implies that ‘inherent masculinity of the law can not be changed by increasing women’s entry into the structures of the legal system or by incorporating female values into its rules and processes.’[52] Therefore, laws aimed at abolishing discrimination and establishing equality in the workplace is deemed ‘futile’ in attempting to realistically alter the status of women. Logically the theory follows, if the law is fundamentally male orientated then its apparent objectivity and ‘equality for all persons’ is a cruel myth promoting a ‘false consciousness’ among women who believe they are regarded equally under law. Harris suggests that radical feminist legal theory believes only in the validity of exposing the ‘systematic stereotyping and denigration of women’[53]. Only through the broad methods of conscious raising will true social freedom grow, overcoming patriarchal structures as female self awareness of their own oppression is enhanced. Criticism of radical theories It is important to note such radical feminist legal theories have been ferociously criticized by those of difference and equivalence feminism. For example academics such as Cornell[54] specifically attack Mackinnon for conceptualizing female experience as a form of sexually passive victimhood. Secondly, Harris[55] criticizes radical feminist thought for over generalizing the suggestion that female dominance is the only universal experience encountered by women. Furthermore, is it incorrect to characterize the law as male, since discrimination is not limited to gender. It can apply to race which can affect both men and women. Cornell attacks Mackinnon’s conclusion that the distinctive female values are simply a social construct formulated within the confines of the male dominated system. Therefore they are not truly feminine values per se. Cornell strongly criticizes Mackinnon’s reclamation of tough language to argue the point that women are degraded for example, in pornography as ‘passive receptacles’ in intercourse. [56] Cornell believes such ‘militant anti utopianism, is the inevitable expression or her argument that there is only one self-enclosed, self-perpetuating reality for women’[57] that of male domination. Cornell contends that the sexes are different, and this must be recognized to encourage positive conceptions of sexual difference. She argues it is possible to maintain equality but also remain different and embrace the existence of womanhood which is rejected by the radical theorists. Such internal factionalism within the movement of legal feminist thought, it can be suggested reflects negatively on the discipline in terms of promoting a coherent and distinctive approach to the legal field. But such disagreements are ultimately reflective of the extensive nature of feminist thought in tackling the legal field. Cultural feminist theory It can be suggested cultural feminist theory, especially exhibited in the work of Gilligan[58] has provided a distinctive but divisive legal analysis of law. In Gilligan’s difference feminism, the writer argues constructs of morality are formed at an early age and are crucially gender orientated, thus specific to males and females in different ways. Difference feminism has created an alternative paradigm assessing male and female social structures. Gilligan suggests women focus on an ‘ethics of care’ instead of the male ‘ethics of justice’. An ethics of care is argued to stress the values of