Take this quiz then send me the answers back and i will submit.
Articles: Find a peer reviewed journal article relative to the information we have discussed so far.
Type a 1-2 page summary explaining your findings and how this information is relevant to Human Resources.
Be sure to type in APA format & style and post a reference list.
I will find the article and send to you.
The second part of a project related to Being Your Best Self: Making an Ethical Decision. You should review and be able to use the Being Your Best Self – Moral Decision-Making subject matter available through Moodle.
1.5 – 2 pages at the most. 2 academic resources should be used in addition to the original source of the news article. (3 total sources for full credit).
Read the textbook and the Moodle resources about ethical decision-making, including stakeholder evaluations.
Using the news article or ethical issue submitted in Part 1 complete the following.
In your submission, briefly explain:
1) What decisions are possible (the ethical and unethical)?
2) What stakeholders should be considered and at what level of importance?
3) What decision you have decided is best in this situation that you have found?
This link is what the teacher posted for this assignment.
I have a quiz and a article review. No plagiarism turnitin program
Consumer Behavior Strategic Marketing Plan paper and PowerPoint Guidelines
Consumer Behavior Strategic Marketing Plan paper and PowerPoint Guidelines.
you should choose an organization they would like to work for in the future, or a firm that the text highlights, and the student will do a strategic evaluation of the company, internally, as well as external opportunities and threats, customer analysis and strategic recommendations based on your findings. The paper should be at least 12 pages (should be closer to 15 pages) including table of contents), double spaced, standard margins and 12 point font size, with no grammatical or spelling errors. The PowerPoint presentation should be 3-5 slides and the presentation should demonstrate technical savvy, be visually pleasing, and the content should be a brief summary of your findings. I will count off for any grammatical errors so go to the writing lab in the business building (see syllabus for info) and have them review your paper before you turn it in so you have time to make changes.
Consumer Behavior Strategic Marketing Plan paper and PowerPoint Guidelines
International Development homework help
online homework help International Development homework help. This is a paper that focuses on the Buddy Wiser neural structures and processes of the nervous system. The paper also provides further instructions to follow in writing the paper.,Buddy Wiser neural structures and processes of the nervous system,ESSAY TOPIC, Buddy Wiser is at a party and decides to drink some beer. He’s studying the label (a picture of a pig) on his 3rd or 4th bottle when he hears a balloon pop. He startles, drops the bottle on his bare toe, screams in pain, and gets quite anxious about it. The next week when visiting a farm, he is reminded of the whole incident, as he passes by the pig sty., Discuss the neural structures and processes of the nervous system involved in the behaviours described above. Range from the neurobiological and synaptic mechanisms to the neural pathways.,– WHAT YOU NEED TO DO: INSTRUCTIONS, – watch all the recordings!! and check the lecture slides, and read the readings then basing on the relevant materials from these you need to answer the essay question(which is below in red), however, you need to answer this question with referencing the lecture materials. Also, the essential readings, thus the references the lecturers have put, you need to put as well(of course only the ones which are relevant for the answer), so you need to answer the essay topic based on the lecture contents, with references provide in the lectures,– Furthermore, you will need to do a little bit of independent research, finding about 3- 5 extra references which fits the essay. For example a modern theory on why this process is happening which the lecturer did not include and seems relevant. (of course this should be only briefly mentioned, or something which the lecturer mentioned briefly. Also, you further researched it, show some originality. (these need to be academic references, eg from google scholar, sciencedirect),– The essay as any high – quality university level essay needs to have an introduction(it should include what the essay will be about. E.g The following essay will first analyse the auditory processes in Buddy Wisers behaviour. Then long term potentiation. Finally fear and anxiety, something like this, of course more detailed and academic) a main body and a conclusion., HERE IS THE GOOGLE DRIVE LINK WITH EVERYTHING: EVERYHTING IS IN THE BIOLOGY ESSAY FOLDER !, ,https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1BQSr4okJgj4-fx_eurG-9iBCWzjsxe4k?usp=sharing,Attachments,Click Here To Download,International Development homework help
How Does Salvador Dali’s Perspective on Life Influence His Art?
How Does Salvador Dali’s Perspective on Life Influence His Art?. Title: How does Salvador Dali’s perspective on life influence his art? Introduction Perhaps one of the most prominent modern artists to this day, Salvador Dali still remains an enigma. And yet, one is drawn to his alternate universe, which seems to follow some rules of physics and perspective, whilst simultaneously being incomprehensible and disquieting. Here, we will focus on ‘how Salvador Dali’s (Dali) perspective on life has influenced his art’. This will be considered by exploring the life and artwork by the great surrealist and demonstrating how they intertwine. It is people like Dali who indicated to me the significance of the artists’ philosophy on their work – an aspect of art that is rarely revealed. The intent of this paper is to analyze how Dali’s perspective on life developed by concentrating on the impact Surrealism had on him and the impact he had on Surrealism. Furthermore, I will by focusing on his early life behaviour and upbringing leading to his art journey and experimentation. Finally, I will examine his life in adulthood with his wife Gala. I will display deep analysis on his artworks that I feel connects the most with each topic to be able to link his perspective on life to his art. Through examining these different aspects of his life we’ll be able to get a sense of what drove eccentric artists. The goal of his art was to cause confusion which would help to completely destroy confidence in the world of reality. It is noted that Dali painted his obsessions in order to remain sane as he stated “I don’t do drugs. I am drugs” evoking the idea of art to be his therapy. I am to take in concern the circumstances that Dali’s life brought, how he changed by still remained the same in his artistic style, always being recognized. Surrealism Whilst exploring Salvador Dali’s exhibition at Erarta Museum of contemporary art, I was able expand my understanding of Surrealism. Surrealism was a twentieth century literary, philosophical art movement that explored the workings of the mind, championing the irrational, the poetic and revolutionary. Surrealism borrowed a number of themes and musings from French poets such as Charles Baudelaire, Comte de Lautreamont and Guillaume Apollinaire as well as the writings of Sigmund Freud. Freud’s investigation into the unconscious mind and its ability to dictate ordinary actions as well the potential destructive nature of it was a great interests to the Surrealist. Surrealism aimed to escape the constrains of the rational mind that had led to WW1 by producing objects and images with an erotic dimension. For example, though the explorations of the human figure had a long tradition of art, Surrealists went further, breaking taboos and shocking viewers in their depiction of mutilated, dismembered or distorted bodies. There are two broad types of Surrealism: oneiric (dream like imagery) and automatism (Freudians’ technique of unleashing the unconscious mind). Alongside Max Ernest, Rene Magritte and Joan Miro, Dali was initially one of the focal figures in Surrealism, as witnessed by a lecture that he gave at the London International Surrealists exhibition between 11th June and 4th July 1936. Dali was known for his wild art and a public personality to match, these two elements allowed his to rise above the rest of the Surrealists. He believed that the “difference between me and the Surrealists is that i am a surrealist”. This is evident as he spent the entire day before the opening of his art exhibition wearing an old-fashioned deep-sea diving suit, whilst holding two dogs on leads in one hand, and a billiard cue in the other. This demonstrates how Surrealism was so significant and provoking to Dali that he also wanted to evoke Surrealism through his fashion. Dali said that the diving suit represented his existence at the bottom of the sea of his sub-consciousness. However, as was only revealed later, the glass bowl part of the suit was sound proofed, so Dali was in fact suffocating and gesticulating uncontrollably; although the audience took this as part of the act, the poet David Gascoyne had to dismantle the helmet with the billiard cue. These types of episodes as well as the global recognition of Dali led to the inevitable resentment within the Surrealist group. In 1929 he entered the Parisian art scene, initially being welcomed by the Surrealists, who were founded by the French poet and writer, Andre Breton. Within Breton’s book “Surrealist Manifesto of 1924”, Breton coined the term and noted that Surrealism aims to merge the conscious and the unconscious experience; the realms of dreams, fantasy and reality, creating an “absolute reality, a surreality” (‘sur’ meaning ‘on top of’ in French, hence a reality on top of the current reality; a superimposition on the present. Breton stated that “pure psychic automatism is…the dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason and outside all moral or aesthetic concerns”. Breton expelled Dali from the Surrealists although the motivation behind this is still debated amongst art historians. Some uphold that as the rest of the Surrealists, although were exhibiting left-wing tendencies, they expected Dali not only to be part of the political debate, but also to publically denounce fascism. Others argue that it was Dali’s insatiable appetite for money and fame that led to his expulsion from the group. This alludes to the idea that Dali’s perspective on life was only focused on rising up in fame, revealing a selfish and rather arrogant side to Dali. However, Breton had probably been jealous of Dali’s success in America, where they referred to Dali as the creator and father of Surrealism. One Surrealist painting that Dali did near this time was ‘Metamorphosis of Narcissus in 1937’ that I was able to witness at Tate Modern. This painting is Dali’s interpretation of the Greek Myth of Narcissus. Narcissus was a youth of great beauty who loved only himself and broke the hearts of many lovers. He fell in love with it but discovered he was unable to embrace the watery image, he pinned away and the God’s immortalised him as a flower. Dali shows this metamorphosis by doubling a crouching figure by the Lake with a hand clutching an egg, from which the Narcissus flower sprouts. The play with ‘double images’ sprang from Dali’s fascination with hallucination and delusion. When his painting was first exhibited it was accompanied by a long poem by Dali. Together, the words and the image suggest a range of emotions triggered by the theme of metamorphosis, including anxiety, disgust and desire. Robert Descharnes noted that this painting meant a great deal to Dali, as it was his first Surrealist work to offer a consistent interpretation of an irrational subject. With this painting and the context Dali was in, there is a sense that this was a time in his life where he was developing surrealism views and seeing glimpses of what he wanted himself to be in the future which perhaps led him to feel a lot of pressure and anxiety which the painting connotes. Early Life The ‘Salvador Dali biography’ has given me an insight into Dali’s early life as it establishes that Salvador Dali was born on May 11th 1904, in Figueres in the Catalonian region of Spain. His father Salvador Dali y Cusi was a middle class lawyer and notary. He had a strict disciplinary approach to raising children contrary to his mother, Felipa Domenech Ferres who encouraged young Salvador in his art and early eccentricities. Dali was intelligent but prone to fits of anger against his parents and schoolmates. Consequently, the more dominant students and his father wouldn’t tolerate his outbursts and eccentricities, and punished him severely. Dali’s relationship with his father was heightened by competition for Felipa’s affection. Dali had a sister, Anna Marie who was three years younger and an older brother who died nine months before him at just 22 months old of gastroenteterites, also named Salvador. Later in life, Dali often connected the story that when he was five years old, his parents took him to the grave of his older brother and told him he was his brother’s reincarnation. Dali recalled “(we) resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections”. He was “probably a first version of myself, but conceived too much in the absolute”. This upbringing evokes the idea that Dali was brought up with many perspectives on what is expected of him. Furthermore, being told that he is the reincarnation of his brother must have forced an identity on Dali to be just like his brother, this evidently must have been psychologically damaging for Dali. Hence we can see from an early age that Dali’s pressures to be his brother had a huge influence on his art as much of his later work would contain allusions to the dead child he believed was the best part of him. Dali, along with Anna and his parents, often spent time at their summer home in the coastal village of Cadaques. At an early age, Dali was producing highly sophisticated drawings, and both of his parents strongly supported his artistic talent. It was here that his parents built him an art studio before he entered art school. Upon recognizing his immense talent, Dali’s parents sent him to drawing school at the Colegio de Hermanos Maristas and the Instituto in Figueres, Spain in 1912. That same year Dali’s mother, Felipa, died of breast cancer. Dali was sixteen years old at the time, and was devastated by the loss. His father then married Felipa’s sister, which did not attract Dali any closer to his father though he respected his aunt. Looking at the national gallery of Victoria education website, it was highlighted that Anna Maria was Dali’s only female model until he met his future wife. Anna is featured in numerous works including ‘Girl at the window 1925’, one of his most famous and reproduced painting. However, Dali became infuriated by Anna’s book ‘Salvador Dali as seen by his sister’ 1949 because he felt betrayed by her description of his childhood as normal and happy, a direct contradiction of the fantastical, bizarre memories he had recounted in his own biography ‘The Secret Life of Salvador Dali’ 1942, this led to a collapse of their relationship. Throughout his life, Dali found a source of inspiration from the summers spent in Cadaques. The frame depicted here can be seen from one of the windows of the house that the family had on the Es Llana beach. The houses reflected in the glass of the window can still be identified today as part of the Cadaques landscape. It is evident that this painting was done before Dali identified himself with surrealism because it captures a simple everyday moment such as looking out to sea and the technical skill demonstrated in Dali’s brushwork. We can see how Dali was already communicating his own language and combining perfect brushwork with his scenic composition. This painting alludes to the idea of Dali to have a peaceful and calm perspective on life contrary to his later Surrealist work where he demonstrates the horrors of the war. Art School The Salvador Dali biography is further noted to see that in Art school he was not a serious student preferring to daydream in class and stand out as the class eccentric, wearing odd clothing and long hair. After the first year at art school he discovered modern painting in Cadaques while vacationing with his family. The following year his father organized an exhibition of Dali’s charcoal drawings in the family home by 1919, the young artists had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre of Figueres. During his time at art school he was influenced by several different artistic style including metaphysics (The Tate gallery defines metaphysics as an art movement typified by dream-like views of eerie arcaded squares with unexpected juxtapositions of objects) and cubism (The Tate gallery describes Cubism as a new revolutionary approach to representing reality, often appearing fragmented and abstracted). Furthermore, Dali explored classical painters such as Raphael, Bronzino and Diego Velaquez (from whom he adopted his signature moustache). From 1912 to 1919, we can see that Dali developed his art swiftly; already having is first public exhibition. Being at art school allowed Dali’s environment to be filled with influential artists and new techniques which demonstrates how the Art school was the place where he was able to find his own art style. The 2008 Spanish-British drama movie ‘Little Ashes’ illustrates his time at Art School in the midst of repression and political unrest of Pre Spanish Civil War. The young actor playing Dali was able to demonstrate the innocence and vulnerability of Dali and his youthful mistakes and experimentation at Art school. It also gives an insight into the relationship between Dali and poet Federico Garcia Lorca that has been the subject of speculation among historians and biographers. In between 1926 and 1929, Dali made several trips to Paris, where he met with influential painters and intellectuals such as Pablo Picasso, whom he admired. During his time, Dali painted a number of works that displayed Picasso’s influence. He also met Joan Miro, the Spanish painter and sculpture, who along with poet Paul Eluard and painter Rene Magritte, introduced Dali to Surrealism. By this time Dali was working with styles of Impressionism (main impressionists subjects were landscapes and scenes of everyday life), Futurism (art movement that tried to capture dynamism and energy of the modern world) and Cubism. Dali’s paintings became associated with three general themes: man’s universe and sensations, sexual symbolism and ideographic imagery. All of this experimentation led to Dali’s first Surrealistic period in 1929. These oil paintings were small collages of his dream images. His work employed a particular classical technique, influenced by Renaissance artists that contradicted the “real dream” space that he created with strange hallucinatory characters. The Dada philosophy was an art movement formed after the First World War in Zurich as a negative reaction to the horrors of the war. The poetry, art and performance produced by Dada artists are often mocking and nonsensical to nature which influenced Dali’s art throughout his life. Even before this period, the world of psychology and art were interweaving and Dali was a devoted reader of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theories. The Lumen Learning website displays that Freud’s psychoanalytical theories of personality development argue that personality is formed by conflicts among three fundamental structures of the human mind: the id, ego and superego. The id, the most primitive of the three structures, is concerned with instant gratification of basic physical needs and urges. It operates entirely unconsciously. The superego is concerned with social rules and morals- similar to what many people call their “moral compass” and “conscious”. It develops as a child learns what their culture considers right and wrong. In contrast to the instinctual id, and moral superego, the ego is the rational pragmatic part of our personality. It’s what Freud considered to be the “self”, and its job is to balance the demands of the id and the superego in the practical context of reality. We can see how this influenced Dali as ‘The Salvador Dali biography’ shows that his major contribution to the Surrealist movement was what he called the “paranoic critical method”, a mental exercise of assessing the subconscious to enhance artistic creativity. Dali would use this method to create a reality from his dreams and subconscious thoughts, thus mentally changing reality to what he wanted it to be and not necessarily what it was. For Dali, it became a way of life. One of Dali’s most famous paintings is ‘The Persistence of Memory’, The Tate gallery described it as a simple figure: a limp watch draped over the branch of a dead tree. ‘Dalinean’ time is not rigid it is one with space… fluid. The unexpected softness of the watch also represents the psychological fact that the speed of time, while precise in scientific use, is widely variable in human perception. The melting clock represents the omnipresence of time and it’s dominion over humans, as well as the inevitability of time moving in one direction. It can also suggest that the limp watch no longer ‘keeps’ time; it does not measure its passage. Thus, the speed of our time depends only on us but still reigns highest over both art and reality. Dali’s life and Gala By examining the national gallery of Victoria education website further, it is distinguished that in the Spring of 1929, Dali began displaying concerning traits associated with mental illness. He suffered from uncontrollable fits of hysterical laughter and indulged in attention seeking activities, such as painting his armpits blue, rubbing his body with goat dung and fish glue which concerned those close to him. Dali was infamous for his love of money and his focus on being as commercial as possible, the Surrealist called him ‘Avida Dollars’ which is both an anagram of Salvador Dali and a phonetic rendering of the French ‘avida dollars’ translated ‘eager for dollars’. It was in this context that Dali first encountered Gala, a charismatic Russian immigrant who is said to have captivated and inspired many of the Surrealists. Returning to the information from the Erarta museum it stated that upon marrying Gala in 1934 in a civil ceremony, Dali found his rational counterbalance. However, Dali’s father, who was a very authoritarian person, did not approve of this relationship that he changed his will immediately in which Dali received an absolute minimum required by the law. This demonstrates how Dali’s father continued to be obstructive causing Dali to fear him all his life. Gala had a decisive influence on his future career, which she guided to international success, as she took on diverse and multiple roles in their partnership, as his model, wife and business manager. The artists noted that “she was destined to be my Gradiva, the one who moves forward, my victory, my wife”. Dali started to sign his paintings with his and her name as “it is mostly with your blood, Gala, that I paint my pictures”. Nevertheless, even with the stabilizing influence of his new wife, Dali was still very divisive and causing arguments within the art world and specifically within the Surrealists group. The Spanish War started in 1936 ensuring that Dali and Gala had to stay in Paris; although once WW11 broke out three years later they moved to the USA. As America was becoming a prominent centre for fashion and the arts, Dali saw his reputation and notoriety grow, which peaked in his 1942 autobiography ‘The Secret Life of Salvador Dali’ which was a public success. Dali was becoming very commercially successful, by having solo and group exhibitions across the country. He began moving outside of the medium of oil on canvas and began the exploration of design jeweller, film, fashion, writing, printmaking and sculpture. Limited to what he saw as the boundaries of two-dimensional canvas, Dali turned to sculpture in order to reveal his surrealist visions during the war. Moreover, 1943 marked an important year for the artists because he met Eleanor and Reynolds Morse who became major supporters of Dali. The Morses gathered such an extensive collection of Dali’s work that they opened the Dali Museum in Florida, 1971. After such an intense couple of years in the USA concentrating on his career, Dali and Gala returned to Europe in 1948, the couple decided to move to Dali’s home town of Figueres. Whilst Dali settled in a large place that eventually became the Dali theatre and museum, he built a separate castle just for Gala, it was rumoured that the artist could only visit Gala with her written permission which gives us a sense of her controlling nature. Upon her death in 1982 Dali was so devastated that he isolated himself in her old room at the castle for two years. Gala was certainly the main factor in Dali’s life, even though she was maybe a dictator over both his career and life, that it was a great shock and unimaginable not having her in his life. In 1984, a fire broke out in Dali’s bedroom causing first and second degree burns to his right leg although it is debated whether this was an accident or a suicide attempt. However, Dali never fully recovered from the accident and was in a wheelchair for the next five years till his death in 1989. This topic of Dali and Gala displays how Dali believed Gala to be his everything and therefore inspired everything Dali had created. The last ten years of Dali’s creation had merely been the improvement of his science and holographic. Designing perfume bottles was another of Dali’s talents when designing the first ‘Salvador Dali’ fragrance, he designed the bottle inspired by one of his paintings ‘Apparition of the Face of Aphrodite of Knidos’ by taking the nose and lips of Aphrodite and perhaps with it demonstrated the central position in his life and art, Gala. He believed that “of the five senses, the sense of smell in incontestably the one that best conveys a sense of immortality”. This hints of Dali’s obsession with death; he depicted his fear of death multiple times. One could argue that Dali died several times: he had died a few years before he was born through his brother. He died as a young artist when he broke from the Surrealist movement, who’s members, like Breton, began to refer to Dali in the past tense as if he had died. He died when Gala died in 1982. Ultimately, he died of heart failure in 1989. This almost summarises the stages of his life that were life changing and turned his perspective of life upside down. Examining the Dali paintings website, it is evident that the ‘Swallow’s Tail’ was Dali’s last painting. It was completed in May 1983 in Gala’s castle, as the final part of the series based on the mathematical catastrophe theory of Rene Thom. Dali described Thom’s theory of catastrophe as “the most beautiful aesthetic theory in the world”. Thom’s theory suggests that in four-dimensional space there are seven equilibrium surfaces: swallowtail, butterfly, fold, cusp, elliptic umbilic, parabolic umbilic and hyperbolic umbilic. Dali incorporated each of these surfaces into his painting alongside the gentle and elegant curves of the cello, set against a calm blue background, the painting is more than just a series of shapes and curves; it is a precise representation of Dali’s understanding and interest of a mathematical theory that he undertook successfully by representing this relatively indefinable four-dimensional theory on a two-dimensional canvas. The shape of the Swallow’s tail at the bottom of the painting is copied from Thom’s graph of the same name and the f-holes of the cello in the painting describe the integral symbol in the calculus. Similarly, the S curve represents Thom’s second catastrophe graph. Given the considerable differences in thinking between artist and mathematician the relationship between Dali and Thom is extraordinary. His last painting demonstrates that even at 79 years old, his artistic abilities showed no sign of fading. The fact that Thom used his theory to study and make predictions of processes involving sudden changes could perhaps evoke the idea that Dali wanted to welcome sudden changes in society and not to be afraid of them. Conclusion Throughout this essay I have been answering the question: ‘How does Salvador Dali’s perspective on life influence his art?’ I have hopefully depicted that to analyze his paintings one must seek the answers and inspiration in his life. Dali mixed all of his beliefs, theories and obsessions in his art which we have seen shift as his perspective on life has. It is evident that Dali always had the need to change and improve himself due to the lack of self-confidence and his appetite for publication and adoration. There are points in Dali’s life where fame controlled his perspective on life and what his priorities were as Surrealism and his love for Spain were replaced by America and his love for fame and fortune. I think Dali demonstrates how your perspectives in life are always altering but its how we move forward from those mistakes and develop them into something beautiful and inspiring that I think Dali’s art is. Ultimately, we can see how in Dali’s hectic life he achieved his desires of admiration, attention and perpetuity in his artwork. Dali, with both his art and life, left an impact on the art world; intriguing the mind of the viewer in such ways that one could not be apathetic towards it. During this project, I have gained the knowledge of how much Dali is still living in the art world today and I hope people will continue to explore the life and art of Salvador Dali. References www.parfumes-salvadordali.com, 25.11.2011. Salvador Dali: sculptures (2018) [Exhibition]. Erarta Museum, St Petersburg. 25/05/18-23/09/18 Dali at the Modern (2018) [exhibition]. Tate Modern, London. 01/06/18-09/09/18 Authors: Biography.com editors. 2014 published date, Salvador Dali biography, How Does Salvador Dali’s Perspective on Life Influence His Art?
Energy Efficiency in the Saudi Transport Sector Essay
Energy Efficiency in the Saudi Transport Sector Essay. Introduction Saudi Arabia is one of the countries in the world that relies heavily on energy to prosper economically. Energy is a very important factor that determines the productivity of economy sectors like the transport industry. Other economy sectors, such as the industrial, health and commercial sectors, also rely heavily on the available energy resources. Nevertheless, economists find the transport sector as the backbone or structure that supports other economic sectors. Apparently, the transport sector uses a lot of energy, which if not effectively used can lead to an energy crisis. From this perspective, it is therefore important to understand the need for energy efficiency in any given economy. Saudi Arabia has a transport sector that has several modes of transport namely; marine, air, and road. The three transport modes have been growing in the last decades, an indication that the country’s economy has been growing significantly. In this respect, the demand for energy also increases significantly. Another factor that has led to an increased demand for energy is the increasing population. Most of the regions in the country have resulted in urbanization a feature that indicates there has been a lot of industrialization within some of these regions. The Saudi Arabian government in this respect has deemed it important to invest in other energy-saving mechanisms that oversee the creation of energy production technologies. This initiative was projected to cost the Saudi Arabian government $100 billion by the year 2020. In this context, the transport infrastructure and network will be integral in placing the country as a transport hub connecting continents on the east and the west of the Saudi Arabian country. The great transport will improve the country’s GDP as well as the general economy. As indicated earlier, the government is in dire need to ensure there is energy efficiency in terms of consumption. In addition, it is important to ensure that the transport industry adopts efficient means to make sure that there is no energy crisis. The following is a discussion on transport and energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia. The discussion focuses on alternative means transport that ensures efficiency in energy usage as well as new energy alternatives. Alternative Transportation For a long time, Saudi Arabia has been using three major transport modes; a road, marine and air. It is therefore important to acknowledge the fact that there are other means of transport, which use less energy. Moreover, these new transport alternatives are diverse and require diversification of energy production. Basically, this requires government innovation in reducing energy consumption and implementing alternative transportation that requires less energy. Public Transportation Many countries in the world have been known to adopt public transportation as away of saving energy and especially fuel. Not only does public transportation ease congestion on the roads, but also ensures there is lesser fuel consumption. This is a strategic way of saving energy in the transport industry, considering that the country uses a large percentage of oil as energy. Public transport does not only reduce domestic fuel consumption, but also stabilizes the global energy market. This can be crucial in ensuring that the country continues to export oil to other countries. In a typical public transport scenario, public service buses and trains use a fifth to half as much energy as those of private and personal cars per passenger. This is based on every kilometer covered by a single person. In this context, the country requires to engage vehicle manufactures into making a high capacity vehicle that carries more passengers. In addition, energy saving measures will ensure that public service buses have fewer intermediate stops, with specific speed limits and reliable route networks. In addition, regulating the age of vehicles used in public transport is essential in saving fuel consumption. Use of electric trains has also become a phenomenon in many developing countries. In this context, Saudi Arabia should adopt this mode of transport. This transportation has a considerable high carrying capacity for passengers. Moreover, electric trains are flexible, faster, and reliable and can be used in urban centers. Most importantly, electric trains are environmentally friendly. In order to optimize the use of electric energy, it is also possible to use electric vehicles. These electric vehicles are efficient in terms of energy usage, speed and convenience. It is also recommendable for people who live within the proximity of their places of work to walk. In order to ensure that walking to work is safe, the government will be required to build sub-ways that connect streets and residential areas. Carpooling is also another method that ensures there is an efficient use of fuel. Carpooling is recommendable for people living in the same area and goes to work at the same place. In order to ensure that public transport is effective and efficient, the government requires involving the private sector. The private sector can invest in transportation, and can be instrumental to innovativeness in offering diverse means of transportation. Alternative Fuels As indicated earlier, it is recommendable for the government of Saudi Arabia to invest in alternative fuels. The current natural resources for energy are getting depleted at an alarming rate. Some of the fuels that are highly recommended in transportation include gas, electricity, wind, geothermal, solar, hydrogen and bio-fuels. In recent years, countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom have been on the forefront in manufacturing solar-powered vehicles. These vehicles only require solar energy. Saudi Arabia can harness this power into ensuring that the usage of oil as the only energy resources is not overrated. Moreover, solar energy is one of the environment friendly energy resources. The energy resource does not pollute the environment through the emission of carbon gas. It is estimated that Saudi Arabia experiences an average of 5.0 full-load wind each day. In any given scenario, this is enough energy potential that can be harnessed to propel turbines that can generate electricity. Consequently, such energy will be used to supplement energy for driving electric vehicles and trains. Another important alternative fuel is bio-fuel. In order to have enough energy from bio-fuel, Saudi Arabia requires large plantations of Jatropha curcas. Already the country has ensured that at least 5,000 hectares of land are under a pilot project for bio-fuel production. Countries such as India and Australia are known to have vehicles that use bio-fuel. Natural gas like hydrogen is another form of energy that can be harnessed for transportation purposes. Hydrogen is known for its potential to propel machines. Saudi Arabia can encourage the manufacture and buying of hydrogen powered vehicles. Other natural fuels that can be used as alternatives include the use of liquefied petroleum gas, which can be processed from biomass and oil. Synthetic fuels from hydro-treated vegetable oils and methane from biomass and wastes are also known to act as complimentary energy fuels. For the road transport, the Saudi Arabian government should advocate for the use of electricity for vehicles that only travel for short distances. For medium distances, vehicles that use hydrogen are most appropriate, while long distances require vehicles that can use the liquefied petroleum gas. For the railway transport, electricity is the most commendable source of fuel. The already existing air transport can use kerosene that is harnessed from biomass. The use of hydrogen, nuclear energy and liquefied petroleum gas can be vital in supplementing energy in the marine transportation. Energy Economic Models Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are used as macro-economic models, mostly applicable in analyzing economics in the context of ecological aspects such as energy. In this context, the model will involve the interaction of the transport sector as a sector in the economy and a specific energy market like the oil market. The engineering models commonly known as the bottom-up models are known in the calculation of energy economics that involve electricity. The model seeks to calculate and identify the optimal cost involved in producing certain electric voltage under certain climatic conditions. Other essential economic models are the PowerFlex Model and the Electricity Investment Analysis Model that determines the prices for electricity. Models such as the time-varying co-integrated model are used in energy economics for natural gases to determine price elasticity. Another important model is the energy economy optimization model that aid in projecting the impact of unforeseen issues affecting energy and economy in the future. Time-Varying Co-Integrated Model The time-varying co-integrated model is an energy economic model that borrows the mathematical formula of integration in the sense that time series variables are involved. From this aspect, two or more series of the same variable must be involved and linearly combined. However, the linear combination of the variables must result to a stationary linear combination. In essence, the model is usually used in estimating the demand of energy like oil or electricity. In this context, it is important to explore the relationship of the co-integrating relationships that do exist within the Saudi Arabia’s energy market. The time-varying co-integrating model must use a demand equation of the underlying energy variables. These energy variables may be electricity, oil or biogas. However, the model works best in the context of electricity energy. In addition, in analyzing the demand of energy in Saudi Arabia in particular electricity, time data of electricity consumption with a set of the period must be availed. This data is integral in determining the elasticity of the energy’s demand in relation to time-varying elasticity. For example, such elasticity may be in the use of electricity in electric trains and electric-driven vehicles. Since the time-varying co-integrated model is best suited in analyzing demand, the data availed should range between 5-10 years. Other important inputs for the time-varying co-integrating model are the use of the income variable and the seasonal variable. The income variable is used to determine the amount of energy used in relation to the production of the same energy. This means that data of electricity usage in Saudi Arabia’s transport sector is required. On the other hand, the seasonal variable is integral in determining the demand of the energy in varying hours or days. This reflects the relation of the demand of energy and factors determining the demand of the same energy. Therefore, it is important to note that the inputs for the time-varying co-integrating model are the energy prices and income. These inputs are relatively perceived to be the model’s variables. The demand equation expressed from the models inputs are apparently subjected to a canonical co-integrating regression (CCR). The CCR is a mathematical method that deals with the elimination of errors derived from an equation. This elimination of error by the CCR is important in an approximation of time series in the time-varying co-integrating model. In a typical model of the time-varying co-integrating model, the following is used to express electricity demand. dt = π γyt δpt φzt ut, From the equation, the following conclusions can be made: The dt is used to express the demand of the energy in question, which is electricity. On the other hand, yt is used to express the income of the energy or the energy production. The abbreviation pt is used as a variable that expresses the energy’s price. Zt has been used in the equation to express the demand seasonal variable. The denotation of ut is to express the error, which is deemed to be stationary within the equation. It is important to note that these π, γ, δ and φ are variables and are denoted in the form of logarithms. The significance of the time-varying co-integrating model is that the model can classify the various sectors of the economy into levels for example, the Saudi Arabia’s’ transport sector has been leveled into electric trains and electric vehicles by the model. In this manner, the transport sector can determine the demand and consumption rate of such transportation levels. The model is also significant in analyzing the impact of substitute’s energy price on the transport sector. Some of these substitute energies include natural gas and petroleum. The outcome of the model is future prices for the underlying energy, relative energy substitutes, and future energy demand and energy rates of production. This means that the methodology is a forecasting technique of the energy market in relation to a country’s macro-economy. Energy Optimization Model An energy optimization model is an economic model that deals with the management of energy systems. In most cases, an energy optimization models works in a complex environment that requires the use of strategies to ensure there is effective planning on an energy resource. It is most likely that the energy optimization model will focus on effective and efficient methods of using an available energy resource. Most importantly, the model will consider the complexities involved during the production of a certain energy. Such complexities will include emission of pollutants, depletion of energy resources and the impact of the energy on the country’s economies. As indicated earlier, the model can be significant in allocating resources in an optimum manner. However, the models ensure that the optimal goal in effective energy management is achieved. In addition, the energy optimization model is a general term that refers to other pertinent models such as the linear optimization model and the global energy system model. Energy optimization models works best fro renewable energies. Renewable energies are some of the alterative fuels that the country’s requires for it to sustain its energy demand. An example of such renewable energy that Saudi Arabia requires is the wind energy. In this context, the energy optimization model will be efficient in ensuring that there is optical planning and effective use of resources to ensure that wind energy is economically viable in Saudi Arabia. In the case of the wind energy in Saudi Arabia, the energy optimization model to be used will highly depend on the inputs of wind farm price, investments costs, equipments, technology and political policies. For wind energy economics to be fully achieved, it is important to analyze the cost implications of such projects. In most cases, the locality of wind farms will be influenced by government polices and installation, operations and maintenance costs. Wind energy economy is highly affected by technology, since technology is a variable that determines the amount of energy to be produced from the resource. The outcome of an energy optimization model in analyzing the wind energy will be the technologies to produce such energy, creation of the energy market and provision of technical facilities for the energy production. It is important to note that wind energy has been sued in many other countries to produce electric energy that is apparently used in the transport sector. In conclusion, it is fair to state that Saudi Arabia has the potential of producing alternative fuels in its transport sector. Moreover, with the aid of various energy economic models, the country can optimally use its current energies, save energy as well as produce alternative energy resources. Energy Efficiency in the Saudi Transport Sector Essay