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Hydrostatic Pressure Vessel

Nomenclature = radial stress = Hoop stress = axial stress Pi = internal pressure Po = external pressure ri = internal radius ro = external radius r = radius at point of interest (usually ri or ro) Delta L = Elongation = Deformation ID = inner dimeter of o-ring Gd = groove diameter Srec = stretch recommended Bd = Bore diameter GW = Groove width CS = cross section diameter C = recommended maximum compression (static) Summary A design of a thick vessel is created to measure the effects of hydrostatic pressure when operated in them. The methodology of calculating the stresses on thick walled cylinders is illustrated. A study of the radial and hoop stresses is progressed to find the required sizes of the vessel to operate without a failure under 30 MPa pressure. The bolts are designed to handle the load on the vessel to keep the vessel in one place without moving. The force in the vessel is measured to find the correct bolts that will keep the vessel fixed and safe. A sealing technology study is described to understand how to measure the correct dimension of the o-ring to process the test without air leakage from the entry of vessel. The groove in the vessel was measured to stretch the o-ring designed in a correct manner so the pressure hand move in and out sealed. The calculations in this report are tested mathematically in an academic manner for the design to be brought to life with high efficiency. Introduction In the field of science experimenting, it is necessary to test the efficiency of a specific design, because all products of same function have different specifications and differ in quality. At the same time the true specification of a design can alter its efficiency. Therefore, the best product must be created with real specific measurements that lead to its perfection. It is found that there are three important features of the pressure vessel. Firstly, the shape of the vessel which presents the equations used to study the impact of pressure in them. Secondly, the material used must be chosen correctly to prevent any danger if vessel fails. Finally, the safety is the most important feature in a pressure vessel hence it is important to choose the correct bolts that will keep the vessel fixed at a point. In addition to designing the desired sealing technology of the vessel to keep the air pressure tight in the vessel without any leakage. Companies, industries and labs usually use hydrostatic pressure on a specimen to figure out it properties which allow us to understand the standards of the material. Using hydrostatic pressure is a safe and effective process which helps us to understand more about failure of objects under pressure and the effect of hydrostatic pressure. There are a few different techniques used to measure the failure of a test, for example, when a hydrostatic test is proceeding it is known that if air starts leaking from the vessel, this would be considered as a failed test. Thick walled cylinders nature is that they handle more pressure. Under high pressure, the wall might explode and cause failure thus is it important to dimension right size for the thickness of the cylinder before manufacturing the cylinder for hydrostatic testing. Measuring variables such as, hoop, radial, and axial stresses will be discussed and progressed for the vessel designed in this report. The bolts used are entitled to a high load of pressure which is possible to cause a failure if there was no study taken before using these specific bolts that have this mechanical specification. A study on the strength of the bolt is being used and will be illustrated later in the report. Basically, this report will show a study on how to design the required cylinder and bolts to process a safe hydrostatic test. As the design of the vessel will be illustrated to understand the image of the design and its dimensions. Which will lead to an understanding on how to design a specified thick cylinder to process an internal pressure and a hydraulic press to test a specimen hydrostatically. Aim of the Project The project aim to design a device to measure the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the fracture toughness of the device. It is found that the device required must handle conditions of 30 MPa pressure thus thick walled cylinder is needed. The importunacy of this project is to create a design that meets the required conditions for it to function plus applying correct methods and calculations for it to function. Hydrostatic pressure Hydrostatic pressure test is latest style of testing the ability of fracture toughness of a vessel without causing harm. Hydrostatic test of vessels requires gas or water filled into the vessel if the fracture toughness of vessel is about to crack, the resistance of air reduces the explosion as they resist the inner pressure that causes the failure. Less energy is released when fracture is about to take place LT (2016). Air is a fair medium that is used for a hydrostatic test. Air is less expensive than oil and it has an easier method than water for a test. The sample will not get harmed after the test. When a failure occurs, it means that the vessel does not meet the standard and this failure can be shown when the durability fails and air begins to leak. It is important to assure the leak prevention, reliability, and safety of the pressure test. There are two methods of testing hydrostatic and pneumatic. Air is used as a medium of the hydrostatic test Arshad Mahmud (2012). The hydrostatic test measures the elastic deformation of a metal and its ability to get back to it is formal shape. Air is a safe medium as it is can compressed like water. When a cylinder blows out, air will leak which is safer than using other material due its possibility to be highly explosive. Pressure vessel Pressure Vessel is a tank that is designed to contain gases or liquids at different pressure limits. The pressure or temperature drops can be dangerous; this can cause an explosion which can injure anyone near the vessel. Thus, when designing a pressure vessel legal commands must be taken to create a vessel that is safe to perform its task. History of pressure vessels started in 1495 when Leonardo Da Vinci designed a vessel. The major problems that occurred were mainly explosions because of leakage of compressed gas or liquid, and if a fire was burning near. Engineers created safety factors as measurements of safety of pressure vessels LT (2016). Pressure vessels are used in many applications, for example, in compressed air receivers, hot water storage tank, compression chambers, mining operations and nuclear reactor vessels. A cylinder is the usual shape that is used for hydrostatic testing. It has good maintenance because it is checked every five years for public safety. When the device gets cold when in storage, fatigue might occur hence the importance of the maintenances. However, hard steel responds to it properties to handle in high pressures. Steel also provides controlled and safe environment to prevent any explosion that is possible to harm people. Shape of the vessel Cylinders have an ideal shape because it is easy to analyze when in operation and are easily made. This makes cylindrical vessels the cheapest in cost and most effective. Even though the cylinder is the ideal shape for the vessel, it comes with a few disadvantages, for example, the bigger the diameter, the more expensive the construction of the cylinder would be. The ideal size for a cylindrical vessel is 8cm, this is to avoid inspections and testing issues RR (2012). In this case, the maximum internal pressure chosen is 30MPa which allow us to design a thick-walled cylinder. Equation, and variables of thick walled cylinder will be illustrated in this report, based on them a design of a vessel will be created for hydrostatic testing. Thick Walled Cylinders There are a lot of examples for thick cylinder such as, guns, hydrostatic testing device, and high pressure hydraulic pipes. Thick cylinders are entitled to internal and external pressure. The wall thickness is large and the stress across the thickness is notable. Stresses in this case are solved by using specific boundary conditions, compatibility, and equilibrium. The problem of thick walled cylinders is that they are entitled to high pressure and temperature which is possible at constant or changing duration. The usual problem is ductile fracture of the material which is because of the geometry or the properties of the material. The real analysis of a thick cylinder is dependent on the radial and hoop stress caused by the internal pressure which stand up to the yield strength of the material. Equilibrium equation is important because we need it to relate stresses to strains and strains to displacement d(sr) / dr sr – sh / r = 0. Compatibility equations; Thick walled cylinders have three main mechanical stresses. To design a thick, cylinder the thickness of the wall should be more than 1/10 of the greatest diameter of the cylinder: 1-Hoop Stress 2-Radial Stress 3-Axial Stress (2017) Thick walled cylinder The boundary conditions of a thick-walled cylinder are: Thin surface is, at and outer surface is, at Thus -pi = A – (B / ri^2) and -po = A – (B / ro^2) Variables can be seen in figure 1.1, Figure 1.1 shows location of the variables (2017) Thick walled cylinder A and B in the simultaneous equations above when applied to the boundary conditions above, two constant equations for A and B will be concluded; Now, to find the final general equation, Lame’s equation is included thus the hoop stress and radial stress will be; (2017) Thick walled cylinder the axial stress on the case of the cylinder designed bellow which a closed end is calculated by means of equilibrium which is reduced to as shown above. Maximum shear stress follow that stresses on the cylinder at any point on the wall are principal stresses. Thus, the maximum shear stress at any point will be given by the equation of Tresca theory, Giuseppe Catalanotti (2017) Material of the vessel Pressure vessel are mainly made from steel. Rolling or forging is used to make out the shape out of the vessel. Current standards use steel to impact resistance which increases the mechanical strength. Steel is the most important material for engineering and construction in the world. Steel has a great resistance to corrosion because of its formability and durability, high tensile and yield strength and is very effective for thermal conductivity. Stiffness, ductility and yield strength are measured using tensile stress test. Impact test used to figure out the toughness and hardness of surface resistance Total Material (2016). -Yield strength of steel is 260MPa -Young modulus is between 210 GPa (Stiffness better three times than aluminum) -density of 7.7/8.1(kg/dm3) -Poisson’s ratio 0.30 -Thermal conductivity 11.2/48.3(W/mK) -Thermal expansion 9/27(10-6/K) Total Material (2016). Safe tank to perform a hydrostatic test must remain sealed. Lip seal technology is used in this system. O-ring were created to prevent any leakage when hydraulic hand is inserted into the chamber. A hydrostatic test should meet these requirements of the vessel to remain testing of pressure safe. Calculations
Table of Contents Why Europe conquered and colonized Africa Tricks used by Europeans to conquer Africa Response of African to colonial rule Conclusion Works Cited The course of African History took a new dimension between 1885 and 1900 when the Europeans took over African countries as colonies (Vandervort, 97). Before this period, larger percentage of African land experienced little interaction with Europe except the British who occupied Gambia, Lagos, Gold Coast and Sierra Leone, France on the other hand occupied Senegal, Benin and Ivory Coast while Portugal established themselves in Mozambique and Angola(Vandervort,102). The powers occupied African territory after a long period of free trade and peaceful relation between them and different African communities (Vandervort, 112). Why Europe conquered and colonized Africa The Europeans initially considered African land as worthless, however, by the end of the 19th century their perception about Africa had changed due to the changes in Europe making them move to Africa for rescue (Vandervort, 145). They were motivated by several factors with political, social, and economical sphere among others. To start with, European nations were motivated by economic factors arising from the industrial revolution which started in Britain and extended to other European countries such as Belgium, France and Germany (Hochschild, 158).They wanted cheaper mineral resources for their home industries claiming that resources were abundant in Africa for example, rubber was available in Congo hence being the greatest point of interest after Charles Goodyear had discovered its use (Hochschild, 159). Similarly, industrial revolution led to increased capital forcing European traders and their governments look for areas to invest (Hochschild, 164).They believed Africa was the most appropriate area for investment since Europe had been flooded by goods produced, this enabled King Leopold get support from Belgium and British businessmen to venture and invest in Congo where he attained a profit of 28 million francs between 1878 and 1908(Hochschild, 160). Secondly, the Europeans were motivated by political factors from their countries for example, since by 1870, Britain and France were the most powerful nations in Europe , after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 in which Germany won against France and took over mineral –rich areas of Alsace and Lorrain, France therefore vowed to compensate by acquiring colonies in Africa (Hochschild, 280). In addition, political sentiments regarding public opinion by citizens of Europe motivated the governments to look for colonies in Africa for example, in 1882 the French Assembly agreed to ratify De Brazza’s treaty with Chief Makoko in response to public opinion leading to creation of Congo as French colony(Hochschild, 281). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thirdly, the Europeans were motivated by strategic location of most African countries that would ease their trade movements into other parts of the world .The conflict of interest resulted to show of might by European nations such as France and Britain over the Egyptian (Hochschild, 284). The loss of Egypt to Britain made France intensify her activities in Congo hence occupying Port Novo in 1882 while king Leopold II of Belgium after along travel over the world called a meeting in Brussels in 1876 aiming at stopping slave trade in Africa ,he then sent Henry Morton Stanley to explore river Congo basin which was strategically located for trade between West and Central Africa(Hochschild ,95). Socially, the missionaries in Africa demanded protection from their mother countries as they faced several problems such as rejection by Africans and sometimes violence from rebellious Africans thus hindering their aims of civilizing Africans (Hochschild ,147). Tricks used by Europeans to conquer Africa After the scramble and Partition of Africa, the Europeans were faced with a challenge of establishing their rules in over Africans. They therefore applied different methods depending of the reception of Africans: to start with, they used Christian missionaries which were to spread the message of love and brotherhood among all groups of people making the converts submissive to their governments (Hochschild,120). They build schools bases on their faiths where children of the African converts could go and learn Christian doctrines at the expense of traditional and Muslim believes that had been rooted in most parts of Africa (Hochschild, 124). Secondly, the European nations signed treaties with African rulers giving them opportunity to occupy different parts of Africa. For example, the government of Belgium sent Henry Morton Stanley to sign agreement with Congo ruler so as to occupy the Congo basin (Hochschild, 85). The treaties were signed by African collaborators who were latter used as mercenaries against those who resisted. The Europeans also used the information from the explorers such as Speke and Stanley who gave repots on lakes, navigable rivers, mountains and minerals in Africa hence attracting the colonialists to Africa (Vandervort, 176).On arrival to these areas, their representatives were able to convince African rulers who later accepted their occupation(Vandervort, 177) We will write a custom Critical Writing on European Conquest and Colonization of Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, they were able to use military conquest against African rulers who failed to recognize their rules (Vandervort, 184).Their military forces defeated many Africans who resisted giving them the opportunity to establish their rule in various parts of Africa (For example, the British used excessive force in Southern Africa in oppressing the Shona and the Ndebele who resisted against them (Hochschild, 125). They also applied military force in East Africa against the Bunyoro of Uganda and the Nandi of Kenya ().The Belgium on the other hand used mercenaries from Zanzibar against the resistance to establish colony in Congo (Hochschild, 127). To reduce the cost of administration, the colonialists used chartered companies to administer over their areas of influence and were charged with the responsibility of collecting taxes, building roads in the colonies and representing their governments in these areas(). The British used the British South African Company in Sothern Africa and British East African Company to administer over East Africa while the Germany used Germany East African Company to Rule over Tanganyika (Vandervort, 135). In addition, in some cases the colonialists used bribery tactics by giving gifts such as cloths to African chiefs and kings so as to accept their policies and ended up constructing military posts to ease their attack on resisting communities (Vandervort, 136). Response of African to colonial rule The scramble for Africa by Europeans resulted to conflicts between the powers hence the German chancellor Otto Von Bismarck invited other European leaders for the Berlin Conference of 1884-85 in which they agreed upon laying rules for any country wishing to acquire territory in Africa(Hochschild ,84). During the conference the European leaders’ greed on areas of jurisdiction leading to increased aggression into the continent thus evoking African anger. The rulers were faced with options of either surrendering or retaining their positions leading to their responses, to start with, some communities developed resistance movement in which they took arms against the colonial powers in an attempt to protect their political and religious independence (Hochschild, 9). During the second half of the 19th, the Asante and the Fante of Ghana offered great resistance to the British occupation in their land while King Leopold II encountered fierce resistance when the Sanga people of Congo led by Chief Mulume Niama rebelled killing one of his officers and refused to surrender leading to the death of 178 people by the Belgium army (Hochschild ,10). Other African rulers such as Toure of the Mandinka empire adopted both diplomatic and military strategies when he requested Napoleon of France for protection against the British so as to safeguard his position, he however, failed since the Berlin Conference prohibited any signatory from occupying other members sphere of influence(Hochschild,11).However, French accepted the offer but due to their hostility ,he approached the British and later offered the greatest resistance against the European powers(Hochschild,12). Not sure if you can write a paper on European Conquest and Colonization of Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, some African rulers collaborated with the Europeans who had conquered their land because they expected to receive several rewards from Europe. Collaboration was an African response to imperialism through active policy of cooperation and compromise (Vandervort, 156). It was adopted by African rulers due to factors such recovering their lost territories from their traditional enemies for example, the Maasai of Kenya expected protection against their traditional enemies the Nandi who had conquered their land while the Buganda of Uganda expected protection against the Bunyoro who were their enemies (Vandervort, 123). The African leaders benefited on short-term basis, through access to fire arms, consumer goods as well as protection from external conflict from neighbors(). The Europeans signed agreements with African rulers who applied collaboration tactics in order to reserve certain areas for their own interest for example, Dahomean government of Porto Novo collaborated with France to prevent the British expansion movement(Vandervort,129). The benefits of collaboration such as protection against traditional enemies, material gains through fire arms and clothing as well as ruthless military expeditions from European leaders forced Africans give in to colonial rule hence colonization of Africa(Vandervort,134). Conclusion The European scramble, partition and colonization of Africa emerged in the last quarter of the 19th century and witnessed mass movement of Europeans to the continent. With the defeat of Africans the European governments were able to establish authority over the subjects (Hochschild, 166). They proceeded to institute brutal and repressive administration that called for African fight for independence. For example, King Leopold forcefully conscripted African men, women and children into serious physical punishment and persecutions over the harvesting of rubber in Congo (Hochschild 165).The colonization of Africa however changed the destiny of many Africans who adopted the Western civilization through religion and education. Works Cited Hochschild, Adam .King Leopold’s ghost: a story of greed, terror, and heroism in colonial Africa. Michigan: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.Print. Vandervort, Bruce .Wars of imperial conquest in Africa, 1830-1914. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 1996.Print.

Ohio Christian University Application of Social Psychology Concepts Discussion

Ohio Christian University Application of Social Psychology Concepts Discussion.

Evaluate ways one applies social psychology concepts from both a legal and a business perspective.It seems like we cannot go one day without hearing the news of a high profile legal case or some form of big business change/decision that affects all of us emotionally, economically, or even personally at times. Whether on a grand federal level or on a small town level, where we work, socialize, and even play can be affected by various legal and business changes that are made every day. Understanding and critically examining how we all have an opportunity to change, take part, or voice ourselves regarding these issues can be very empowering.Learning Activity #5: Implications ResponseRead Chapters 12 and 13 of your textbook.Write one paragraph for each of the following questions, which should result in a total of three to four well developed paragraphs.According to your textbook, in the legal world, what are the risks of false confessions? What are key factors that promote these and what is your opinion about how these should be handled in our society?Describe eyewitness testimony and how accurate it tends to be in our society. Again, how do these factors affect you and our society?Describe three leadership characteristics that you believe you possess, and explain why you believe you possess these.What is one characteristic specifically that you are working to develop further?Describe what your textbook discusses about social influences in our culture’s economic decision making. How do you feel about these influences and how do they affect your Christian Worldview?
Ohio Christian University Application of Social Psychology Concepts Discussion

In week one we developed our PICO question we will use for the whole project paper. Mine is as Essay

python assignment help In week one we developed our PICO question we will use for the whole project paper. Mine is as follows: In (P) hospital staff nurses, what is the effectiveness in having (I) forms of stress management classes (C) compared to pushing off stress in (O) decreasing nurse burnout? The prompt is below: You are expected to search for the best available evidence and critically appraise the evidence. We highly recommend that you use either the JBI Hierarchy of Evidence or Melnyk’s of evidence (as noted in the “Steps” series) to rank your evidence. You should develop both an evidence table (see EBP Project Proposal Paper Template) and narrative synthesis. You need to write a very clear, descriiptive, and in-depth narrative synthesis (4-8 pages) of evidence that reveals the current state of knowledge on the topic [see sample integrative reviews in the lib guides: Hewitt (2010) and Larret (2009) papers]. Include in the narrative the following: Descriiption of common themes found in the literature/sources Identification of consistencies and contradictions in the literature/sources Identification of gaps in the existing body of knowledge Please review the readings, sample paper (in Course Resources), and grading rubric for guidance. Use the EBP Project Proposal Paper Template and insert the week’s writing requirements. Submit the paper in its entirety with each week’s assignment. Criteria to address: Introduction to section: PICO(T), keywords, and a minimum of three relevant databases searched Table which includes a minimum of 8 sources of evidence Narrative Synthesis Update References Attached is the graph I have to use for the evidence as well.

Definition of the Organizational Sustainability Expository Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Organizational Sustainability Importance of Sustainability Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Organizations have a lot needs and goals that need to be achieved for it to maintain a competitive position and stay relevant to its goals and mission. Despite putting in place many good strategies, organizations sometimes face the challenge of staying relevant to their goals. In doing so, many organizations often turn to sustainability as a strategy of achieving their set goals and policies. Sustainability is the act of coming up with strategies that intend to meet the goals of the strategy and aim at making the organization flexible to the ever changing business world. This essay is going to explore how sustainability is going to be carried out through the position of Chief Sustainability Officer (CSO) offered to an individual. Organizational Sustainability Sustainability in organizations is a practice that is usually carried out by senior management officials and it undertaken by various departments in the organization. However, due to the recent changes and challenges as such financial problems and global climate changes in business sustainability is important in maintaining organizational policy (Phillis). Organizational policy involves reviewing the strategies of the organization to be in tune with current business practices that will make the organization to overcome business challenges. In setting up of the position of Chief Sustainability Officer, the organization should set up this position to be equivalent to the head of a department. This is important in that as the head of sustainability I have to be in constant touch with the heads of departments and the CEO (Chief Executive Officer). In doing so I am able to analyse the decisions undertaken by management and make a decision based on strategies that affect sustainability in the organization. The position of the CSO should be fitted in between the departmental heads and all other employees for this position to play a critical role in informing of the organizational strategy (Froschheiser). As the head of sustainability in the organization it is important to undertake the duties of advising the CEO and the board of directors of the organization on the making decisions and strategies that will make the organization sustainable. As the Head of sustainability, the CSO is responsible for ensuring that the organization’s strategies are communicated to all staff and to make sure that these strategies are well understood. Sustainability is complimentary to organizational strategy and therefore the CSO has the responsibility of ensuring that the organizational strategy is in tune with goals and missions of the organization. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within the organization, the CSO has a duty of gathering the ideas and thoughts of all employees on important strategies necessary for making the organization have a competitive edge and transcend into the future easily (Froschheiser). Implementing sustainable ideas requires an organization to have visionary and strong leaders who can aid in implementing these ideas within the organization. Importance of Sustainability Sustainability is very important within the organization in that it helps in aligning the organizational goals with the organizational values and beliefs. The position of the CSO is very critical since this position acts as a link between the management and the other staff in ensuring that communication is important in making the organization sustainable. Leadership is important in building a sustainable environment for business activities to flourish within an organization. Sustainability encompasses a lot activities leadership, production efficiency and improving compliance to environmental and international laws. Sustainability includes making use of new technology in the undertaking of business activities and incorporating safe business practices (Phillis). A sustainable organization is one in which use sustainable production methods through proper use of land, air and water in achieving its clients’ needs. An organization should have provisions for sustainability in its business goals and strategies. Therefore by having organizational leader such as the CSO who could audit the organizational strategies and come up with better strategies is very important. Sustainability ensures an organization can easily anticipate challenges and come up with better solutions to their problems and therefore stay ahead of the competition. Sustainability ensures that there is diversification in the organizational strategy and activities of the organization are guided on engagement and relationship building (Froschheiser). Sustainability encompasses the art of learning and therefore sustainable organizations have the capacity to manage its strategies through prudent use of data collected through research and review. Conclusion The skill of organizing an organization to achieve sustainability either through its strategies and planning is very challenging. Many organizations do not realise the importance of sustainability and therefore they tend to operate without proper, clear and well focussed strategies. For sustainability to be successful in the organization there needs to be a strong leadership and a flexible organizational structure that works together in a team to ensure organizational goals are met. The importance that sustainability has on the running of an organization requires for the position of a Chief Sustainability Officer to oversee all strategies are geared towards sustainability. We will write a custom Essay on Definition of the Organizational Sustainability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Phillis, Yannis. Sustainability of Organizations. The Business Thinker, 5 April 2010. Web. . Froschheiser, Lee. Business Sustainability: The Strategies to Achieve, the Leadership that Makes It Happen. n.d. Web.

Discussing The American Ideals In The Post War Period English Literature Essay

Throughout this essay I shall be discussing the American ideals in the post-war period. I will question whether ‘American Culture is all about conforming to one single incontrovertible ideal’. Therefore, I will be concentrating on Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman (1949) and David Mamet’s Glengarry Glen Ross (1982). These texts are of particular interest from a theoretical point of view because the time of their writing spans a period from the end of modernism through to post-modernism. As such they offer a valuable opportunity to examine the American dream. All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. (Jefferson, 2004, p48) This ‘pursuit of happiness’ is now what is seen as the American dream. A result within the evolution of economical trade, the uppermost definition of America’s ” pursuit of happiness” is success, often rejecting the original values within the declaration, all men maybe created equal but the pursuit of happiness soon denies equality. Miller and Mamet, present plays where equality has been denied making way for the competitive world that is “conforming to one single incontrovertible ideal”(Clark). It was Calvin Coolidge who said, “The Business of America is Business”(Coolidge, 1968, p3) highlighting America not as ‘a land of opportunity” but a land of capitalism. Coolidge goes on “Of course the accumulation of wealth cannot be justified as the chief end of existence” (Coolidge, 2007, p358). When looking at the two plays, it is easy to see how Coolidge came to this decision. An immediate evolution can be seen even within the titles. Miller’s play Death of a Salesman (1940’s) shows that the play is clearly about the death of a man who was a salesman. Whereas, Mamet’s play Glengarry Glen Ross (1980’s) is named after a plot of land, a product that is being sold. The man no longer exists but has been consumed by a world where selling is life. By using this as a starting point, it is easy to see how both Miller and Mamet create worlds were men are struggling to keep an existence as a result of the American culture. As a ‘Master craftsman’ (Richards, 1976, p4) Miller uses incredible detail in his stage directions, by using an exploded set Miller was able to create dramatic effect. This setting can be seen as the destruction taken place in Willy’s mind. This set could also be used as a ‘theatrical tool’ to represent the destruction of any male mind, forced upon by the world in which it is set. Furthermore, this setting also manages to retain the Aristotelian unity of time and place throughout the play, showing Loman not only as the typical 1940’s family man, but also as a typical product of American culture. The majority of the action takes in Willy’s family home. The Brooklyn neighbourhood, a fashionable place to be “well liked”(Miller, 1949, p2329). The first of the set of stage directions say the house is in fact “a dream rising out of reality”(p2327) reflecting the need to accomplish ones self in a world where money is the only acceptable goal, all of Willy’s achievements can be see within the house. What is more, this unity of time and place is also a tool that can be carried along the years to ‘Glengarry’ with one difference, the family home has disappeared, the need to accomplish success is no longer to be “well liked”(2329), money is no longer an acceptable goal, but the only goal, this is the point where ‘America is business’. Benedict Nightingale described the Mamet’s characters within Glengarry as Willy Loman at work in the 1980s just as vulnerable but even more driven, even more compromised and distorted by the pressures of commerce and the harshness of society (Nightingale, p89) The ” willy loman at work in the 80’s” could also represent the exploded mind of Willy existence; an un-natural existence where everything Willy once knew has now changed, the world that was changing is now reality in Glengarry Glen Ross. Mamet disregards everything that was once natural the garden, the family, the neighbours. Instead the new nature is that of human nature that has been developed to close and “always be closing”(Mamet, 1982). The men are only in two places, either the office or the restaurant by taking away the family scenes. Mamet has created a play beyond Loman, an existence where there isn’t a real life or a proper existence, but an exploded mind, a mind full of expletives words, empty words that don’t quite connect. This disintegration of language from the 1940’s Death of a Salesman to the 1980’s Glengarry Glen Ross is so well presented that it was referred to by the actors of the 1992 film adaptation as “Death of a Fuckin’ Salesman”(Harris, 2008), not even the language has been completed, it has only deteriorated to the point that the Salesman has to highlight his power by being that “Fuckin Salesman”. The characters themselves rarely complete a sentence, never mind completing it without profanity. They never complete a deal and the play does not complete itself. Figure one (to the left), shows a poster for a Death of Salesman; it can be assumed that the image is Willy. The image could connote the idea that Willy is no longer in the spot light; he is not the successful salesman. The character has his back turned, and is a shadow of a man. Willy is a man standing still in the shadows of a world constantly moving and so he continues using his own method, powers of persuasion, talk. Willy’s personal representations of the American Dream are his brother Ben and the salesman Dave Singleman, and he views the success of these two men as something to aim for, he does not accept that these symbols of success are also past. As Willy looks to Dave Singleman for success, “what could be more satisfying than to be able to go, at the age of eighty-four . . . and be remembered and loved and helped by so many different people?”(Miller, 1949, p2361) His admiration of Singleman’s prolonged success illustrates his obsession with being well liked. He fathoms having people “remember” and “love” him as the ultimate satisfaction, because such warmth from business contacts would validate him in a way that his family’s love does not. However, Willy Ignores, the fact that he was a ‘single’ man still working at age eighty-four. Levene looks to Willy Loman as a Single-man figure, using similar tactics. Levene uses invention and improvise, he is the performative salesman, and like Willy he believes he can be successful in the future because he was successful in the past. When he performs the story of his successful sale with the Nyborgs, we actually hear Levine being referred to, as the “Machine” (Mamet, 1982) up to now he has been a failure; Levine believes he can sell like he could when he was still “hot.”(Mamet,1982) This is Levene fatal flaw, just like Willy, he has a tendency to believe what he wants to believe. There is no growth or resolution by any of the characters. “It’s contacts Charley, I got important contacts!”(Miller, 1949, p2344) says Willy. “Give me the leads!”(Mamet, 1982) Says Levene. Willy dies the death of a salesman; Shelly says, “I was born for a salesman” Mamet, 1982, yet suffers the same fate as Willy. Levene is no longer conforming to the incontrovertible ideal but being murdered by it, the symbolic death of Levine ‘the machine’ forces him to look back into the past like Loman, he depends of the glory of the past, but in this fast moving world the past doesn’t exist. Levine has to try to cling on to identity talks to the end like Loman “I… I …” (Mamet, 1982). The only resolution that appears is death, in Death of a Salesman it is the physical death of Willy, and in ‘Glengarry’, it is the ending of words, the ending of selling. Due to constant striving towards the American dream everyone seems unhappy in someway, they have not reached the incontrovertible ideal that acts as some sort of substantial completion. As well as the American Dream, both the plays show the characters performing to another incontrovertible ideal, and that is masculinity. “A man IS his job and you are fucked at yours” (Mamet, 1982) Willy was his job, when his job was taken away from him, he ceased to exist. In Miller’s essay Tragedy of the Common Man, Miller identifies the tragic flaw of all common men as “inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.”(Miller, 1949, p1) Willy defines himself as a salesman, and feels that he must succeed in the business world to define himself as an accomplished man. Mamet believes that the idea that Willy perceives as being successful is the ideal that makes up the masculine identity. Mamet describes ‘Glengarry’ as a “gang comedy about men, work, and unbridled competition” (Kane, 1992, p. 256) merging the idea that masculinity is capitalism, work is money, money is success, success is masculine. Mamet’s view shows a primitive connection to masculinity, it is a “gang” of “unbridled competition” a pack like resemblance and Willy’s “inherent unwillingness to remain passive”(Miller) means he steps out of place within “the gang” and therefore cast aside, the same can be said for Levene. Both plays represent the idea that all men are cogs in a working machine controlled by a higher power suggesting there are not only a ‘gang’ at work but also a whole pack of wolves. As Shakespeare once claimed “All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players” (Shakespeare, 2001,p417). In ‘Glengarry’ the players are the salesmen playing in the world of Mitch