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Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome as a Hereditary Disorder Report

Progeria, or Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), is a rare and serious genetic disorder affecting children starting in their first two years of life. The name Progeria is a Greek word that means “prematurely old.” It causes children to age prematurely. It is caused by a mutation of the gene LMNA or lamin A on chromosome 1. Lamin A protein is the scaffolding that holds the nucleus of the cell together. Defect in lamin A protein causes instability in the nucleus that leads to rapid aging characteristic of Progeria. HGPS is not hereditary unlike other genetic mutations. It is a “sporadic autosomal dominant” mutation. The change in the gene is a chance occurrence affecting a single sperm or a single egg just before conception. The mutations in the genes are new or de novo. Neither parent is a carrier. Progeria is a very rare genetic condition. The reported incidence of Progeria is about 1 in 4-8 million newborns. The first child to be reported with this condition was told in 1886 by Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson and in 1897 by Dr. Hastings Gilford. It affects both males and females regardless of race or ethnic group. Cases of children with Progeria are reported from all over the world including in “Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Cuba, England, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Puerto Rico, South Africa, South America, South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey, the US, Venezuela, Vietnam and Yugoslavia” ( The signs and symptoms of Progeria do not appear at birth. Children start to experience the signs and symptoms by the age of 6 to 12 months. The growth of the children with Progeria slow down that their height and weight drop lower than the average for their age. Although the motor and mental developments of the children remain normal, children with Progeria have a number of irregular characteristics. Disproportionately small face in comparison to the head An underdeveloped jaw (micrognathia) Malformation and crowding of the teeth Abnormally prominent eyes A small, nose Subtle blueness around the mouth The scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes are lost (alopecia) The scalp hair may be replaced by small, downy, white or blond hairs Generalized atherosclerosis Cardiovascular disease and stroke Hip dislocations Unusually prominent veins of the scalp Loss of the layer of fat beneath the skin (subcutaneous adipose tissue) Defects of the nails Joint stiffness Skeletal defects ( Children with Progeria develop generalized atherosclerosis or the thickening and stiffening of the walls of the arteries. This complication results to the restriction of the blood flow to their hearts and brain. The main causes of death to children with Progeria are cardiovascular abnormalities including heart attack and congestive heart failure. Other causes of death are stroke and severe malnutrition. Typically, the doctors base their diagnosis of Progeria on the signs and symptoms or the appearance of the child. Since one of the symptom of Progeria is the thickening and stiffening of the arteries, blood samples can also be helpful in determining whether the child has a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or the cholesterol that keep arteries open. But with the identification of the gene mutation that causes Progeria, a Diagnostics Testing Program was created to diagnose children with suspected Progeria earlier before the manifestation of the signs and symptoms. Sample of blood will be taken to be tested for the Progeria gene to see if there is a mutation. Although there is no known cure for Progeria, doctors focus on the monitoring of the cardiovascular disease of the children. To ease some of the symptoms, children take low-dose aspirin daily to help prevent heart attacks and stroke. They also take high-calorie supplements to help prevent weight loss and to ensure adequate nutrition. Physical and occupational therapy may help with joint stiffness and hip problems so that the children to remain active. Some infants who have cannot feed properly may be assisted with a feeding tube and a syringe. Because the permanent teeth of children with Progeria start to come in before the baby teeth fall out, extraction of primary teeth prevents overcrowding or growing of second row of teeth. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) are newly developed drugs that have potential in treating Progeria. Although these are originally produced for cancer, studies in laboratories show that they have the ability to correct the cell defects that cause Progeria. These drugs still need a lot of tests, though, to verify its therapeutic effect on Progeria. Being a very rare and fatal disease affecting innocent children, Progeria is one thing that needs full attention. I once watched a documentary film on Progeria and I was emotionally devastated learning how children suffer from the disease and the complications it bring. Just the sight of their physical appearance breaks my heart. The number of medications they take everyday just to ease some of the symptoms seem extreme for kids their age. It seems unjust but cases like these challenge people to strive harder to learn more about human being. It teaches us that there are still a lot of things beyond our comprehension. All over the world, there are about 42 cases of documented cases of Progeria. There may be more. We are still unsure who will suffer from this disease next. The identification of the gene mutation that causes this lethal condition is a good start. We have to make better actions. Works Cited “Progeria 101/FAQ.” The Progeria Research Foudnation. 2006. Web. “Progeria, Hutchinson Gilford.” 2007. National Organization for Rare Disorders Inc. Web.
HCM 674 LSN Kindgdom Model of Policy Making Discussion.

I could not think of a more opportune time to introduce each of you to the Kindgdom Model of Policy Making. The added knowledge you will gain form this reading during these unprecented times could not be better planned.As you write your individual paper reflect on the following using a minimum of 1000 words.1. How does the Kingdom Model compare to the public policymaking process in the US discussed during the second week of the course. 2. Reflect on the US current state and the many event that have led to windows of opportunity in policy making. Please consider the Political and Policy stream3. Lastly, how to interest groups and The bureaucratic system influence how Policy comes to be enacted. This is an individual paper and however you are each reading one assigned document each of your points of views on the posed reflections should be personal. Please use appropriate grammar and reference all ideas that are not your own.
HCM 674 LSN Kindgdom Model of Policy Making Discussion

The 2’s complement number of 110010 is.

The 2’s complement number of 110010 isA.001101B.110011C.010011D.All of the aboveE.None of the above
The 2’s complement number of 110010 is

The use of English as a spoken and a written language is a fast and growing trend and most countries have been adopting English even in official documents and people are not speaking their native language but increasingly communicating in English in a globalized society. As expressed by researchers, Americanization is a fast and dominant trend and countries are adopting English in schools, offices and media, TV and also music and entertainment. Movies in certain countries are made in English or with English subtitles although English may not be the native language. This means that the minority languages are dying out drastically and this radical change is language has to be noted and important theme among linguists. Language death is widespread as many language are being replaced by English and English is now taking over all other languages as people around the world find it easy to communicate in one language. With globalization, the rate of language becoming extinct continues to increase alarmingly and will possibly continue to increase in the future. 2)What is language death? According to David Crystal, a language dies when nobody speaks it anymore. Krauss (1992) establishes three types of prognosis for language death and provides the characteristics that would define language death in a specific way, with the prognosis being the probability of continuation or that a language would continue to be used and when it doesn’t it is considered dead, or that a language would degenerate to some other language and this degeneration implies that language would get distorted or mixed with other language and finally disappear or the possible rejuvenation of a language which means an old or dying language would be rejuvenated or revived to a new language. Language death occurs when languages become ‘moribund'” and a language is no longer learned or spoken as a mother tongue by children and this sort of language that is not used has been considered as “doomed to extinction.” A language may also be ‘Endangered’ and although still learned and used by children would likely to “cease to be learned by children during the coming centuries” so these are endangered. These two categories of languages that are either moribund or endangered according to Krauss make for 90% of the world’s languages and only remaining 10% or 600 languages have been defined as ‘safe’, and these are languages that are “neither moribund nor endangered” and are not in immediate danger of extinction or death (Krauss, 1992). 3) Brief history of language death There could also be certain status issues in language as seen in case of certain languages such as Irish and Sanskrit these are spoken only by traditional people and the modern or urban citizens of either Ireland or India do not speak these languages. In some cases traditional language is spoken by tribes or people of lower socio economic groups and speaking these languages could be associated with low socio economic status as members of high socioeconomic status tend to adopt language that have global appeal such as English. According to Krauss (1992) there are 6900 languages spoken around the world and 3000 of these will not be spoken by the end of the next century and will thus be considered dead or extinct. Language death could have many factors as seen in the history of language and the endangering of language is due to a lack of speakers or there could be less government support in keeping the language from extinction. The threat to language is the pressure to give in to globalization and standardization as using one standard language has become the norm. It has been estimated that the number of English speakers worldwide was 4 million in 1500 although by 2000 the number of English speakers would be 1 billion across the world Otto Jespersen (1938/68). There are speakers of English as a first or native language, speakers of English as a second language and speakers of English as a foreign language. (Pennycook,1994). Language death has been traditionally due to language being lost or not spoken in family and informal situations and this inflicted the death of the language or replacement with another language in church, legal and other official situations. Traditionally language has also died when a majority of their speakers die due to natural disasters or genocides and similar conditions. For instance language spoken in El Salvador such as Lenca and Cacaopera are already extinct and Pipilonly is another language that has a few remaining speakers but there is a gradual shift towards adopting a language that others speak and understand and Spanish and English are becoming popular with older traditional languages becoming extinct in central and South America (Krauss, 1976). In Ceylon there has a death of the traditional Tamil languages with English being used instead and a scholar Sir Arunachalam commented that ‘The root of the evil in Ceylon is that the vernacular is neglected’. In Africa, there is a gradual extinction of many tribal languages as these small tribes speak these languages extensively and many of these tribal members are remote from other human habitation and with their death due to harsh African conditions or poverty, there would be no one left to speak these languages. 4) Why is language death an important issue? Language death is an important issue as language is related to culture and cultural identity and loss of linguistic diversity could also be a loss of diverse cultures. The issue thus goes beyond language and touches on problems with culture as specific languages would have specific expressions and with the loss of language there would be a loss of such specific expressions and this means that there will also be a loss of knowledge or every few people would be able to relate to cultural knowledge or transfer certain cultural idioms and expressions to the next generation. These cultural expression would then die and a culture itself would die when language dies. Although this sort of scenario may be extreme, these are possibilities and to preserve culture, it would be necessary to preserve language and that is how language death and its analysis and knowing its causes and possible means of preservation of language or prevention of language death could also be studied along with this. Dixon (1997) has suggested that smaller societies and even tribes dealing with minority languages have complex hierarchies and communal relations and associated complex pronoun structures which may not be completely grasped or interpreted with a majority modern language. According to researchers, there is also a feeling of loss of valuable cultural components and information through the process of colonization and modern day globalization. 5) What is the relation between culture and language? Language and culture are related as cultures and cultural identities are expressed with language and expressions that are peculiar to a language and with the loss of different languages it would be difficult to pass certain cultural nuances to the future generations as certain expressions are unique to certain cultural patterns. Language does not exist separate from culture but is an integral aspect of culture and when a language dies it also adversely affects the culture as the culture which is based on the language is suddenly usurped by some other language and this would mean that the cultural basis or roots are lost. It is important to preserve language to preserve culture. 6) Should language death lead to moral panic? It is an open question whether language death is a cultural issue or whether it should lead to moral panic. If cultural identity is to be preserved, language death would definitely mean that there is a death of culture and diversity in this world. The colonisation and globalization issues could be issues of morality as imperialism itself raises ethical questions on whether a foreign culture or language has a right to claim ownership or whether it could completely usurp or conquer other cultures. These are problems that will become even more relevant in a globalized world with increased connectivity when there are practical advantages of speaking in one language. 7) Conclusion Language death is an important both as a moral and cultural issue as languages are an integral part of cultural identity so language and culture are related significantly. People identify with a culture they belong to and thus they also identify with a certain culture and feel a sense of belonging to a group or society or even when they speak a language which is common in a cultural group they identify with the language as well. Other issues apart from culture, society, globalization that will be linked to language death would be morality when a minor language or culture is usurped or conquered by a global or stronger language. In the future a majority language could completely overshadow a minority language.

Russian Icons in Religion Essay

Introduction The major religion in Russia is the Russian orthodoxy, though Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam are part of the religious legacy in Russia. In Russia, religion and political systems are very much interrelated in that, since time in memorial, religion especially the Orthodoxy and its icons have been shaping politics and the government through their influence on the Russian people. These important roles of the icons led the Soviets to order their destruction during the revolution, highlighting their relevance in the history of Russia. From more than one thousand year since Prince Vladimir introduced the Orthodoxy to the people of Russia, icons have influenced a significant part of the history of Russia[1]. The first icons were introduced in the country from Constantinople, through the Byzantines the Greek icon painters and were able to work in Russia, eventually leading to emergence of groups of Russian icon painters. It is believed that Prince Vladimir emissaries were very impressed by Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia icon, importing it together with the Byzantium’s artistic traditions of fine arts and Christianity[2]. With time, the Russia icon painter, following Byzantine art modules and styles modified the art and style, thus producing their own unique identity as icon painters. Background of Russia icons Andrei Rublev, one the most recognized “15th century Russian icon painters, brought a new style to Russian icon painting”[3]. His paintings including the icon Spas, or the Savior that brought a new style of painting characterized by “use of color and the attitude of serenity and humanity portrayed in the faces of the figures depicted”[4]. Rublev lived in a monastery with other monks with whom he developed this new style. Although new style developed the traditional Russia, icons mostly lacked individual pictorial taste and creativity that was found in the Western European countries. With the Western influence sweeping through Russia during the 17th century, the Russian Orthodox Church separated into the Conservatives (Old Believers) and the States Church (New Believers). The Conservatives adhered to the traditional styles while the new believers accepted the Western art forms, leading to paintings reflecting personal feelings and reality and a mixture of Russia styled and Western styled icons. This development liberated the art of icon painting to some extent in Russia. From this point on, painters were able to include personal expression, add value, and modify the standard traditional styles, producing new icons but still being within the biblical references and the laid down tradition for the icon paintings. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the era of Peter the Great in the 18th century, reverence to icons remained but there was sudden reduction in the art of icon painting due to influence of western arts. In the second half of the 20th century, interest in icons and icon painting increased and currently, there are several painters using the traditional styles of the old icon masters[5]. Majority of Russia icons are small wooden paintings with a few being made of copper; however, there are also bigger forms that are mainly found in churches and monasteries. Generally, the Russian icon tradition is more spiritual rather than the pictorial tradition of the Western Europe. In Russia, icons are intended to help in contemplative prayer by implying meditative harmony, inspiring reflection and self-examination, rather than emphasizing on the aesthetic value[6]. The role of Russia icons in religion and culture Russia population consists of several minority ethnic groups spread all over the country. Around 79 percent of Russians identify themselves as Orthodox, with religion and ethnicity being well connected[7]. In addition, there persists a consensus among the traditional religions in Russia in that the Tartars are Muslim, the Burjaats are Buddhist, and Jews are Judaist[8]. Icons form a central part in the practices of the Russian Orthodox consequently influencing culture of the minority ethnics. With religion influencing the community way of life, norms, and structures, the icons are destined to make much contribution towards the culture of these people. The Orthodoxy calendar controls major events of the people of Russia such as marriage, birth ceremonies, family relationships, and burial ceremonies. In the Russian Orthodoxy, the material aspects of religion such as altars, icons, and relics are very valued over the theological aspects that are sometimes difficulty to grasp[9]. In creating of the icons, the icon painters are very keen to create icons that will impart religious aspects and theological ideas to people reflective of the scripture messages. Generally, the Orthodoxy services involve use of ‘the beauty of God’s Creation, the beauty of the Uncreated Light, the beauty of the choir, the liturgy, the icons and the incense to communicate the religious lessons in similar fashion the sermon or word based services preach the gospel’[10]. This practice of Orthodox venerating the spiritual and visible aspects of icons as always has been a subject of criticism from other Protestants and other religions. We will write a custom Essay on Russian Icons in Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Homes are essential parts of communities and human life. In the Russian tradition, icons have a special designated place in the house for home rituals: ‘newborn were touched to them, people were blessed with icon before a wedding, a journey, becoming a soldier, and before the icons people swore blood-brotherhood oaths or made vows to God’s name’[11]. At home, people prayed standing facing the special place called the red corner or beautiful corner (krasnyi ugol) which is the eastern or southeastern corner of the hut or house[12]. Sometimes, they were placed facing the closest church and in this place, were two wooden shelves or a cabinet. The icons could never be hanged on a wall; they have to be placed on a shelf in observance of the Orthodox traditions. The shelves were decorated with embroidered clothes without covering the face of the saints on the icons. In addition, the icons were placed in a defined order on the shelf that sometimes reflected the event or purpose for which the icons will be venerated. For example, an icon of Holy Spirit is kept at the centre of Christ on the right, that of Mother of God on the left and those of apostles behind them. A lamp or a candle is also placed in the red corner to illuminate the icon(s). The icons displayed at home were sometimes customized for personal use by including picture of a specific saint, the owner is named after, or a relative is named after, besides the main icon figure. Due to presence of icons, a Christian home served as a form of a church blessed by the sacred icons. In the churches, icons are kept in special palaces called iconostasis. One of the traditions of the Russian Orthodox is the consecration of icons. The consecration involves performing special prayers and blessing the icon with the holy water. The icons are consecrated to become holy, thus possessing power that is more spiritual. The consecrated icons are highly regarded and that is why they are kept in the special places. The consecrated icons are believed to possess spiritual power and some are associated with special miracle works. For example, the miraculous case involving the Passion icon of the Mother of God that occurred in Moscow on 20 February 1547 in which houses were burning in Kitai-Gorod and only a single wooden house containing the passion icon was left intact in the entire region[13]. The Russian icons are worshipped through kissing them, bowing in front of them, and saying special prayers. It is believed that, in worshipping them, you are worshiping the figure painted on them for intercession. These figures are mostly saints, apostles, and exalted Russian priest. In addition, these figures are associated with unique powers to intercede in specific instances and are prayed for specific needs. For example, St. Nicholas the Wonderworker icon is prayed to offer protection and surveillance to people who are traveling. In the soviet era, when religion was prohibited in Russia icons, most icons were hidden in the safety of peoples’ homes and the famous Russian Orthodox icons regarded as artifacts were kept in the historical museums. After this period, people uncovered their icons and currently, there are numerous Russian icons and Orthodoxy paintings in the churches and cathedrals. Not sure if you can write a paper on Russian Icons in Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Russian icons form essential part of the Russian culture, so people visiting Russian churches and museums have an opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the Russian culture. In summation, the Russian icons are mainly for religious purposes but they also form part of the Russian culture and they are regarded as unique artistic works and historical relics[14]. The role of Russian icons during the revolution In the history of Russia, there have been two major revolutions: the 1905 revolution and the 1917 revolution. Since religion and the politics were very much integrated in the Russian set up, the role of the Russian icons in the revolution can be clearly understood by first understanding the causes and the outcomes of these revolutions. The 1905 revolution The 1905 Russian Revolution began with a peaceful protest on January 22 “led by a Russian Orthodox priest, Father Gapon, 150,000 people took to the cold and snow covered streets of St Petersburg to protest about their lifestyle”[15]. Through the protest, they were petitioning the tsar Nicholas II to help them regarding their condition. Surprisingly, Nicholas ordered the soldiers and the police to shoot the unarmed masses and eventually hundreds were killed or wounded, and the day was named the Black Sunday[16]. What ensued from these events was series of workers strikes and public protests throughout the country. In October 1905, a general strike took place paralyzing all activities in Russia; consequently, Nicholas yield to pressure and agreed to form Duma (parliament). Indeed, Formation of Duma cooled the situation for some but Nicholas continued gradually limiting the powers of Duma leading to the events of the next revolution. The push to the 1905 revolution was due to rapid socio-economic changes, suffering witnessed during tsar monarchy and craving for more freedom, religion played a major role in enhancing the success of the cause. First, the protest was led by a Russian Orthodox pries, signifying religion was at forefront in advocating for change. Secondly, the Russian icons formed a crucial portion in the petition protest and the resulting strikes as witnessed during that period ‘… a great demonstration for Sunday, January 9, 1905; workers would march to the Winter Palace, carrying religious icons, and portraits of Nicholas, to present a petition asking for redress of grievances’[17]. Lastly, with religion being intertwined with the protests, people would express their religion through prayer for their grievances and by kissing and bowing to Russian icons to seek help from the saints. The 1917 revolution After the 1905 revolution, the economy of Russia continued to deteriorate, with famine striking the country and Russia was losing the battle with Germans. The tsar was making wrong decisions such as firing several prominent leaders from the Duma and replacing them with unsuitable ones. People believed that the tsar decisions were very much influenced by a mysterious Siberian monk named Grigory Rasputin[18]. In December 1916, people within the Palace murdered Rasputin in order to stop revolution from occurring. In late February 1917, the Russian people revolted, and following the revolt in March 15, a provisional government was established with Prince George Lvov as the leader. Several soviets held a meeting to discuss the government’s progress; however, prior to this meeting, the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin were gaining popularity especially among the workers and during the meeting, they advocated for the power to be added over to the soviets[19]. In July 1917, an uprising failed, with the revolutionaries being arrested. Lenin, a Marxist, fled the country to Finland and Alexander Kerensky replaced Lvov as the prime minister. From that time, the push for revolution continued and in October 25, another revolt was staged[20]. Kerensky fled the palace and Lenin ascended to power. Unlike other revolts, the Lenin October revolution was well planned and there was no bloodshed or destructions. In period following Lenin October revolution, the Russian Civil War began between the communists and other groups opposed to communism. The communists won in 1922 founding the Soviet Union and Lenin died in 1923. The Communist Party continued to rule up to 1991, marking the disintegration of the USSR. The Lenin October Revolution marked the beginning of the communism in Russia. The communist government was much based on the Karl Marx principles and it immediately banned religion, as it believed religion was opium for the poor. From this point onwards, Soviets declared war on religion, with many icons set for destruction, others were lost forever, and others were saved or spared like the Rublev’s Spas[21]. Moreover, the Lenin faces become the face of communism replacing the place for the icons. Marxism played a crucial role in banning of religion as it was characterized with aggressive commitment to atheism and scientific materialism, rejecting all religions[22]. During the period of revolution, the Bolsheviks ensured that Russia’s spiritual underground did not play a crucial part to Lenin’s revolutionary cause. Later, the government changed its policy on religion and icons became public through personal displays and museums. Bibliography Anon. Russian Art

Physical education and Childhood Obesity Questions

assignment helper Physical education and Childhood Obesity Questions.

The topic: Physical education professionals to see their beliefs about the effect of physical education on Childhood obesity. o Page requirement: 5 pages maximumo Survey is to be 5 full pages ONLYo Questions on the Survey should pertain directly to the evaluation purpose and measure the specific objectives – in other words every question should help answer your overarching research question!o Survey should be completely formatted and spaced – refer to examples provided for correct format and layouto Add directions for each section that changes (e.g. goes from 6 choice response questions to a Likert Scale). Make sure the directions provide the respondent with the exact expectation for answering the questionso For example, with a Likert Scale – make sure to provide information about the scale (1 = do not agree to 5 = agree)o All questions should be numbered sequentiallyo The order of the questions should follow from an opening question that generates thought about the evaluation (e.g. “Do you ever experience the fear of crime when recreating alone in a community park setting?”). This opening question is generally a yes, no, maybe responseo Similar questions should be grouped together. For example, if you are asking a series of 5 Likert scale questions, they should be put together.o Your Survey MUST include the following (but is not limited to):Question TypeAn opening question with either 2 or 3 response choicesRanking Scale with 6 response choices (fully formatted with selection boxes and directions)Likert Scale with at least 5 items statements (fully formatted with items, values, anchors, and directions)A partially closed ended question (e.g. please explain) with directionsAn open ended questionAt least 4 demographic questions
Physical education and Childhood Obesity Questions

MGT 424 SEU Principles of Air Quality Management Discussion Essay

MGT 424 SEU Principles of Air Quality Management Discussion Essay.

read attach case study and answer these question :Demonstrate with specific examples two to three of the quality functions, which were implemented throughout the research?( Minimum of 150 words ) Discuss the tools used to improve the food quality management practices following the checklist provided in the case?( Minimum of 150 words ) To which extent do you agree with the author view regarding the importance of improving the quality management? Support your side with evidence (Minimum of 250)Use a word format and typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No matching rationLearning Outcome: Implement quality improvement efforts using teams for organizational assessment and quality audits Implement a system for the importance of standardization and quality standards
MGT 424 SEU Principles of Air Quality Management Discussion Essay

Description of Research Methodology

Description of Research Methodology.

In this assignment, you will write an essay about the research methods and
ethical implications of a social psychology study. You will get information
about the study from one of the entries in the SPARQ “Solutions Catalog”, which
is a web site maintained by Stanford University at
SPARQ is an acronym for “Social Psychological Answers to Real-world Questions.”
Each entry in the Solutions Catalog names a problem, and then offers a solution
to that problem, based on a research study in social psychology. 
To keep this assignment short and manageable, your only sources for this assignment should
be from the SPARQ site and your course materials, such as your textbook.
There is no need for you to cite any of the course materials. Therefore, no
additional citations or references are needed, beyond those from the SPARQ
In this exercise, you will choose one of the entries in the SPARC site, and
then write a two to three (2-3) page paper that meets the following

Begin your paper with a short introductory statement that clearly identifies
the article from the SPARQ site that you are using, as well as the corresponding
research article.  Model your statement after the following example: 

The article I selected from the SPARQ website is entitled “Boost Grades by
Reframing Failures” (Wilson, n.d.), which summarizes a research article (Wilson
& Linville, 1982) on the topic.

Please note that there are two APA “in-text citations” in this example. The
first citation “(Wilson, n.d.)” is an in-text citation for the SPARQ article.
The SPARQ articles are undated, which means that there is no date of publication
reported. The “n.d.” designation is an abbreviation for “no

The second citation “(Wilson & Linville, 1982)”, is an in-text citation
to the original research article. We are asking you to cite this paper for
practice in using APA, but are not requiring you to read the original paper.
Normally, you should cite only those articles that you actually read and used,
but we’re making an exception here for the purposes of

Briefly summarize the main details of your chosen social psychology research
study. Identify the main research method(s) used in the study (e.g., case study,
experiment, observation, etc.).
Explain whether or not you believe the research methodology that the
researchers used in the study was the most appropriate for the study. Provide a
rationale for your response.
Discuss whether or not you believe the research methodology used in the
study is the one (1) method that provides researchers with the most information
in general. Explain the main reasons why or why not.
Explain the major ethical implications of the selected study (e.g., informed
consent, debriefing, etc.). Describe the main reasons why you believe the study
was or was not ethical. Provide a rationale for your response.
The final section of your paper will be a reference section that contains a
corresponding reference for both of the in-text citations in your introductory
statement (see point #1, above). In APA-style citations, in-text citations must
match up with a reference in the reference section. You can model your reference
section after the following: 

Wilson, T. D. (n.d.). Boost grades by reframing failures.  Retrieved
T. D. & Linville, P.W. (1982).  Improving the academic performance of
college freshmen:  attribution therapy revisited.  Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 42 (2),

These examples follow
the APA conventions for an Internet article, and a professional journal article,
 Your assignment must follow these formatting

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch
margins on all sides
Description of Research Methodology

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