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Human trafficking and child sex trafficking

Human trafficking and child sex trafficking. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the research of human trafficking, both in general and in child sex trafficking as a specific and crucial phenomenon. According to the U.S. Department of State (2007) trafficking is one of the fastest growing criminal enterprises with an approximate number of 800.000 victims each year trafficked over international borders. Anti-trafficking campaigns and NGOs have mushroomed and anti-trafficking policies have become important features of both international development agencies and governmental agendas (Piper 2005:203). Largely, scholars have concentrated their research on South East Asia; a region which is often described as the hub of trafficking in persons, particularly for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Since the UN Transitional Authority period child sex trafficking and child sex tourism have been identified as a specific problems and Cambodia has become the focus of many UN activities. Child sex trafficking is described as relatively new phenomenon in Cambodia which did not exist before 1970 (Archivantitkul: 1998). The political and economic landscape of Cambodia as well as moral and social values have changed considerably in the last three decades since the Khmer Rouge regime. This fact makes Cambodia particularly vulnerable for people who seek to make a profit from the poverty of people who may be overwhelmed by the ongoing fast changing impacts which come to their country. South-East Asia has a large scale of undocumented labour migration. Those migrations flows are greatly facilitated by recruiters in destination and origin countries which can cause an exploitative situation. There is a fine line between the issues of migrant smuggling and trafficking and their distinctions are often blurred. Therefore, trafficking has to be seen as a part of migration flows (Piper 2005: 207). Most of human trafficking activities in South East Asia, particularly in the Mekong sub-region, take place domestically and so one can refer more to a regional or national problem than to an international one (ibid.:204). This part of the issue should be considered carefully as different patterns such as globalisation and the socio-economic conditions play an important role and could make trafficking in Cambodia again an international problem considering the causes ( ibid.:205). The definition of trafficking has changed considerably in the last number of decades and yet there is still no consensus about a universally valid definition (Laczko 2005: 10). The lack of a common definition together with the refusal of some states to recognise the existence of trafficking within their country makes it hard to combat this issue effectively on a global scale (Savona and Stefanizzi 2007: 2). In 2000, the UN General Assembly adopted the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons [1] , also known as the Palermo Protocol. The protocol offers for the first time a legally binding international definition of trafficking as the control of one person over another for the purpose of exploitation: “Trafficking in persons” shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. Human trafficking and in particular child sex trafficking is considered by different scholars and studies (e.g. Williams and Masika 2002; Jana 2002; Asia Regional Cooperation to Prevent People Trafficking 2003) as a highly gendered topic. Despite the lack of research and accurate data on trafficking patterns, and it is clear that the majority of trafficking victims are women and girls (UNODC, 2006). Hence, one can say that trafficking is so often seen to be caused and facilitated by “unequal gender relations and patriarchal values and systems” (Williams and Masika 2002: 6). Undeniably, this creates of vulnerabilities and therefore human rights violations on women and children. Understanding the gender dimensions of this phenomenon is crucial to obtain a clear picture of the recruitment of trafficking victims up to the development of policy strategies and campaigns to combat these human rights violations. 1.1. The construction of the victim of child sex trafficking Existing research as well as political and criminal justice activity has the tendency to focus on the offender and their identification and punishment, rather than considering the victims of sex trafficking as ‘equal players’. This reflects a traditional criminology research approach which is often criticised by victimology discourse (Goody 2005: 239). Despite the large amount of literature and research which addresses child sex trafficking in Cambodia, there remains a gap about the conceptualisation of the victim of child sex trafficking. From a western perspective, victim conceptions are diverse which can be seen for instance in the “ideal victim” (Christie 1986) and in social constructivism views (e.g. Schütz 1962). Therefore it is also vital to consider the gender perspective of trafficking and the social role and construction of women and girls in the Cambodian society today in contrast to the past. For a better understanding of the origin of the construction perceptions it is interesting to take a closer look at constructivism theory. The concept of the victim underlies a construction of a certain reality within a culture, a society and in particular an institution. Those constructions of realities can be seen in the light of constructivism which means the construction of social realities. The theory of social constructivism has been contributed to by Schütz (1962), Berger and Luckmann (1966) and Gergen (1985, 1999). Regarding the construction of knowledge Schütz (1962: 5) argues that “(a)ll our knowledge of the world, in common sense as well as in scientific thinking, involves constructs, i.e. a set of abstractions, generalizations, formalizations, idealizations, specific to the relevant level of thought organization”. In terms of constructing the picture of a victim one can assume that the content of a perception is constructed in an active- constructive process of production rather than a passive- receptive process of representation (Flick 2004: 89). We find access to our world of experience which includes natural and social environment as well as certain conceptions by the construction of concepts and knowledge which are used to interpret experiences, understanding and attribution of meaning (ibid.: 90). It is crucial to regard the construction of knowledge and concepts in the context of social research and figure out the relevance for the present dissertation. Schütz (1962: 208ff) describes that social research uses pre-existing everyday constructs out of everyday knowledge and constructs with this another more formalised and generalised version of the world (Flick 2004: 91). Due to the lack of research about the conception of a victim in Cambodian society, my dissertation will focus on the social construct of a child sex trafficking victim and how it differs depending on the social environment or society the child is living in. This research seeks to identify the concept of a child sex trafficking victim which NGOs, International Organisation and the Cambodian government develop campaigns and policies to combat trafficking on. To get a clearer picture of the causes of child victim Piper (2005) claims that there is more research required into pre-trafficking situations (evidence of child abuse, family situation, and socio-economic pressure on family) and the challenges faced by trafficked victims who return to their countries and/ or regions of origin. Also the question arises of whether the victim can attain victim status after being returned to the family or whether stigmatisation causes him/her to be seen as an outcast. I would like to consider these issues for my qualitative interviews with NGOs and governmental representatives in Cambodia. 1.2. Additional literature review Apart from the literature referred to in the text above, essential texts for researching human trafficking and child sex trafficking in particular are e.g. Micollier (eds) (2004) who edited different essays which examine the social construction of sexuality, gender roles in the family, and gendered power relations in society in East Asia. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) also published various studies and books concerning human trafficking. The most contributive one for my research (IOM 2005), gathers a collection of essays that describe data collection and research of human trafficking from different countries. Relevant for the Mekong sub-region, Nicola Piper (2005) gives a review in this book about undertaken research on trafficking in South East Asia and Oceania. She highlights the gaps of knowledge in literature and research of trafficking issues. Savona and Stefanizzi (eds) (2007) and their contributors have a similar focus but offer a deeper analysis of migration flows and trafficking and improving monitoring mechanisms for these complex criminal activities. An important study about human trafficking in Cambodia was undertaken by the Asia Regional Cooperation to Prevent People Trafficking (2003): Gender, Human Trafficking and the Criminal Justice System in Cambodia. Their research focus was on the gender perspective of trafficking and the underlying causes and contributing factors. Another study by the Asian Foundation (2006): A Review of a Decade of Research On Trafficking in Persons, Cambodia, aimed to provide a systematically review on trafficking related research about the consequences, scopes and patterns of trafficking. They review more trafficking in general and in its various patterns. Child sex trafficking is considered in a small but well researched paragraph. Summing up, these key readings and studies all critically asses human trafficking and offer a variety of valid perspectives on the phenomenon. 2. Research question and aim Research question As introduced to in the paragraph above, my research question arises out of a literature gap.: “What type of conceptualisation of a victim do victim support centres, NGOs and the government in Cambodia have and how do those concepts influence their work, campaigns and policy strategies?” Research aim The research aim is to identify the different existing constructions of a child sex trafficking victims in Cambodia provided and to explore if the social and cultural construction of a trafficked child differs depending on society and social environment like shelters or vocational training programme the child lives in or is involved in. Possible sub-questions that contribute to the research question are: How do children become victims of trafficking? What is the social construction of women and girls in Cambodia? Explore the historical development of the term “child” and “juvenile” in Cambodia in legal and cultural ways. Is there a changing meaning of those terms? How important is virginity for Cambodian men? 3. Research Method/ Design According to Flick (2006), the foundation of qualitative research is the reconstruction of social realities. Through the exploration of subjective perceptions, patterns of interpretation, structural characteristics and the latent meaning of action, a deeper understanding of a study field can be achieved. Thereby, no proband taming takes place by presetting of answering categories, but it creates a space for individual perspectives of the study field (Muckel 1996: 66). The general claim of qualitative research is to describe “life worlds ‘from the inside out’, from the point of view of the people who participate” (Flick et al: 3), to contribute to a better understanding of social realities. In comparison to quantitative social research where one examine already formulated hypothesis, the aim of qualitative research is to discover new ideas and to develop empirically justified theories (Flick 2006: 15). Though, the communication of the researches of the particular field, i.e. the subjectivity of the researcher and the researched, becomes an essential component of the research process and the finding (Flick 2006). Contrary to quantitative research controlling or excluding influence from the researched as interfering variables, in qualitative research the reflection of the researcher’s actions, his perceptions and observations as well as impressions and irritations are involved in the data evaluation process (ibid.: 16). The openness to the primary world of the researched and their different constructions of reality as well as according to the applied research methods are a basic characteristic of qualitative research (ibid.). My research interest focuses on the subjective views and conception of the victim of child sex trafficking in Cambodia. Therefore it is essential to apply qualitative research methods. In the following I will describe the chosen methods of collecting and evaluating data. 3.1. Method of data collection The dissertation seeks to asses NGOs, crisis centres and governmental agencies’ conceptions and views of the victim of child sex trafficking in Cambodia. The aim is to examine how their construction of a child victim influences their project, campaigns and policies. This interrelation is possible to depict verbally but not easily to detect throughout observation processes due to ethical considerations. The observation of the work with victims is ethically not justifiable in such a short research time frame as the identity with victims is strictly confidential and observation is not approved by the organisations or shelters if the researcher is not able to stay at least 2 month. Therefore the qualitative interview with the organisations and shelters was chosen as a research method. The main interest is to find out about particular perceptions and more complex argumentations. Therefore the questioning should be more active and probing (Hopf 2004: 204). Semi-structured Interview The semi-structured interview is an appropriate approach to explore the subjective perception and theories that stands behind my questionnaire. Scheele and Groeben (1988) introduced this approach to explore the construction and subjective theories behind everyday knowledge and the field of study (Flick 2006: 155). Their assumption was that interviewees are encouraged to express their perceptions and their reasoning behind certain topics in a natural manner if the interviewer provides a semi-structured question setting. Therefore one can reconstruct the subjective theories and views of the interviewee for the purpose of the study. The main elements of the semi-structured interview are open and confrontational questions. (see box 1) They offer the interviewee space to express their perception and knowledge. The confrontational question has a responsive function to the subjective theories offered by the interviewee and is asking a competing alternative to re-examine the opinions (ibid.: 156). An example for my research would be: (Text box 1) Another set of questions would be hypothesis-directed questions (see text box 2) which test scientific literature written about the research topic (ibid.). They give the interviewee the chance to become more explicit and help the interviewer to get the required information for the researched topic: (Text box 2) In specific: the Expert Interview The expert interview is a subcategory of the semi-structured interview. The approach of the dissertation questionnaire is to interview on the one hand service providers like victim support centre, crisis centres and NGOs that support the victim needs and rights. On the other hand it is an aim to speak to the Cambodian government which means in particular MP Mu Sochua of the Ministry of Women’s and Veteran’s Affairs (MWVA). Here the interest is not so much the biographic background of the actual person but more the perception of the actual institution or the Cambodian Parliament about the research topic. The interviewees are seen as representatives for a certain group not as individuals (Flick 2006: 165). There are several research practical amenities for the expert interview. In an early exploration phase of a theoretical, less prestructured and informational less cross-linked research, the expert interview offers unrivalled dense data acquisition. This stands in contrast to the elaborate, cost and time-intensive accomplishment of participant observation, field study and systematic quantitative research (Bogner and Menz 2005: 7). It is recommended to choose expert interviews if a study field is hard or impossible to access especially when it comes to delicate issues like child sex trafficking and child prostitution. Beside the economic advantages and the chance to get information even about an awkward issue, another advantage is the facilitation of further field access when the expert refers to other colleagues and dialogue partners. It should also be noted out of a methodological view that a further benefit is that it is much easier to interview an expert as they usually have a higher linguistic competence which contributes directly to the analysis of the narrative. Hence, in an idealised conception, two academic socialised dialogue partners meet in this interview setting (ibid.: 8). To ensure validity of my research and to ascertain patterns of the construction of the victim of child sex trafficking, I intend to carry out 15-20 interviews with victim support centres, Human Rights NGOs who are concerned about child sex trafficking and government representatives (all in Phnom Penh). All institutions are contacted via email and telephone to arrange an appointment during my field trip in Cambodia and to offer them an outline of the research project which gives them the opportunity to prepare for the questions. I will use open-ended questions that give the interviewee space to present their perceptions and views. It also allows for the emergence of new topics that were not originally thought to be part of the interview. I will prepare 8 broad topics for the interviews that are formulated as broad questions and introduce them one after the other [2] . Depending on the interview course, I will specify the topics and ask in more detail to clarify vague formulations. 3.2. Limitations Whilst there are many advantages to this research design, there are also several limitations to the expert interview. Meuser and Nagel (2002:87) identify the expert might not always react as desired where their expertise may emerge as being limited and impede the interview process. Further, they identify the eventuality that the interviewee may not t participate in the “question-answering game” (Flick 2006:165) giving instead a speech to promote their knowledge and/or agenda. Whilst this can sometimes contribute to the research topic, it can also digress from the point and make it difficult to return to the original question. Another potential weakness of expert interviews is that the interviewee can change roles from being an expert to being a private person. Whereby, the interview looses objectiveness and private/ personal perceptions and bias may interfere with the representation of the institution or expert knowledge (ibid.). To ensure reliability for this method it is crucial that the interviewee, here the expert, understands the research context and the questions fully. Bulmer and Warwick (1983) identify the difficulties of conducting social research in developing countries which gives this research proposal an interesting angle. It is widely recognised that the availability of social data in developing countries is limited. Existing data is often of poor quality and therefore of little use due to limited administrative capacity, lack of manpower and infrastructure (ibid.: 4-5). The validity might be restricted and misleading if one relies only on administrative sources. The Cambodian law enforcement agencies and administration are perceived as the most corrupt sector. The Global Corruption Barometer also shows that 70% of the citizens are likely to pay bribes to the police (Anti- Corruption Resource Centre 2009) which proves the normality and explicitness of corruption within the population. When it comes to delicate issues such as human trafficking high ranking Cambodian law enforcement official are believed to accept bribes to facilitate human trafficking and child prostitution (US Department of State Human Rights Report 2006). A revealing example for corruption compliance within sex trafficking is the former Deputy Director of the Police Anti-Human Trafficking and Juvenile Department and two officials under his supervision were convicted and imprisoned for facilitating human trafficking (Anti- Corruption Resource Centre 2009). Due to the ubiquity of corruption, corruption this must be recognised within my research and considered when seeking out NGOs, who can offer a different picture of the reality throughout their mandate, their reports and research. With this considering and an awareness of these potential difficulties and obstacles within the interview process, a valid data collection can be better guaranteed. If one does so, the expert interview can be a very useful and powerful source to generate valid data. After weighing up the variety of pro and cons, the expert interview is an appropriate interview method for this research to provide an interpretative account of the concept a child sex trafficking victim. 3.3. Alternative Method: Problem-centered Interview (PCI) Initially the problem-centered interview (Witzel 1982; 1985) was considered as an appropriate interview method for my research question about construction of a victim. The principles of the problem-centred interview are “to gather objective evidence on human behaviour as well as on subjective perceptions and ways of processing social reality” (Witzel 2000:1). In this sense, the basic concern is the exploration of subjective cognition, approaches, motivation for actions and situation al interpretations. In contrast, the narrative interview (Hopf 2004: 206) is considered in this context to be inadequate because it produces a lot of material which leads to a huge data amount. Further, there should be no intervention in the process where the role of the interviewer is an attentive listener. This would be inappropriate considering the specific research questionnaire in mind and the given time frame. The problem-centered interview to large extent draws upon Glasers and Strauss’s (1967) theory generating method of the “Grounded Theory”. The primary reason for excluding this research method is the fact that it is a biographic focused interview where the biography and personal experiences of the interviewee are integral to the data generated. The expert knowledge of a certain field or of a particular organisation and expertise which mirrors the ideology of that institution is of more use than the biography of the expert and their personal motivations and views. Nevertheless, the research interest is to ascertain and interpret why the concept of the victim is constructed as described by the organisation experts and why it might differ from Western views of the child as a victim of sex trafficking. Therefore cultural and social constructions of realities have to be included. 3.4. Data analysis The reliability of this study will be maximised by transcribing all interviews conducted and building categories based on an initial reading of the transcripts. This process is described as ‘coding’ (e.g. Flick 2006: 295 and Seale 2004: 306ff) which is based in based in grounded theory as discussed earlier [3] . Seale identifies that the purpose of coding qualitative data is to reduce large amounts of data and to “develop and test out theories” (2004: 313). The main challenging task for the researcher is to filter out comparisons and identify similarities and differences in the interview material. For my research I will use open coding which means the “process of breaking down, examining, comparing, conceptualising and categorizing data” (Strauss and Corbin 1990: 61). The coding strategy enables me to analyse the concepts of the victim of child sex trafficking, group them into categories and subsequently discuss them in depth. The last step of coding is a list of terms together with an explanatory text (Böhm 2004: 271). 3.5. Ethics in qualitative research Multiple ethical considerations arise throughout the research process for this dissertation. Starting from the research design and the appropriateness of certain methods to collecting data and further on to the point of analysing the gathered data. More recently there has been a paradigm shift from the ethical concerns in social research concerned with the ways in which participants are affected by the research to a more post-structuralist approach which includes the social world and the knowable and objective truth is uncovered by researchers (Ali and Kelly 2004: 116). A crucial influence in social research ethics comes from feminist researchers who emphasise “[…] the role of power relations at all levels of knowledge production, from epistemology, through research relationships, to the dissemination of findings” (ibid.). Research regarding child sex trafficking can be seen from the perspective of feminist research as it is a highly gendered topic. It is therefore crucial to consider feminist research practices and its related ethical elements. A primary aim of feminist research is to contest and dispute the marginalised status of woman, and in this particular case vulnerable child, by representing their needs, perspectives and perceptions (Gillies and Alldred 2005: 39). There have been many controversies surrounding the role of the researcher in the production of knowledge about women and representing ‘the Other’ (Wilkonson and Kitzinger 1996, in: Gillies and Alldred 2005: 39). The ethical concerns posed when carrying out research on trafficked children as such a vulnerable group are profound. I therefore consider it ethically unjustifiable to interview children about their experience with sexual exploitation within this short research period. Such an approach could potentially cause further distress to an already vulnerable and exploited subject group. As such, I have therefore decided against interviewing victims of trafficking and will conduct interviews exclusively with experts. Respect will be given to existing ethical precautions and regulations for social research whilst also acknowledging that an ethical practice will often “comes down to the ‘professional’ integrity of the individual researcher” (Ali and Kelly 2004: 118). Translator difficulties A further challenge to potentially interviewing victims would be the requirement of a translator which can creates a multitude of problems: The dynamic can create a tense and unbalanced atmosphere for the victims to talk comfortably. There is a risk that the translator may not translate the verbatim accurately. Finally, interpretation of the language particulars of the victim is crucial to the data and therefore not understanding Khmer creates a large obstacle when reviewing the interview translations. This may be hard to overcome even with a translator. In consideration of this I decided to interview English speaking NGOs and government representatives. How generalisable will our results be to the sectors as a whole? 5. Timescale from 15th April to 2nd September Date 2010 Literature Review Contacts Questionnaire Design Fieldwork Cambodia Data Processing Data Analysis Write Report Submit Report April 15 * April 22 * April29 * * April 6 * * * May13 * * * May20 * * * May 27 * June 3 * * June 10 * June 17 * * June 24 * * July 1 * * July 8 * * July 15 * * July 22 * * July 29 * Aug 5 * * Aug 12 * * Aug 19 * Aug 26 * Sep 2 * Sep 9 * Sep 15 * (Bloch, A. (2010) Timescales for Research Project: The Professional Capacity of Nationals from the Somali Regions in the UK, Moodle City University, slides of lecture 6) 6. Bibliography Books and journal articles: Ali, S. and Kelly, M. (2004) Ethics and social research, in Seale, C. Researching Society and Culture. London [et al.]: Sage Publications. Archivantitkul, K. (1998) Trafficking in children for forced labour exploitation including child prostitution in the Mekong sub-region. Bangkok: ILO-IPEC. Asia Regional Cooperation to Prevent People Trafficking (2003) Gender, Human Trafficking and the Criminal Justice System in Cambodia [accessed 7th April 2010]. Berger, P.L. and Luckmann, T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Bloch, A. (2010) Timescales for Research Project: The Professional Capacity of Nationals from the Somali Regions in the UK, Moodle City University, slides of lecture 6. Bogner, A., Menz, W. (2005) Expertenwissen und Forschungspraxis: die modernisierungstheoretische und die methodische Debatte um die Experten., in Das Experteninterview: Theorie, Methode, Anwendung. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag Für Sozialwissenschaften. Böhm, A. (2004) Theoretical Coding: Text Analysis in Grounded Theory, in Flick et al A Companion to Qualitative Research. London[et al.]: Sage Publications. Bulmer, M., Warwick, D. (1983) Social Research in developing countries. Surveys and Censuses in the Third World. Chichester [West Sussex]: Wiley. Christie, N. (1986) The Ideal Victim, in Fattah, E.A. From Crime Policy to Victim Policy. Reorienting the justice system. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan. Flick, U., von Kardorff, E. and Steinke, I. (2004) A Companion to Qualitative Research. London [et al.]: Sage Publications. Flick, U. (2004) Constructivism, in Flick,U., von Kardorff, E. and Steinke, I. A Companion to Qualitative Human trafficking and child sex trafficking
Religion is a fundamental set of beliefs and practices that are generally agreed upon by a number of persons or sects. In the Civil Rights Act of 1964 legislation, Religion include all aspects of religious observance and practice, as well as belief; unless an employer demonstrates that he/she is unable to reasonably accommodate an employee’s or prospective employee’s religious observance or practice without undue hardship on the conduct of the employer’s business (FindUSLaw, 2008). The meaning of reasonable accommodation is determined by the human resources. On the other hand, undue hardship may differ from employer to employer. However, religious accommodation may be granted if it does not in any way infringe on the rights of the other workers. Certain practices are easily accommodated while others cannot be accommodated in the workplace. This paper covers the religious practices of the orthodox Jewish, the Hindu and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints’ practices, and whether these practices can be accommodated in the workplace, or not. One of the main practices of the three aforementioned religions is the observance of holy days during which some of their religious faithful are not allowed to work. The Orthodox Jewish day of rest (Sabbath) is Saturday. On this day, the use of all electrical appliances is highly prohibited. This includes driving, turning on lights, or even cooking. The Mormon holy day is Sunday and on this day, Mormons are advised to rest and worship. Mormons celebrate two religious festivals namely, Easter and Christmas. In the other hand, Hindus have many festivals whose dates change from year to year. During these festivals, they worship, fast, feast, and perform other rituals. Some of these practices can be accommodated in the workplace. Those employers who require their employees to work on Saturdays can make an exception. Some practices that may not be accommodated include fasting if the employees were too weak to work. Orthodox fast days are spread throughout the year. During this time, no food or water is consumed for 25 hours (Rabin, 2011). This could be considered as undue hardships. Certain religious practices require a certain dress style. Orthodox Jewish women wear head coverings and are not allowed to wear pants while Jewish men grow sideburns and wear hats. Hindu women wear a special dress known as a mangalsutra while orthodox Hindu men grow a small pony tail on the back of their heads. Mormons are required to wear modest clothing that is not clingy. If a dress style poses a security risk, it cannot be accommodated. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are clothes that may be inappropriate for certain jobs especially those that are likely to get tangled up in machinery. If a dress code is not in line with the organizations’ public image or if it does not promote a productive work environment, the employer has a right not to accommodate it. If a dress code is based on business needs and applied uniformly, it generally will not violate employee civil rights (Thomas, 2007). The three religions have strict guidelines on what food should be consumed. The Mormons do not drink caffeine or tea or any beverage that may be addictive. They are also encouraged to consume grains, herbs and fruits and to eat meat sparingly. Some Hindus do not eat meat, fish or eggs and the orthodox Jewish do not eat foods that are not kosher. This is a practice that can be accommodated by an employer by providing a wider variety of foods on their menu and ensuring that Hindu foods are cooked and heated in different containers from the ones used for cooking meat. The Hindu paradigm of Dharma-of doing one’s duty is a powerful force in the workplace. Dharma is not enough because Hindus have been castigated for being clannish and unwilling to mix with others (Srinivasan, 2007, p. 1). This has been attributed to the caste system. If the job they are doing involves networking or working in teams, this behavior cannot be accommodated. This decision is also strengthened by the fact that the caste system is illegal in India where the Hindu community originated from. It’s not unlawful for an employer to take action against an employee in a foreign country if compliance with the employee’s demand would cause the employer to violate the law of the foreign country (FindUSLaw, 2008). The prayer requirements of the three religions vary. Many Hindus are required to pray three times a day. During this time, they bring a plate, a cup of water and a spoon. Accommodations can easily by providing space where they can pray and store their prayer items. The orthodox Jewish and Mormon daily prayer practices do not require special considerations. There are instances where the employer is allowed by law to hire employees based on their religion. If religion is a bonafide occupational qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of that particular business or if the employer is an education institution owned, supported or controlled by a particular religion (FindUSLaw, 2008). We will write a custom Essay on Religion at Work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List FindUSLaw. (2008). Civil Rights Act of 1964- CRA- Title VII- Equal Employment Opportunities-42 US Code Chapter 21. Web. Rabin, R. C. 2011. Rabbis sound an alarm over eating disorders. Web. Srinivasan, R. (2007). The Hindu Work Ethic. Shadow Warrior. Web. Thomas, R. (2007). Dress code legal issues. HR Matters E-Tips. Web.
FIN 460 California State University Management of Financial Institutions Research.

I’m working on a finance report and need a sample draft to help me study.

The overall intent of the Paper is to understand a Bank’s financial statement, its position in the market place and how the Bank compares to its piers. The Bank’s total assets should not be more than $2B.undefinedLength: 2-5 pages excluding Exhibits.undefinedItems that must be covered:undefinedIdentify the type of BankWhich regulatory agency governs themWhat is the Banks focus (i.e. Commercial, deposit only …..)Calculate and show work by attaching exhibitsROEROANet Interest MarginNet Noninterest MarginNet Operating MarginShow, at a minimum, two competing Bank’s financial statements for comparisons via exhibitDiscuss how the Bank compares, two strength and two weaknesses, in relationship to the competing Banks (i.e. Net Interest Margin is a strength due to ….) undefinedPaper will be graded on the following criteria:undefinedAll components completedAccuracy of contentFormat was easy to followAnalysis competentundefinedWebsites that could help in both your research and bank comparison:undefined www.ffiec.govundefined
FIN 460 California State University Management of Financial Institutions Research

Gerontology Assignment- Short Answer

Gerontology Assignment- Short Answer. I don’t understand this English question and need help to study.

Hello, below I have attached my dual assignments. All together it is (4) questions and I only need 2 pages. 1/2 page for each questions. Must be in APA format. I have attached material that could be very useful. Be sure to have a reference page and to cite everything properly.
Module 3: Assignment Three
Copy the question before answering it (Question-Answer)
Q1- What is the definition of “chronic disease?” (3 points)
Q2- Which chronic disease will you (YOU personally) be most scared to have in your old age? WHY? Include correct factual information about this disease. Provide fact-based reasons for your fear of this chronic disease. Your responses should have adequate depth for a graduate-level course. Cite, at least, one scholarly reference (in addition to your textbook). (7 points)
Q3- Explain “healthy aging.” In your response, first explain your definition of “healthy” aging. Explain all the factors and criteria that you would use to define “healthy.” In the second paragraph of your response describe behaviors, life styles, and attitudes that prevent “healthy” aging. Please do not write your second paragraph as a direct opposite of the first paragraph. If you will do that, I will get a good laugh but I will not give you credit for your second paragraph. Cite, at least, one scholarly reference (in addition to your textbook). Minimum words: 250 (10 points)
Did the student address the questions completely and clearly?
Did the question provide appropriate research citations (if asked for in the question)?
Did writing errors make it difficult for the instructor to understand the responses?
The assignments will consist of essay-type and short-answer type questions
Title of the book: Social Gerontology: A Multidisciplinary Perspective (Subscription), 10th Edition
Authors: Nancy R. Hooyman, Kevin Y. Kawamoto, and H. Asuman Kiyak
Year of Publication: 2018
Format: Adobe Reader
ISBN: ISBN-9780133913156
Format Access Code Card
ISBN: ISBN-9780133911510
Link to access the Revel edition of the Textbook
You can access your Revel edition of the book by clicking on the following link:
Video Links to Help;
Click link to open resource.
Helpful info
Module 3: Lecture Materials– Chapter 4 Managing Chronic Diseases and Promoting Well-Being in Old Age
No aspect of old age is more alarming to most of us than the thought of declining health and threats to our functional ability and autonomy. We fear not only the pain and disruption of illness, but also how it affects active aging and our ability to perform daily tasks and remain at home. Poor health, more than other changes commonly associated with aging, can reduce a person’s competence in mastering his or her environment. On the other hand, although many diseases are deleterious, progressive, and long-term, they are not universal with age. Moreover, older adults with chronic illnesses may still enjoy a certain quality of life, and we can make modifications in our lives, no matter what age, that will promote physical well-being in old age. However, inequities by gender, race, and social class, which may begin earlier in life and intensify with age, affect illness and death rates from certain chronic illnesses, perpetuating health disparities.
Gerontology Assignment- Short Answer

LOG 310 Grantham Comprehensive Insight Into Six Sigma DMAIC Toolbox Discussion

best assignment help LOG 310 Grantham Comprehensive Insight Into Six Sigma DMAIC Toolbox Discussion.

Explain the five steps of DMAIC and its association with Six Sigma. How could you determine when and when not to use DMAIC?The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:Write between 750 – 1,250 words (approximately 3 – 5 pages) using Microsoft Word in APA style, see example below.Use font size 12 and 1” margins.Include cover page and reference page.At least 80% of your paper must be original content/writing.No more than 20% of your content/information may come from references.Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style.References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing.…
LOG 310 Grantham Comprehensive Insight Into Six Sigma DMAIC Toolbox Discussion

How to Write a Nursing Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Getting Started – The Planning Phase The key to success when writing a nursing essay is the detail applied when planning the piece. It is essential to create a clear and robust essay structure, taking into account all of the learning outcomes expected of the finished piece. As well as understanding the essay title it is also important to become fully acquainted with the learning outcomes which are included as standard with all essays, as these form a pivotal part of the students overall understanding of what is required of them when submitting their work. Most importantly in the planning phase it is advisable to return to the course tutor or module leader if there is any doubt as to what is expected of the essay, although feasible to do so, clarifying important queries once the essay is underway may well be too late as it may result in a significant content or structural change to hard work already carried out. A well planned essay will consider the following: Clarity as so what is being asked of the essay – is the title clear? Having a full understanding of the style of work required i.e. reflective account, literature review and so on. Brainstorm – this is an easy yet helpful way of deciding on key content. Write headings of key points to include then start to build upon these. Where is the word count weighted – there is often an allocation of the percentage of marks which will be gained from each segment such as introduction, discussion and conclusion, be clear about this in the plan. Where is information for content to be accessed? A literature search should be carried out as early as possible. How much time is available to complete the work? Make a plan of time usage and stick to it, never leave writing until the last minute as it will certainly detract from the quality of the finished piece. The Introduction To obtain a good mark, students are expected to provide a robust and strong introduction to the essay, this indicates to the marker that the student fully understands what is expected of them, and also gives an indication of the content to follow in the discussion. When referring in the introduction what will be included in the essay, it is crucial that these intentions are followed through and the content included reflects this, and if detail is not guaranteed to appear in the text then it is advisable to keep information brief in the introduction. Always consider that the contents of the introduction can always be altered once the main body of the essay is complete, that way it ensures that the intended content is referred to appropriately in the introduction. The marker will expect to see references used from the offset however in the introduction these can be kept to a minimum and used purely to support the key features and the subject the essay is intended to focus on. The Discussion This is the student’s platform to exhibit their knowledge of the subject they are writing about. Having undertaking a thorough essay plan the content itself will have been clarified, the more complex undertaking will be to source and correctly apply theories within the discussion that give weight and credence to the level of understanding of the subject the student is required to write about. The discussion needs to be broad and relatively unbiased (unless it is specifically required to emphasise one side of an argument), providing the marker with well-rounded and up-to-date knowledge of the subject, which indicates that the student has read widely around the subject matter, and has subsequently acquired a good understanding of this. The discussion forms the bulk of a standard essay and is where the student must include all of the relevant points they intend to include in the essay. It is within the discussion that the student must display the evidence collected to address the question or proposed topic for discussion. The Conclusion It is essential at this stage of the essay not to present new information, or bring in additional threads to the discussion. The conclusion is intended to be a segment whereby the student is able to offer informed opinions about the information, facts and arguments provided within the discussion. It is here that information can be validated or challenged, and commonly, where appropriate, recommendations for future practice are made allowing the student to apply theories which have been born from the discussion. As with the introduction a conclusion is required to have a strong impact and leave the marker with no doubt as to whether the original question has been answered sufficiently. Referencing In the UK the ‘Harvard System’ is most commonly used as the academic referencing style of choice. Although for many first-time essay writers understanding referencing can be tantamount to learning a new language, once a solid grasp of the style is obtained it can then be comfortably applied to essays. It is important that students acknowledge that the use of referencing is extremely influential to a pass or fail therefore accuracy is essential to further enhance the over all mark. The purpose of referencing is that the student is able to illustrate a wide research of the chosen topic, and in doing so is able to trace where information has been obtained by means of providing a clear and concise reference list. In Summary It is important to understand that all universities adopt subtle variations in marking systems and as such it is the student’s responsibility to familiarise themselves with their place of study and what is expected of them. Providing strong attention and detail is applied to the planning, structure, information (argument), presentation and referencing of the essay then a student can expect to obtain a pass. The ‘pass’ grade attained will depend on what degree the learning outcomes have been met and fortunately students are able to establish a good understanding of the expectations of the marker by familiarising themselves with the provided ‘marking criteria,’ relating to the academic level they are working towards. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

EASC 101 Regent University The Origins of An Earthquake Lab

EASC 101 Regent University The Origins of An Earthquake Lab.

Follow the link below to begin your lab experience. this lab you will be attempting to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. Follow the directions as provided on the website. You will need to use data from at least 3 stations to accurately triangulate the location of the earthquake epicenter. Your introduction will include information such as: What is an earthquake?, and Are there any benefits to being able to locate an epicenter of an earthquake? The M&M should describe how the distance of the epicenter from your stations was calculated and mapped, and how the circles were used to pinpoint the epicenter. Your R&C will include a recreation of the table that was provided in the lab and a screenshot of your map with the star on the epicenter. Do not forget to include the approximate location (city name) of the epicenter in your R&C write-up.- Earth Science, 15th edition, by Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens, Dennis Tasa. Pearson/PrenticeHall, 2018.Ch- 4-6
EASC 101 Regent University The Origins of An Earthquake Lab