Human Resource Management Of Mcdonalds Company Business Essay. McDonalds has become the largest food service company in the world. The annual sales have made a tremendous growth by 23 billion dollars in the US. It has provided the biggest employment opportunity in the United States. And now the McDonald’s company is expanding spontaneously throughout the world. Presently McDonald’s and its franchises operate more than 28,700 restaurants worldwide in 120 countries and territories and still increasing. McDonald’s got an unbeaten record of serving food to over 68 million people daily. The actual owner of the McDonald’s company occupies only an option of 15-20 % share. Whereas, the rest are run by franchises of the McDonald’s company. The revenue of the company gains a profit of nearly $ 400,000 – $ 700,000 from a single franchise every year. McDonald’s is the only best known brands worldwide, it continually aims to build its brand image by satisfying the customers. Branding always helps to develop personality an organization, product or service. The brand image shows how customers view the organization. An organization could earn brand image if they are providing consistent customer satisfaction. Marketing involves identifying customer’s needs and requirements and making their needs in a better way than competitors. To create a loyal customer, a company should also be loyal towards customers. HISTORY OF McDonald’s In the year 1940’s two brothers named Richard and Maurice McDonald have started the restaurant named ‘Speedee’ in California for the very first time. It replaced its name from ‘Speedee’ to ‘McDonald’s’ on May 4th, 1961 for US trademark. McDonald’s received a wide popularity as soon it launched the “Drive in restaurant services”. McDonald’s expanded into many international markets with its fast food chain restaurant. McDonaldizing McDonald has changed the nature of food service industry and food processing industry also. McDonald’s compete in the field of fast food chains by increasing the supply, lower cost production and launching innovative products. It concentrated with innovative and sophisticated food distribution and packaging systems when the traditional food processors were unable to supply food items sufficiently that McDonald’s demanded. They always had the consistency of devoting more attention than anyone else in this field of service and training. McDonald’s started its fast food chain with tiny suppliers and grew to a huge brand name with the suppliers displaying great loyalty. STRATEGY OF McDonald’s McDonald’s has always adapted to the customer’s tastes lifestyle, language and perception. McDonald’s was globally known for its hamburgers, beef and pork burgers earlier. But when McDonald’s realized that the company should be responsive to different countries people sensitivities, McDonald’s launched up products like chicken, lamb, and fish burgers which could be suitable for different parts of the world. Even when McDonald’s gets to know the increase in population of vegetarians through a survey, the company brought up a new trend of vegetarian items like “McVeggie” burger. This customer segment helped McDonald’s to increase its sales to a large extend. SEGMENTATTION, TARGETING AND POSITIONING McDonald’s basically implements its strategies in main three categories. It divides segmentation strategies according to the age of the customers. The main target segments are children, youth and the young urban family. To attract children McDonald’s has launched a Happy Meal package in which toys ranging from hot wheels to various other characters of Walt Disney are provided. In several outlets of McDonald’s it provides interesting facilities like ‘Play Place’ where children could also play various games like air hockey, arcade games etc. This strategy made a success and a fun place to eat. It also helped to attract young urban families in the restaurant who wants to spend quality time while their children have fun at the outlets. McDonald’s has advertised itself as a place for the whole family to enjoy. Presently it provides its products in affordable price which ensures any segment customers to eat without compromising on price, quality of food, service and hygiene. This atmosphere ensured McDonald’s to maintain a positive relationship with the customers. McDonald’s MARKETING MIX (5P’s) Every company has to work on the following (5 P’s) to make their product successful. The (5 P’s) used by McDonald’s are as follows – Product – Those type of physical products or services offered to the consumer are included in their category. Products may be tangible and non tangible in nature. Taking the case of India, McDonald’s have done a study on the Indian consumer behavior and produced a result in providing a totally a new menu as compared to its international offering. It removed ham, beef and mutton burger from the menu. As India is the only country where McDonald’s serve vegetarian menu. McDonald’s keeps on providing new and innovative products, keeping in mind the changing preferences and tastes of its customers. Place – It is very much important that the product is provided to the customers at the right place, right time and distribution channels. In the USA most of the McDonald’s outlet is within a 3 minute drive. McDonald’s dedication towards satisfying its customers by providing various facilities made its customers to increase more than 20% each year. Price – McDonald’s has made various strategies to attract more customers towards it by providing its products with affordable price, taking in mind the appropriate demand-supply equation. McDonald’s has launched various packages such as combo meal, happy meal, family meal to increase overall sales volume and also to attract middle and lower class consumers. Promotion – various promotion strategies were used by McDonald’s to attract customers. The main objectives of advertising its products, is to spread a positive impression to the public. Famous marketing campaign of McDonald’s “You Deserve a break today, so get up and get away- to McDonald’s” “Food, Folks and Fun” “I’m loving it” People – McDonald’s understands very well that the value of its employees and its customers. It knows the fact that a happy employee could only serve well and result in a happy customer. McDonald’s has always valued the importance of internal and external marketing which includes motivation, training and hiring efficient employees. So that, they could serve the customers well and provide the service up to the customers’ expectations. McDonald’s has classified the important people from the top as follows :- Customers Front line employees Middle level managers Front line managers “I’m loving it” is the best punch line of McDonald’s which shows that the employees are loving their work and they love to serve the customers. 4.3 PLC IN McDonald’s The requirements and demand of customers keeps on changing over time to time. Thus, the product offering has to be changed accordingly. product_life_cycle McDonald’s has continuously introduced new products and removed old products which were at the decline stage of their Product Life Cycle. The introduction is timed in a such way that when the new product should not affect the maturity or growth stage. Thus, the secret lies in getting profits with different products in the different stages of the PLC. The ‘French Fries’ have been an important part of the McDonald’s menu worldwide. But now it was in the declining stage and not generating a proper return. At that point of time a new product was launched namely ‘Shake Shake Fries’ and once again it helped to raise the potential revenue of McDonald’s products. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT OF McDonald’s “The total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization’s workforce, as well as the value, attitudes and beliefs of the individuals involved” is called Human resources. Bratton, J. And Gold, J. (2000) An organization gets competitive advantages by using its employees effectively to improve the skills of labors and to provide a clear view of the organization objectives to be achieved within a particular period to the employers. Human resource management is aimed to recruit efficient, skilled and committed people. Managing and rewarding their performance and developing their skills. The employers of McDonald’s fall into three groups – Restaurant workers Corporate staff and Franchise owners Usually a local McDonald’s restaurant employees up to 50 to 65 people, company staff members work either at the corporate head quarts or at one of 40 regional offices. A large majority is part-time workers; their wages are low although their hourly wages are slightly higher than crew member’s wages. There is one restaurant manager per McDonald’s restaurant. According to a company survey, approximately 12% of all teens are currently employed in the USA works for McDonald’s. 5.1 STAFFING Staffing means management of employees in an organization. It includes the activities such as selection, recruitment, hiring, training, development and deployment of employees. Staffing is the main process which ensures that the right people are recruited at the right time. The staffing professionals are responsible for staffing procedures, inventory of personnel, projection of vacancies, preparation of job descriptions and preparation of applicant’s specification. Staffing is crucial part of a human resource management department and the decision made during this process affects the whole organization structure and organization strategy. 5.2 RECRUITMENT OF EMPLOYEES IN McDonald’s Recruitment is one of the most difficult, time consuming, challenging and costly processes. McDonald’s recruit through two types of methods which are – Internal and External recruitment- Internal recruitment method is designed to take advantage of existing employees. The internal recruitment process is inexpensive compared to external hiring. The external recruitment method is designed to hire employees from outside the organization. It could be advertised through newspaper, internet and other sources. McDonald is always in search of talented applicants and the company focused on the skills of the applicant. 5.3 TRAINING TO EMPLOYEES OF McDonald’s McDonald’s provides highly structured training to the employees. Primary workers are first taken through the basic crew training system. The program consists of on the job training and is largely vocational. Each stage of development helps the crew level to get new training program with the skills becoming more complex and generalized. Training begins immediately after joining the company. Each restaurant has its own video player and training room. Step by step manuals and video tapes teach every detail of the operations and functions in the restaurant in McDonald’s. Trainers use a series of checklists as new crew members move through the restaurant. Once a crew trainer has been promoted to swing manager and when he/she perform successfully. They are eligible for the Management Development Program. Training provides technical and functional management skills for employees at each level of their carrier. The Basic Management Course teaches leadership, time planning and crew recognition. Once a front crew member has progressed to the position of assistant manager, he/she is eligible to attend Hamburger University also. More than 2500 managers and potential franchises take part in the Advanced Operations Course. 5.4 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT McDonald’s knows very well how to increase the quality, customer satisfaction, productivity and innovation. The culture of McDonald has helped the organization to increase its market share and profitability. Training and development also helps in getting a step ahead in competition with other fast food industries and McDonald’s always keeps on making efforts to improve job skills and quality management. 5.5 EDUCATION TO YOUTH McDonald’s is committed to the education of young employees in the organization. Especially for school age employees McDonald’s provides various education facilities which the employee to take away equally with the career at McDonald’s. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Kaplan and Hurd (2002) define that “strategic HRM is a collection of tasks and processes shared jointly by line managers and human resources to solve business issues based on people.”Every organization exists in the market to provide some kind of purpose, goal and objective. Physical, financial and human is the three resources for the organization. The most challenging and the most difficult task of organizing is to value human resources unlike. Human Resource Management is an organizational function that deals with the human aspects of the organization. The objective and goal of human resource management is to help in achieving objective of the organization. The major task involved in Human Resource Management are strategic planning, training, developing, marketing, creating and innovating, problem sensing, managing and controlling. Human resource development plays an active role to select the right candidate for the right job at the right time and helps the company achieve its objectives effectively. Human Resource Management plays the most effective role in achieving the business strategy and its internal working problem. Human resource management faces various external factors from outside the organization such as political, cultural and economic forces. Human resource management also directly deals with the business strategy and organization structure communication. Human resource development management shows the several responsibilities towards the organization from designing the organization strategy with the organizational structure and resource. Human resource development is responsible for planning the basic strategic alignment of the company’s goal and organization utility of resources. There are various accepts related to the stakeholder value management such as value based management, which is based on how to organize the company functions to create maximum profit. This accepts helps to understand the impact of stakeholder interest in the development of management in this organization. McDonald has always focused on main key areas of its operations which are effective, calculability and preventabilty. Also machines play an important role because the machine can perform in a consistent and better way and also helps in getting the uniform quality and services to provide customer satisfaction. The aim of this accepts is to provide corporate strategy, decision process, performance management system, corporation communication and reward process. Human resource planning relates to a variety of other functions such as recruiting, selection, motivation, empowerment, compensation, utilization services, training, development, promotion and retirement. The basic and foremost function of human resource management is to manage and utilize the human resource effectively. Human Management planning can be divided into main two parts named as strategic intent and human resource integration. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Professor ‘Dulewicz’ in 1989 defined performance appraisal as “A basic human tendency to make judgments about the task done by someone. Thus, about work and then the individual who performs the task” There are various factors which affect the performance appraisal system in McDonald’s which are as follows: Motivation- It should be analyzed that the employee is self motivated to achieve the company’s goal and shows positive work attitude to other employees too. Communication- This factor checks the employee’s communication skills. It is necessary for any organization to know whether an employee understands the information clearly or not. Performance- It should also be judged whether an employee could undergo work pressure and even to know how the employee reacts in the opposition. Customer satisfaction – This factor describes the extend up to which the employees should take initiatives to understand the customer needs and wants, also to keep its customers satisfied. Human Resource Department always takes the initiative to manage the workforce diversity. It deals with maintaining a good equilibrium of market demand with the organizational capacity of production. One of the most the challenging tasks posed by the Human resource department is to plan and organize the organization for future market to achieve short term and long term goals. Planning itself is a challenging task it needs to study consumer behavior very deeply. Even at the time of recession Human Resource Development has to implement various strategies to maintain employee strength. When most of the companies at the time of recession tried to reduce their resources and cost and also many companies removed a lot of employees to slow down of the business. McDonald’s was the only fast food based company which was doing very good financial increase in sales. The human resource department plays a significant role in making the stability in the company’s growth and to achieve business objectives within the decided period of time. These factors helped McDonald’s to maintain good financial stability in sales even in the period of recession. Human resource development plays a significant role in achieving business goal and objectives. CONCLUSION The finding from this study it is important to understand that review of the literature discussing experience with results based management strongly suggest that experience has not diverged significantly from that of many other organizations. Overall this study identifies a significant number of areas where greater progress could have been made. There should be a focus on customer demonstrating availability, attentiveness and reliable to external internal customers, building trusting and constructive relationship with them. Listen to their needs and seeking their feedback. Share to succeed employees being available, attentive and reliable with peers and colleagues. Encouraging and contributing to the sharing of information, knowledge and best practices. McDonald’s has always adapted to the customer’s tastes lifestyle, language and perception. McDonald’s was globally known for its hamburgers, beef and pork burgers earlier. But when McDonald’s realized that the company should be responsive to different countries people sensitivities, McDonald’s launched up products like chicken, lamb, and fish burgers which could be suitable for different parts of the world. An organization gets competitive advantages by using its employees effectively to improve the skills of labors and to provide a clear view of the organization objectives to be achieved within a particular period to the employers. Human resource management is aimed to recruit efficient, skilled and committed people. Managing and rewarding their performance and developing their skills. Every organization exists in the market to provide some kind of purpose, goal and objective. Physical, financial and human is the three resources for the organization. The most challenging and the most difficult task of organizing is to value human resources unlike. Human Resource Management is an organizational function that deals with the human aspects of the organization. The objective and goal of human resource management is to help in achieving objective of the organization. The major task involved in Human Resource Management are strategic planning, training, developing, marketing, creating and innovating, problem sensing, managing and controlling. Human resource development plays an active role to select the right candidate for the right job at the right time and helps the company achieve its objectives effectively. Human Resource Management plays the most effective role in achieving the business strategy and its internal working problem. Human resource management faces various external factors from outside the organization such as political, cultural and economic forces. Human resource management also directly deals with the business strategy and organization structure communication. Human Resource Management Of Mcdonalds Company Business Essay
Anthropology homework help. RESEARCH ESSAY QUESTIONÿPush and pull factors in Syrian migration.QuestionSyriaÿhas been embroiled in a civil war since 2011.ÿ Since the beginning of that war, ?more than two million? refugees have fled their homes and many migrants have left ÿthe country (Yardley and Pianigiani 2013; Semple 2014).ÿ While many of the people migrate to neighboring countries such as Turkey and Lebanon, others make their way to Europe or the United States, both legally and ÿillegally(Stevis 2014).ÿ The war and migration have even had some negative impacts on education in Syria (UNICEF 2013).Provide details about the migration of people from Syria since the beginning of its civil war in 2011, including a discussion of the push and pull factors in migration as well as the destinations of the migrants.ÿTo answer this question thoroughly, you may want to consider the following questions. Why are people leaving Syria?ÿHow many people have left?ÿ What percentage of Syrians have left their homes?ÿ What are the characteristics of those who are migrating to various countries?ÿ ÿWhat are they doing in their new locations?ÿ What effects are being felt both in Syria and in the destinations of these migrants?Sources and StrategiesChoose a variety of sources.ÿFirst, use the library and/or the internet databases to learn more about this subject.ÿBecause this is a current event, please look for up-to-date articles inÿreputableÿpopular media (for example, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Time, Newsweek, BBC, etc.).ÿAs well, look for expert analysis and historical background by scholars, participants and journalists.ÿBe sure that your search for expert analysis and opinions includes voices from across the political spectrum, and if possible, from outside the United States as well as inside.ÿI?ve given you a start with four sources, shown below.ÿWikipedia is NOT an acceptable source.ÿNor is any other encyclopedia.Formatting RequirementsLength:ÿTheÿbodyÿof your research essay should be at least 1000 wordsÿ(use ?Word Count? to make sure you meet minimum length of 1000 words).ÿUse Times New Roman font (12 point), with 1 inch margins all around.ÿBegin your response at the top of the page.ÿDo NOT use a title page.ÿPlease include your name in the ?header.? No other identifying information is needed.ÿPlease number your pages.ÿPlease send a digital copy as an e-mail attachment.ÿSAVE A COPY FOR YOURSELF.Tips on Essay WritingTips on writing an essay and ?21 Writing Tips? are included in the ?Research Essay? area on Blackboard.ÿIn addition, there is also information on the evaluation criteria.Works CitedSemple, Kirk. 2014.ÿ ?Fleeing the Bombs in Aleppo, Syria, and Ending Up In New Jersey,? New York Times, January 3, 2014; online atÿhttp://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/04/nyregion/fleeing-syria-and-ending-up-in-new-jersey.html?action=click&module=Search?ion=searchResults&mabReward=relbias%3Ar&url=http%3A%2F%2Fquery.nytimes.com%2Fsearch%2Fsitesearch%2F%3Faction%3Dclick%26region%3DMasthead%26pgtype%3DHomepage%26module%3DSearchSubmit%26contentCollection%3DHomepage%26t%3Dqry341%23%2FSyria%2520migration&_r=0Stevis, Matina.ÿ 2014.ÿ ?Number ofÿ Migrants Trying to Reach Europe Illegally Rose Sharply in 2013,? Wall Street Journal; online atÿhttp://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304908304579561341054849918?KEYWORDS=Syria+migration&mg=reno64-wsjYardley, Jim. 2013. ?Out of Syria, Into a European Maze,? New York Times, November 29, 2013; online atÿhttp://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/30/world/middleeast/out-of-syria-into-a-european-maze.html?action=click&module=Search?ion=searchResults&mabReward=relbias%3Ar&url=http%3A%2F%2Fquery.nytimes.com%2Fsearch%2Fsitesearch%2F%3Faction%3Dclick%26region%3DMasthead%26pgtype%3DHomepage%26module%3DSearchSubmit%26contentCollection%3DHomepage%26t%3Dqry341%23%2FSyria%2520migrationUNICEF. 2013. ?Syria Crisis: Education Interrupted,? UNICEF, December 2013;online atÿhttp://www.unicef.org/media/files/Education_Interrupted_Dec_2013.pdfYou may use these sources, but you are not required to do so.ÿIn any case, be sure that you find enough high-quality sources to be able to answer the question clearly, thoroughly, and with sufficient detail.ÿIf you choose to use these sources, they?ll give you a pretty good start.ÿThere are plenty of good sources on this subject and they?re easy to find!ÿ If you need additional help finding sources, talk to a librarian.Anthropology homework help
University of Central Florida Current Equity Articles Report.
submitting a report on, current (published within the current semester), equity investing, equity markets and financial institutions engaged in equity investment, articles appearing in periodicals such as The Wall Street Journal, Barron’s, The New York Times, Business Week, Fortune, Forbes, The Economist, Bloomberg and similar quality publications. The report must: (1) have a cover page stating the Title and source of the article, your name, course and section number; (2) plus a minimum of 2, typed (font size 12 or less, 1 inch margins, double-spaced), pages in length and include a detailed summary of the article and a separately identified commentary including yours or other authors’ opinions of the topic and the reporting. (3) You must also attach a copy of the article to your report.
Campbellsville University Week 4 Blockchain Applications and Strategies HW.
University of Central Florida Current Equity Articles Report
Here is the Assignment QuestionWeek 4 is a continuation of the discussion on Blockchain. The PPT’s and resources from Week 3 are applicable here in Week 4 as well. ( I am attaching the previous discussion)Assignment Question: Industry experts believe blockchain is a technology that has the potential to affect the business of most IT professionals in the next five years. Pick an industry you feel will be most affected by blockchain and how blockchain may be used in that industry. As an IT manager, how would you embrace blockchain? For instance, how would training occur for your team, what strategies might you use, what security methods may you recommend be used?Your paper should meet the following requirements:• Be approximately 2-3 pages in length, not including the required cover page and reference page.• Follow APA6 guidelines. Your paper should include an ABSTRACT, introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a CONCLUSION.• Support your answers with the readings from the course and at least two scholarly journal articles to support your positions, claims, and observations, in addition to your textbook. The UC Library is a great place to find resources.• Be clearly and well-written, concise, and logical, using excellent grammar and style techniques. You are being graded in part on the quality of your writing.These are the reference which posted in classTarzey, B. (2019). Inside Blockchain and Its Various Applications. Computer Weekly, 16-20. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=f5h&AN=138681123&site=eds-liveCarson, B., Romanelli, G., Walsh, P., & Zhumaev, A. (2018). Blockchain beyond the hype: What is the strategic business value? McKinsey Quarterly, (4), 118–127. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=buh&AN=133693412&site=eds-live
Campbellsville University Week 4 Blockchain Applications and Strategies HW
Aerobic And Anaerobic Examination Of Samonella Biology Essay
Aerobic And Anaerobic Examination Of Samonella Biology Essay. The genus Salmonella belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. As the name implies, Enterobacteriaceae is comprised of bacteria that proliferate in the intestine. Salmonella is a gram- negative flagellated rod- shaped bacterium. Salmonellae are facultative anaerobes with both respiratory and fermentative metabolic pathways. They are oxidase negative, ferment glucose and produce acid and gas, grow on citrates as a sole source of energy, decarboxylate lysine and ornithine, generally produce hydrogen sulfide, and do not hydrolyze urea. One of the characteristic of this genus is that most members do not ferment lactose or sucrose. 10The statistically based sampling scheme required to ensure ‘absence’ of Salmonella is extensive and requires a very significant laboratory input. This method would be used in ensuring adequate processing in combination with simple and reliable methods of verification. A three step methods is required involving pre- enrichment (resuscitation) and selective enrichment, isolation steps and identification tests. 1In pre- enrichment (resuscitation) and selective enrichment step, while isolation of Salmonella from clinical samples often requires only direct plating on selective agar media, detection of the pathogen in food necessitates an enrichment process to increase the numbers before isolation and identification can be accomplished. Salmonella in food is often present in an injured state. Enrichment steps are normally designed to resuscitate these injured Salmonellae and increase their number to detectable levels. In the pre- enrichment step, the food sample is mixed with a suitable nonselective medium and the mixture is incubated. Lactose broth is the most commonly used pre- enrichment medium, in spite of the fact that most Salmonella isolates do not use lactose as a carbon source. Selective enrichment includes sub culturing the pre- enrichment into tubes containing selective broth. Selenite cystine broth and tetrathionate broth are widely used for selective enrichment. Isolation includes streaking enrichments onto selective- differential agar media and recognizing presumptive Salmonella colonies on the incubated plates. Xylose lysine deoxycholate(XLD) agar and Hektoen enteric (HE) agar are commonly used for isolation of Salmonella from enrichments. These agents inhibit gram- positive and nonenteric bacteria. Additionally, bismuth sulfide (BS) agar is an ideal medium for isolating Salmonellae. It has high selectivity for the bacterium and allows detection of small levels of H2S generated by isolated colonies. Lastly, identification tests rely on biochemical and serological identification. Biochemical identification is a conventional detection method. Decarboxylation of lysine in LIA, fermentation of glucose anaerobically in TSI agar, production of H2S in TSI and LIA media, and utilization of citrates are important biochemical properties for identification of Salmonella isolates. While isolates that produce typical reactions by biochemical testing should be confirmed as Salmonella by serological analysis. Material: Fresh chicken sample, buffered peptone water, mannitol selenite cystine broth, RV medium, dried XLD and bismuth sulfite agarLysine decarboxylase broth, decarboxylase broth base, ONPG broth, CLED medium, two nutrient agar slopes, inoculating loop, wax pensil, Stomacher, autoclave Methodology : As stated in the lab manual. Results : Selective enrichment) Culture Medium Observations Interpretation/ Conclusion Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) Broth The initial blue-green colour became lighter and turbidity occurred Salmonella or other organisms may present in this medium Mannitol Selenite Cystine (MSC) Broth The color of medium changed to deeper amber (orange) Salmonella or other organisms may present in this medium Plating the Isolated Salmonella on Selective Agar Plate Culture medium Culture sources Observations Interpretation/ Conclusion Xylose-Lysine-Desoxycholate (XLD) Agar RV Broth Colonies have the same color as the culture medium (red), translucent, with a black centre Salmonella may be present MSC Broth Colonies have the same color as the culture medium (red), translucent, with a black centre Salmonella may be present Bismuth Sulphite Agar (BSA) RV Broth Metallic sheen black and green colonies in heavy growth Salmonella or H2S negative Salmonella may be present MSC Broth Metallic sheen black and green colonies in growth Salmonella or H2S negative Salmonella may be present Biochemical Confirmation Culture sources Purple Lysine Decarboxylase Broth CLED Agar(Blue) Triple Sugar Iron (TSI )Agar Slant (Red ) RV Broth-XLD Agar Purple( ) Yellow colonies, Agar remains blue Yellow slant (acid), cracked and yellow butt (acid and gas), No black agar (No H2S) RV Broth- BSA Purple( ) Yellow colonies, yellow agar Yellow slant (acid), cracked and black butt (gas), black agar(H2S) MSC Broth-XLD Agar Yellow(-) Deep blue flat, Agar remains blue Red slant (alkaline), cracked and black butt (gas), Black agar(H2S) MSC Broth-BSA Purple( ) yellow colony, yellow agar Yellow slant (acid), cracked and black butt (gas), Black agar(H2S) Discussions : In this experiment, we use chicken meat as the sample to do the examination of present for Salmonella. In the beginning, buffered peptone water was used for resuscitation which was pre-enrichment the Salmonella from the food sample. It will help in recovery of Salmonella. The purpose of use buffered peptone water is providing conditions for resuscitation of cells that have been injured by process of preservation. So, small number of Salmonella may have their generation time increased because of competitive growth and may not reach the minimum number for successful isolation. After 20hours of incubation under 37°C, the resuscitation fluid was transfer into selective enrichment media which were mannitol selenite cystine broth and Rappaport-Vassiliadis, RV medium. 7RV medium was used for the selective enriching of Salmonella which contained tryptone as the sources of growth. On the other hand, mannitol selenite crystine broth allowed the fermentation of Salmonella. Therefore both medium acted as enrichment agent. From the result showed above, in these two medium, both showed colour changes and development of turbidity occurred. This indicated the Salmonella might present in the broths. For next steps, xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) and bismuth sulfite agar (BSA) were used for selective agar media. 6XLD medium was selective, differential medium which inhibitory to gram-positive organism. selective agar media. XLD medium was selective, differential medium which inhibitory to gram-positive organism. It was formulated for the isolation and presumptive identification of both Salmonella and Shigellae. In primary differentiation of Salmonella and Shigellae for non-pathogenic bacteria, it will rely on the xylose fermentation. 8Most bacteria, including Salmonella, can ferment the sugar xylose to produce acid whereas for Shigella colonies, it cannot ferment it and therefore remain red. After exhausting the xylose supply Salmonella colonies will decarboxylate lysine, increasing the pH once again to alkaline and mimicking the red Shigella colonies. Salmonellae metabolise thiosulfate to produce hydrogen sulfide, which leads to the formation of colonies with black centers and allows them to be differentiated from the similarly coloured Shigella colonies. From the result, it showed XLD medium had indicate the growth of Salmonella from both enrichment media. Colonies had the same color as the culture medium (red), translucent, with a black centre. 9Bismuth Sulphite Agar is a selective medium for the isolation and preliminary identification of Salmonella typhi and other salmonellae from pathological material, sewage, water supplies, food and other products suspected of containing these pathogens. It is particularly useful for the isolation of lactose-fermenting salmonella. 5The growth of Salmonella indicated by the production of black colonies and metallic sheen surrounding the colonies. Sulphur compounds provide a substrate for hydrogen sulphide production, whilst the metallic salts in the medium stain the colony and surrounding medium black or brown in the presence of hydrogen sulphide. Bismuth sulfite agar should not be used after storage for more than 24 – 36 hours. The reason is when this media becomes green, it is too inhibitory, and one cannot expect good result. Next, three confirmation tests were undergo in order to determine the Salmonellae which were Purple Lysine Decarboxylase Broth, CLED Agar (Blue), and Triple Sugar Iron (TSI )Agar Slant (Red). 4The lysine decarboxylase broth contains glucose, L-lysine and bromocresol purple. During the initial state of incubations, fermentation of glucose will produce acid result in change colour in bromocresol to yellow. The ability of Salmonella to decarboxylase lysine to cadaverine cause the color changed back to purple. From above result, except for MSC broth- XLD agar, other three showed positive test to lysine decarboxylase broth. This showed the reaction of typical Salmonella. Besides, CLED Agar was used to identify Salmonella. 3CLED medium was used in urinary bacteriology, which supporting the growth of all urinary pathogens and giving good colonial differentiation and clear diagnostic characteristics.The Salmonella produced flat blue colonies in the MSC broth-XLD agar. Another confirmation test was TSI agar test. This medium differentiates gram negative bacteria based on their fermentation of lactose, dextrose and sucrose as well as production of hydrogen sulfide. When these carbohydrates were fermented, the medium will change from red to yellow indicated the production of acid. Sodium thiosulfate was reduced by hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen sulfide will react with iron salt to yield black iron sulfide. Except for RV broth-XLD agar, all other three showed positive result. This showed the present of Salmonella as gram negative organism. Conclusion : After various procedures and tests, Salmonella sp was identified present in the chicken sample. This showed the raw chicken contains microorganism which was harmful for human health. Proper handling should be applied to produce safety food. Aerobic And Anaerobic Examination Of Samonella Biology Essay
OL 4000 Bethel University Supply and Demand Questions and Essay
essay order OL 4000 Bethel University Supply and Demand Questions and Essay.
(1) Find an article or use an experience from your own business experience which supply or demand changed. Do not choose the market for labor. The analysis for a labor market is different froma typical good or service. Explain which curve shifted and which shift was affected. Discuss how equilibrium prices and quanties changed.(2) Write a narrative essay (minimum of 1200 words) which addresses the questions and statements below. A minimum of three scholarly sources are required, and all sources should be cited and referenced in APA format. Describe how each of the following will affect the demand for personal computers: a. A rise in income (assuming that computers are a normal good) b. A lower expected price for computers c. Cheaper software d. Computers that are simpler to operate Describe how each of the following will affect the supply of personal computers: a. A rise in wage rates b. An increase in the number of sellers of computers c. A tax placed on the production of computers d. A subsidy for the production of computers Refer to graph below to answer the following questions a. Identify the areas represent deadweight loss due to a price ceiling set at P C. b. Identify the areas represent consumers’ surplus at the equilibrium price of P E. c. Identify the areas represent consumers’ surplus at the equilibrium price of P C. (Keep in mind that, at P C, the equilibrium quantity is neither produced nor sold) For each of the following, identify where demand is elastic, inelastic, perfectly elastic, perfectly inelastic, or unit elastic: a. Price rises by 10 percent, and quantity demanded falls by 2 percent. b. Price falls by 5 percent, and quantity demanded rises by 4 percent. c. Price falls by 6 percent, and quantity demanded does not change. d. Price rises by 2 percent, and quantity demanded falls by 1 percent. Suppose the current price of gasoline at the pump is $4 per gallon and that 1 million gallons are sold per day. A politi- cian proposes to add a $1 tax to the price of a gallon of gasoline. She says that the tax will generate $1 million in tax revenues per day. Explain assumption is she making?
OL 4000 Bethel University Supply and Demand Questions and Essay
Need Help with a writing assignment in my global terrorism course
Need Help with a writing assignment in my global terrorism course.
Topic Selection/Thesis StatementPlease indicate which strategy you will be studying for this research project. Terrorists between the 1950s – present, should use or have used this method as well as be threat to the United States and its national interests. Your thesis statement should summarize the main arguments you will be making in your final paper. This may change as you move forward, but it will be your general road map.Topics should be no more than one typed page.Proper grammar and spelling are requiredAll papers are to be written in Microsoft Word.Topic selections are due at the end of Week three, and are to be submitted as an attachment via the Assignments Folder ONLY.
Need Help with a writing assignment in my global terrorism course
Comparison Of A Dolls House And Antigone English Literature Essay
The entrance, exit and overall presence of the two catalysts in the plays differ according to the structure of the play. In A Doll’s House, Mrs. Linde makes a very subtle entry into the play in the midst of a conversation in the first act which dilutes the effect of her entrance. Furthermore, her actual physical appearance is prolonged by the conversation and actions of Nora and Helmer which attenuates the effect of her entrance. Her mild entrance foreshadows the gentleness with which she effects a change in the play. Mrs. Linde presence throughout the play is required for the metamorphosis and the introspective process of Nora’s character. In Antigone, Tiresias makes a very dramatic entrance in the beginning of the act and is present only for that act. This is a complete deviation from traditional Greek plays since conventionally, important characters were usually present for large portions of the plays which can be seen by Mrs. Linde’s continual presence in A Doll’s House. Clearly, his brief presence in the play in catalysing the denouement is as effective as Mrs. Linde permanent presence in the play. Structurally Mrs. Lnde is an indispensible part of the play for she appears in crucial parts as a “pacifier”. Nora says ” Now I shall tell you what we ought to do? As soon as Christmas is over – (ring at the bell)”  thus signalling Mrs. Linde’s entrance which rescues Nora from telling Helmer the truth. A similar function is performed by Tireasis whose appearance during the climax of the play mirrors that of Mrs. Linde. By eliminating the ambiguity in the minds of the audience regarding the morality of Creon’s decision he is the ‘pacifier’ to the audience. The ambiguity occurs due to the opposing views of Antigone, Ismene and Haemon versus Creon. Tiresias’ very first line is full of wisdom and this immediately establishes the authority of his character to the audience. Mrs Linde in contrast, follows the theatrical convention of initially speaking in inconsequential sentences. In terms of their exits, Mrs. Linde makes a very subtle exit while Tiresias makes a dramatic exit. Thus, the two catalysts show overall consistency; Mrs. Linde remains subtle throughout the play to retain focus on Nora while Tiresias is dramatic throughout the act in order to enhance the climax. The choice of the catalysts in each play is dependent on the main character and the culture of that era. Ibsen justifies his choice of making Mrs. Linde the catalyst by making her a stereotypical middle-class woman of that period thus representing the traditions of the society and allowing the audience to relate to her. Societal norm dictated that Nora confide in a member of the same sex as a male confidante might not sympathise with Nora’s plight or might attempt to take advantage of her situation. In addition, this would have added to the controversy, making the play less realistic. The controversial ending necessitates the presence of a conventional character to support Nora’s actions. Sophocles justifies his choice of Tireasis as a catalyst due to authority of his character, which can be attributed to the godlike precision of his predictions. Following the convention of the Theban era, wherein every play had a renowned seer, the dramatist uses the uniqueness of Tiresias’s character to resolve the complication. Furthermore, Tiresias’ level of authority allows him to influence Creon and the Chorus, thus influencing the audience. Nora would only relate to someone who had made sacrifices as herself, in this case Mrs. Linde. Similarly Creon would only listen to someone who had an equal authority as him and in this case it is Tireasis whose authority is based on knowledge. Thus, the stereotypical Mrs. Linde forms a foil to Nora, portraying her suffering, while Tiresias, the unique character forms a foil to Creon in portraying his obstinacy. This portrayal helps in intensifying the complication thus leading to the denouement. The catalyst’s use of language while conversing with the main characters of each play is different. In A Doll’s House, Mrs.Linde’s use of everyday language and moderate tone along with dramatist’s choice of keeping intimate conversations between them private allows Nora to speak her mind freely thus making her thoughts clear to the audience. In Antigone, Tiresias initially advises Creon in a cautionary tone using descriptive language and visual imagery. He says “An oozing moisture dripped from the thigh-pieces onto the embers,”.  He questions Creon “What valour is there in killing the dead again?”  Mrs. Linde also utilises introspective questions like “Behind your husband’s back?”  to help Nora. Her mildly authoritative tone is only used at specific times like when she says “But you must tell Torvald”.  This prompts Nora’s quest for personal identity leading to denouement, the spectacle of the play. Creon’s defiance makes him blunt and straightforward causing Tiresias’ to speak in a forceful tone using stichomythia to influence Creon. He uses a series of long sentences to express his fury at Creon’s insolence; he says, “Such arrows have I fired like an archer at your heart, in anger, for you have provoked me”.  Tiresias makes his disapproval of Creon’s actions blatantly clear in the presence of the Chorus. Contrary to the seclusion used in A Doll’s House, the open presence of chorus in Antigone helps the dramatist to resolve the complication and convince the audience. The two plays show unity of time, place and action. Mrs. Linde helps Nora do what should have been done years earlier while Tiresias helps to clarify the situation within moments of his arrival. Thus, the two catalysts speed up action causing unity of time. By helping to maintain unity of time, place and action, the catalysts ensure that the focus of the play remains on the main characters and hence the main complication. This helps the dramatists to communicate the main message of the play, thus fulfilling the purpose of the play. While Mrs. Linde shows the audience why Nora is ethically right, Tiresias shows the audience why Creon is ethically wrong and deserves to face the consequences of his actions. Mrs. Linde does not directly instruct Nora to abandon her family but she does order Nora to tell him the truth. Indirectly, she is the trigger behind Nora’s actions. Tiresias also does not directly condone Antigone’s rebellious actions. He shows Creon to be clearly wrong but does not show Antigone to be clearly right. I think the dramatists chose to have the catalysts discretely support the female protagonist to maintain a level of credibility with the audience. It also helps to make the two plays more realistic since in those times, characters like Mrs. Linde and Tiresias would not be expected to be in complete agreement with the controversial actions of the female protagonists. By reflecting the ideas of the societies of that time and still covertly supporting the female protagonists, the catalysts help the audience to reach the same conclusion on their own. Both the catalysts create alternative paths for the main characters. For Nora, it is the path of independence while for Antigone it is the path of justice. Additionally, Creon goes on a path of self-realization and repentance. The new paths of the female protagonists represent a new perspective for the women of that era.