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Human Resource Management In China

According to the figures established by the World Bank in 1996 there has been unmatchable rate of economic growth in East Asian countries including china, Indonesia and Vietnam. The annual growth rate of the above mentioned countries was 7.8%, 6% and 8% respectively. The major reason for East Asian expansion was the foreign direct investment which by 1994 accounted for 54% of total foreign direct investment in developing countries by western companies. China had been on top by inviting 75% of total foreign direct investment made in 1994 in major East Asian countries. (World Bank, 1996) It has been the second largest country to invite maximum foreign direct investment. (UNCTAD, 1995) Foreign direct investment not just came with huge amount of investments of western world into big Chinese companies but many mergers, acquisitions, subsidiaries and joint ventures came with it. When we see many advantages of foreign direct investment, which will likely to remain the reason for growth in East Asian countries in future, there are certain disadvantages which can’t be overlooked. The major concern was and going to be the management of human resource. Matching business practices to those of conventional Chinese companies and gradually leading them in the direction of modern business practices and keeping the productivity as high as possible is one of the toughest challenges western managers face and sometime might not be able to deal with it. Training and development of expatriates and saving early repatriate is just another challenge companies face when they are conducting businesses overseas. One of the biggest challenge for human resource managers is to understand the culture and to set up business practices and policies in accordance with it because without having known the norms, traditions and values one just can’t make decisions which can be fruitful and give good return on investments made. Chinese culture is intense so to speak. Least adaptive to the changes in modern world economy which requires quick addressing to rapidly changing needs and demands of the customers, implication of new skills, information sharing, etc. In late 1950s Iron Rice policy has been the foundation of Chinese personnel management which indicates the guaranteed job security, income and benefits for lifetime. (Warner, 1996; Korzec, 1992) Later in 2001 Iron Rice policy had to be broken when china joined world trade organisation due to issues raised by some economists. The biggest drawback of this policy if it had been in practice even now would be poor response to changing competition and low productivity because 50 years old can’t be as efficient and competitive as 25 years old. In 1978, Chinese government introduced The Open Door policy which was to modernize Chinese industry and to introduce western technology and management skill and this was achieved by international equity joint ventures. (Warner, 1996) One of the problems mentioned in above paragraphs is sharing of information which was noted even in extreme situations where there it was necessary to overcome the hindrances or to stop the business from demise. (Child, 1994) Behaviour which limits the quality of work and productivity can be reinforced by cultural values. Guanxi refers to personal relations or exchange of favours based on friendships. (Chen, 1995) It’s like you give me something and I give you something back. Keeping a healthy and friendly relation with employees helped the expatriate managers do well at times but it is sometimes not convenient to establish relationships and run the system based on universal values. (Sergeant, Frenkal: 1998) On the other hand Guanxi counters performance based values and systems as in most of western organisations. HRM practices are more or less cultural sensitive. Lockett indicated four main features of Chinese culture to understand the business and management practices in Chinese firms. 1) Respect for age and hierarchy which results in centralised decision making system, 2) Face and harmony which is considered significant aspects of social life in china, 3) Group orientation refers to being a part of certain group, team or faction, Chinese people like to be represented on the basis of group they are part of, 4) Personal relationships (Guanxi) as explained above is return of favours based on friendships. The above mentioned features of Chinese culture help us understand the long followed norms seen even now in some companies. The question arises whether to follow standard universalistic values or to focus on localization of human resource practices in order to keep business going. In a survey conducted by Bjorkman and Lu found out that the degree of standard globalisation was higher than localisation of human resource management. According to the findings standardisation was higher in companies with strong western partners. Due to the tension between MNC standardisation and localisation of HRM companies choose either of two. The distinction between MNC standards and human resource localization companies seems to be shifting away from implementing Chinese or western management practices and rather focusing on what kind of techniques and practices are required in a certain company. Sometimes companies hire groups of Chinese employees under the supervision of expatriate managers. This helps companies to successfully establish businesses in China but later find it difficult to change the work culture and practices due to strong interpersonal relations (Guanxi). In and out group is another aspect which give managers a hard time to establish good relations and to externally hired Chinese employees. Foreign subsidiaries face double pressure to not only conforming to local environment and norms in which they operate but also to parent company expectations to maintain the internal consistency. (Westney, 1993) In order to keep the business going successfully companies should mix its global standards with the local policies and make a hybrid system in which some of the norms of Chinese culture can be accepted and some can be adapted. Developing an effective work force is a major challenge in China. Achieving cheap labour is easy but to achieve good labour relation is a bit hard thing. This challenge comes with four main concerns as noted by Weldon and Vanhonacker. 1) Selecting local people who have potential to succeed, 2) Providing the learning and training experience they need for development, 3) Retaining the best employees, and 4) Managing day to day work relationships. It is difficult for expatriate managers to hire proactive people who can take an initiative in company related matters as happen in western companies. In a related study managers reported that Chinese employees keep avoiding the issue until it becomes difficult to ignore. When solutions are addressed they are mostly are based on precedents while in western companies managers appreciate employees who take an initiative to raise the issues and address them proactively. The solutions are mostly new ones based on the issue of the time and not on precedents. Continuous improvement and creativity is valued and rewarded in western companies. People and companies when coming to china from west face an immense change in culture and life style of Chinese people. In Chinese education system students are taught what to think and not how to think which keep those stick to the same life style and thinking throughout their lives and the impact of which can be seen in the companies they work. Respect, precedents are highly valued in Chinese culture. Western managers come from a total different culture where they are brought up in an education system where liberty of thinking and thinking beyond the point it valued and when above two come together it is turbulent for western mangers to deal with Chinese employees. To deal with these issues Chinese government has formed Human resource centres to help the western staff get the better understanding of the culture and establish better relationships with the employees to keep the ship flowing smoothly. In order to be competitive in the market a company need employees who are talented and take up the pressure and render tasks as they come in the way. Even with this realisation there is a shortage of talented people in china which is predicted to become a major barrier in current and future growth. (Ma
Applications of Social Media Paper.

For this written assignment, you will apply psychological principles of social media to one of the eight provided topic areas. Follow the instructions in the Assignment Topic Areas media piece linked in Resources to choose your topic area, social media application, and some psychological concepts to consider in your paper. Then begin your research for scholarly resources from the Capella library and reliable web-based articles from the course Facebook page or articles found with your digital assistant (DA). Organize your paper using the following headings to ensure that you address each element of the assignment. Use the APA Example Sheet (linked in Resources) to properly format your assignment and refer to APA Style and Format on Campus for more details.Assignment InstructionsYour assignment will be divided into the following headings in your paper:Topic Area Describe the topic area you have selected in detail so the reader is clear about your intended audience.Describe the current state of social media in your selected topic area. Which platforms or social media applications are currently popular with people from your topic area?Include citations to research that supports the popularity of your platforms or applications of social media.Attention and Engagement Describe at least two principles of gaining attention or maintaining engagement with viewers or followers on social media in your selected topic area.Include citations to research supporting the psychological principles or concepts you are reporting.Benefits of Social Media Use Describe at least two potential benefits of using social media with people in your selected topic area.Describe at least one psychological principle or concept related to the positive use of social media with your topic area.Include citations to research supporting your statements.Risks of Social Media Use Describe at least two potential risks of using social media with people in your selected topic area.Describe at least one psychological principle or concept related to the negative use of social media with your topic area.Include citations to research supporting your statements.References Close by providing a list of the references that match your citations used in the presentation. Use APA style in formatting your references.Grading CriteriaYour assignment will be scored on the following criteria:Describe the current state of social media in a selected topic area.Apply psychological principles and concepts to attention and engagement in social media.Explain benefits of social media use in a topic area.Explain risks of social media use in a topic area.Support analysis with research findings related to topics.Write coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar usage and mechanics as expected of a psychology professional.Use proper APA style and format.See the Applications of Social Media Paper Scoring Guide for details on how your paper will be graded.Additional RequirementsWritten communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.APA formatting: Your paper should be formatted according to current edition APA style and format. Length: Your paper should comprise 4–5 typed and double-spaced pages of content in addition to the cover sheet and reference page.References: Your paper should include 1–2 properly cited professional resources (such as a textbook or peer-reviewed scholarly journal article from the Capella library) and 3–4 properly cited reliable Internet resources like those from the course Facebook page.Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 points.Turnitin submission: You must submit your finished paper through the u02a1 assignment-designated link of Turnitin before it can be graded. Submissions to draft links of Turnitin may be used to preview your results but cannot be accepted for grading.Note: Your instructor may also use the Writing Feedback Tool to provide feedback on your writing. In the tool, click the linked resources for helpful writing information.
Applications of Social Media Paper

Week 1 MLog.

For this assignment you will make 15 entries in the MLog total from this week’s reading MLog for Ch. 2, 8 and 9. The entries should come from the book The Concise St. Martin’s Guide to Writing, 7th Edition, by Rise B. Axelrod and Charles R. Cooper,. The whole purpose of the MLOG is explained below.You will be given a tool, called a Metacognitive Reading Log (MLog), to improve your critical reading and critical thinking. The writing process is the main way you will be establishing foundations in writing, through reading about things like mapping, outlining, paraphrasing, summarizing, and synthesizing. Critical thinking and it’s counterpart, critical reading, are incredibly important skills for you to develop and grow for success in college and beyond, so it is important to take this aspect of the course seriously.A Sample MLog is attached
Week 1 MLog

Immigrants Workers Health Issues Discussion Question

Immigrants Workers Health Issues Discussion Question.

This chapter is about some of the appalling working conditions faced by immigrants in the early 20th What were some of the exposures and corresponding health outcomes that immigrants faced in the workplace? Analytical observational methods such as those you are now studying in class had not been fully developed at the time. What type of analytical study would a modern-day epidemiologist carry out to determine whether or not such exposures actually do increase the risk of particular diseases?Here is a link to the video:…I’m also going to send you another student answer to respond to or comment on.
Immigrants Workers Health Issues Discussion Question

• Summarize the case study’s major points, focusing on 3 key aspects. • Your presentation must include the following:

research paper help • Summarize the case study’s major points, focusing on 3 key aspects. • Your presentation must include the following: health condition, global importance of the health condition, intervention or program, cost-effectiveness, and impact. • Describe at least 2 ways these public health and organizational challenges were overcome. • Indicate how successful principles from this case study may be applied to other health problems. • Evaluate adequacy of cost and cost-effectiveness • Use 1 peer-reviewed article in addition to the case study to support your opinions • Present the case study for 25 – 30 minutes using the “voice narration” function in Power Point. It should include 15 to 20 PowerPoint slides. At least 3 to 4 should provide a visual representation of information • Information provided on the slides should be cited using AMA format with footnotes • The final slide should contain a reference list using AMA format • The PowerPoint presentations should be submitted through the submission link in the course. Ersel M. Water and Sanitation Standards in Humanitarian Action. Turk J Emerg Med. 2016;15(Suppl 1):27-33. Published 2016 Mar 9. doi:10.5505/1304.7361.2015.48753

Los Angeles Valley College Leisure and Everyday Life Discussion

Los Angeles Valley College Leisure and Everyday Life Discussion.

I’m working on a english report and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

For this assignment, you will be required to do your own research and find one additional work (scholarly research paper, newspaper article, film, music video, commercial, anime, manga, painting, etc.) that deals with the topic of Week 13, “Leisure and Everyday Life.” You could use that keyword, or other words that interested you when you were doing the readings, to search for resources (Google, the Oviatt Library website, your anime/manga repository, WSJ, New York Times, LA Times, Netflix, etc.).You will submit a 2-page report (double-spaced and typed, font size 12), explaining what your chosen resource is about, why you chose it, and how you think it can contribute to the discussion of that week’s topic. In your report, you should also provide the title, the author, and/or a link of the work that you’ve found.This is a graded assignment. If your report meets the requirement on length and is written in a clear way on the relevant topic, you will receive full credit. If it’s too short or off topic, you will receive zero credit.
Los Angeles Valley College Leisure and Everyday Life Discussion

San Vitale Church: Construction and Design

San Vitale Church: Construction and Design. Byzantine Empire started when the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium. Byzantine Architectures was very similar to Roman architecture, but got certain influences from Near East and used Greek cross plan in church architecture. When the Church of San Vitale was built, Ravenna was under the control of Byzantine Empire, which is why San Vitale would be similar to the Byzantine architectures instead of having the same plan as other churches in Ravenna. The construction of Church of San Vitale, dedicated by Bishop Maximian in 547, was begun long before Maximian’s arrival at Ravenna, even before the city was recaptured from the Goths in 540. Construction of this church began under Bishop Ecclesius after King Theodoric’s death in 526. The person who funded this great project “was a certain Julianus called Argentarius – ie a banker, not a bishop” (Lowden, 127). He provided more than 26000 gold coins to proceed with the work. San Vitale was built “in honor of Saint Vitalis, who was martyred at Ravenna in the second century” (Kleiner, 316). The “raison d’être” of the Church of San Vitale was to hold the relics of Saint Vitalis. Vitalis was not as famous or important as other famous saints, such as St Lawrence, thus originally there was only one small cross-shaped martyrium chapel built for him at Ravenna. But now a new church was constructed for him. There is no reason found to explain why his relics grew to the importance of requiring a magnificent new church. But according to one legend, he was the father of Gervasius and Protasius, two important Milanese saints, and all three of them are martyred in this church. This might be the reason why a church was specially built for St Vitalis (Lowden, 127). Its design is different from the sixth-century churches in Ravenna and was considered to be unlike any churches in Italy. It is not a basilica, but a central-planned church similar to the Justinian’s churches in Constantinople. The Church of San Vitale is a central-domed octagon extended by semi-circular bays, surrounded by an ambulatory and gallery, all covered in vault. The main source of light comes from the clerestory and there are windows on the side walls, too. The regularity and angularity suggested by the exterior is different from the interior, which is dominated by curves. There are seven curving exedras on the sides of the central space which the double arcades will lead the eye up to vaulted semi-domes, arches, and thence to the central dome. The lower part of the church was originally reverted with colored marbles, which most of them were lost through out the ages, and now parts of them were restored. The presbytery (the part of a cathedral or church east of the choir, in which the main altar is situated) was also covered with marble and costly opus sectile in a geometric pattern. In the middle level, the presbytery was covered with mosaics. “The mosaics that decorate San Vitale’s choir and apse like the building itself, must be regarded as among the most climactic achievements of Byzantine art” (Kleiner, 316). But the original decorative scheme for the upper surface of the main body of the church remains unknown (Lowden, 127). The most famous parts of the Church of San Vitale are the mosaics. “The imperial panels in the church of S. Vitale at Ravenna are perhaps the most famous of all Byzantine mosaics” (Treadgold, 708). Two panels face each other, one on each side of the apes. The left one was covered with mosaic Emperor Justinian and his Attendants and the right one was cover with mosaic Empress Theodora and her Attendants. Both the emperor and empress can be identified by the imperial purple robs they wear and halos behind their heads. The attendants who accompany Justinian parallel Christ’s twelve apostles. Therefore, the mosaic serves both political and religious reasons of the emperor. In the mosaic, the positions of the figures are important. They express the ranking of all figures (Treadgold, 708). Justinian is at the center, wearing purple robe and with a halo in order to distinguish from other dignitaries. At his left is Bishop Maximianus, the man responsible for San Vitale’s completion. Although the emperor appears to be slightly behind Maximianus, the large golden paten he carries overlaps the bishop’s arm. “This symbolized by place and gesture, the imperial and churchly powers are in balance” (Kleiner, 317). In these mosaics, classical elements of art mostly disappeared. For example, no shadows are presented, faces of figures are more stylized, and there is little naturalism. There is no background indicated. In the mosaic Emperor Justinian and his Attendants, the artists wanted viewers to think the procession is taking place in San Vitale, thus the emperor would appear forever as a participant in this church, symbolizing that he will be the proprietor of this church and the ruler of the empire forever (Treadgold, 708). This one of the most important reasons why San Vitale was built: to glorify the Emperor Justinian and the whole empire under his rule. The opposite wall of the apse contains the mosaic that depicts Empress Theodora, who was considered to be one of the most remarkable women of the middle Ages (Kleiner, 317). Similar to her husband, she is accompanied by her retinue. She carries Chalice, the golden cup with the wine (symbol of Christ’s blood) while Justinian carries the paten containing the bread (symbol of Christ’s body). While most parts of the Theodora mosaic exhibit the same style as the Justinian mosaic, the women are shown within a background. It depicts the scene that Empress Theodora was waiting to follow emperor’s procession, which shows she was outside the sanctuary at that time. The fact that she is outside in the courtyard showed that her rank was not quite equal to her husband (Treadgold, 708). Even though Justinian and Theodora’s mosaics are considered to be one of the most important and most famous mosaics inside the Church of San Vitale, Justinian and Theodora never actually came to Ravenna or participate in any events, which mean those two panels are not the historical record of San Vitale. (Lowden, 134). So those two panels are built in order to ensure Emperor Justinian’s rule over Ravenna and glorify the whole empire under the rule of Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora. The Church of San Vitale is one of the most important architecture during Byzantine period. The plan of San Vitale is borrowed and used by constructions, such as the Palace Chapel of Charlemagne in Germany. All visitors would marvel at its intricate design and magnificent golden mosaics. But beauty is not everything San Vitale has; political and religious meanings also play a big role while Church of San Vitale is constructed. Work cited Kleiner, Fred. Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History. Ohio: Wadsworth Publishing, 2009. Lowden, John. Early ChristianSan Vitale Church: Construction and Design

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