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Human Origins: Biblical Version and Burials Study Essay

The biblical version of human origins My peer chose the Biblical version of human origins as the alternative model. The model presupposes the use of the Bible to explain phenomena, but it is not very homogenous. The relevant beliefs can range from fundamentalism, which requires perceiving the words of the Bible literally, to more liberal approaches, which interpret the Bible in multiple ways (Jurmain et al. 46). Also, the Bible might contain contradicting concepts that require interpretation. For example, the idea that Adam and Eve were the ancestors of all humans does not coincide with the fact that Cain had a wife and was fearing retaliation for killing his brother from other people (Moritz 2). Thus, the Biblical model is comprised of rather diverse perspectives and ideas. Religious explanations of human origins do not typically presuppose scientific proofs (Jurmain et al. 45). Additionally, it may be difficult to discuss the evidence of the Biblical model due to its inconsistency. However, my peer demonstrates that certain events described by the Bible can be evidenced to have occurred. For example, the peer points out the multiple cases of migration depicted in the Bible. They might indeed reference the actual migrations from Africa. Since the migration of people from Africa is proved, it can be suggested that this evidence supports the Bible-based model as well (Jurmain et al. 289). Thus, some of the specific elements of the Bible might find a form of support in the currently available facts. The Bible may have preserved the perspectives of the witnesses of some of the events of human history. Consequently, it may be reasonable to search for some additional evidence that would support specific events described by the Bible in other historical documents and relics. If the limitations of non-scientific literature are considered, the Bible can offer some information about human history. As a result, I like my peer’s proposal. Studying the model may be interesting from the point of view of investigating the relics that provide some information about human history. The study of burials One of the exhibits offered by the Institute of Human Origins is titled “Why Bury the Dead”. In it, the Institute discusses the possible causes and consequences of the practice of burying the dead. In particular, the Institute reports that burial is the form of disposing of bodies that is helpful to archeology. Also, the Institute demonstrates that the cultural implications of burying the dead are diverse. For instance, the bodies of the dead may be sacred in one culture and meaningless in others. Therefore, the study of burials can offer insights into the diversity of human cultures and worldviews. Neandertals are evidenced to have buried the dead (Jurmain et al. 275). However, the Institute amends that no definite statements are possible due to the lack of evidence. Still, some of the excavated Neandertal burials contain additional objects, including weaponry and grave goods. Likewise, the specific positions of the buried might indicate purposeful burials. Also, the Institute exhibits the “Flower Burial”: a Neandertal burial, the soil of which contains the pollen of multiple types of flowers. It may be explained by the practice of burying people with flowers, but other factors may also be the cause of the soil’s content (Stiner 255). The Institute maintains that no definite statements can be made about the cultural and religious aspects of Neandertals’ burials. For instance, the burial of a person with a weapon might imply that Neandertals believed in the afterlife. However, since no written proof of the idea exists, this supposition cannot be confirmed. In effect, the supposition might provide more information about modern perspectives on burial practices. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Still, the studies of the burials of the Neandertals, as well as those of any other culture, contribute to our understanding of the development of human society. By comparing burial practices and underlying beliefs of the modern and ancient people, it is possible to find similarities, differences, and trends that affect human culture, which contributes to our knowledge of modern humans. Works Cited Institute of Human Origins. ” Becoming Human.” Institute of Human Origins. Web. Jurmain, Robert, et al. Essentials of Physical Anthropology. 10th ed., Cengage, 2017. Moritz, Joshua M. “The Hermeneutics of Science and Scripture and Emergent Levels of Meaning.” Theology and Science, vol. 12, no. 1, 2014, pp. 1-5. Stiner, Mary C. “Love and Death in the Stone Age: What Constitutes First Evidence of Mortuary Treatment of the Human Body?” Biological Theory, vol. 12, no. 4, 2017, pp. 248-261.
The business ethics report I want to write is about pollution. Pollution is the most important and most concern today. The environment pollution becomes a harmful level of pollutants in the natural resources – air, water, and land (soil), which these three natural resources is the main, causes the global warming. Air pollution exists when a harmful amount of pollutants contains in air, such as dust, gases, smog or fumes. The pollutants could be harmful to health of humans and animals, or which may cause damage to plants (EPA Victoria, 2006). However, the existing issue of global warming is main cause by greenhouse gases (air) with major content of carbon dioxide (Teller et al., 1997). Water pollution main cause is runoff from agricultural fields and industrial sites, in which pollutants from agricultural fields and industrial sites in-flood to rivers and ocean. Other than air (oxygen) is main source for human survival; water was the second important source for human to survive. Additionally, water from forest always provides higher quality water, with the lower pollutants (Dudley and Stolton, 2003). Environmental pollution also involves of land(soil) pollution which defined as a phenomenon characterized by the loss of structural and biological properties by the soil layer as cause by human and natural factors, such as strong wind, chemical use, and deforestation, in which land and forest also is home for millions of creatures (EHow, no date). Summary In this article, human factors inevitably encroached the forbidden zone such as deforestation of forest reserve, indirectly causes water and air pollution as well. The developers with the interest to build houses (Kampung Tersusun Anggerik) due to the growing population of Malays, and due to limited land, the development projects had been inevitably encroached the forbidden zone with the bulldozers, uprooting the old growth in forest reserve (Hilary, 2010). Therefore, the District Office issued a stop work-order action against the development project due to the following complaints from Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) (Hilary, 2010). According to the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment issued strict and detailed guidelines to all Governments and Federal Agencies in connection with hill slope development, known as “the Garis Panduan Pembangunan di Kawasan Tanah Tinggi (GPPDKTT)”, in between 26° gradient and 35° gradient (measured on existing contours and not after cutting and filling) slopes development may considered as consult to detailed studies and evaluation, additionally, GPPDKTT prohibits any development in an area with a gradient of above 35 degrees (Fernandez, 2006). Refers to the article’s incident, the developer has no comply with GPPDKTT rules and regulation, wherein the project site has fall into Class 3 (above 26° gradient) and Class 4 (above 35° gradient) slopes which are environmentally dangerous areas that should not have any form of physical development (Hilary, 2010). The residents living near to the project had opposed the development project and one of the residents comment that “we getting shock after heard about a human settlement are going to develop in the reserve forest and which are steeply slopes,” Mrs. Chong said (Hilary, 2010). In addition, Mrs. Chong insisted that they opposed it was not against the creation of a Malay village, but just to given an advised to relocated the development project to a safety place (Hilary, 2010). However, the director of Natural Forest Private Limited (Alam Rimba Sdn Bhd) Azmen Ahmad claimed that the title of land was approved by government 15 years ago, because of the shortage of land due to the growth population of Malays in Cameron Highlands (Hilary, 2010). Meanwhile, the developer claimed that the project had obtained a “work permit” from the Land and District Office. However, the District officer had refused to be interviewed and conveyed a text of “no comment” through his personal assistant (Hilary, 2010). The impact of pollution In my business report, I choose to do on environment pollution is one of the factors causes global warming. Nowadays, the global warming already become the personally responsible for every human in the world, and from the movie of Ice Age: Meltdown was on purposely to raise awareness of global warming (Kellstedt et al., 2008). In my article, human being with the development project (Kampung Tersusun Anggerik) deforestation the forest reserve had indirectly cause land (soil), water, and air pollution. Land Pollution The human being uprooting the old growth in forest reserve have cause the incident of silting creeks that feed into the river (Sungai Tela), in which the river was main water supply for residents living at Cameron Highland (Hilary, 2010). However, uprooting the old growth or deforestation the forest reserve will impact landslides which will indirectly lead to rising temperatures as global warming (Hilary, 2010). Water Pollution From the article, the incident of silting creeks that feed into the river was clearly showed that land pollution will impact water pollution. Besides, the river was the main water supply for residents staying at Cameron Highlands (Hilary, 2010). As mention on introduction, if well managed the water from forest, it will provides higher quality water with the less pollutants (Dudley and Stolton, 2003). Therefore, the development project on the article not only impact on polluted the land (soil), it’s also polluted the water from forest. Air Pollution Therefore, the both land (soil) and water pollutions will indirectly increase the temperatures and then cause of the global warming. Global warming is main cause by greenhouse gases with major context of carbon dioxide (Teller et al., 1997). Carbon dioxide is use to enhance plant growth by photosynthesis process. In my article, if District Office did not take action against the development project, the forest being deforestation, the number of carbon dioxide will increase in the forest. At the end, the global warming issue will become more and more serious. Thesis In my article is clearly shown the thesis that how people opposed the development project which is harmful to the natural environment by the impact of pollution. Land pollution is the main cause of the development process, wherein it is indirectly impact on air and water pollution. The pollution started from the landslides to rising temperatures, from the illegal uprooting old growth from the land to cause river contamination. These entire incidents were seriously harmful to their residents nearby. Egoism In the article, the theory of egoism proven that people are applying in their personal lives as, they are morally right to make decision for their personal benefits instead of applying utilitarianism (Crane and Matten, 2007). The developers applying the egoism theory in their job to deforestation the forest reserve, and it caused the incident of silting creeks that feed into the river (Sungai Tela), where by the river was the main water supply for Cameron Highlands (Hilary, 2010). In social responsibility of business, the developers are morally right to make decision for their personal benefits. As Milton Friedman (1970) wrote that “there is one and only one social responsibility of business, businesses had no moral duty to “to good”, but only to increase the wealth of its shareholders by increasing profits.” In social responsibility developers may morally right with interest in building house for Malays due to the increasingly population, but in ethics theory they apply egoism in making decision for their own benefits only. Although the development project area was the forest reserve with the work permit approval, but there was a part of the forest reserve is steeply slope area wherein is not suitable for any physical development. The developers was clearly did not follow the rules and regulations (GPPDKTT) which strictly issued by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (Fernandez, 2006). Utilitarianism The egoism of pleasure is due to the philosophical opponents of utilitarianism, whereby utilitarianism is in an action with motive of morally right to gain a result for greatest amount of people satisfied with their needs and wants. From the philosophy utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill (1863) have been influential in modern economic theory, wherein the distribution of the happiness and minimize the unhappiness should be standardized to everyone by which actions are judged right or wrong (Henry, 2004). In the article, although the development project is build houses for the Malay villages due to the increasing population, however, in short term the will distributed the goods of houses to Malays, but in long term the houses in endanger the Malay villages which are staying on the steeply slopes houses. The residents who are staying nearby the development project had applied the utilitarianism ethics theory to voice up and opposed the development project, because a part of the forest reserve was in steeply slope hill site. o, if the project is on-going it will endanger the Malay residents who will stay at the steeply slope area in future. Additionally, the residents applied utilitarianism theory instead of egoism theory, wherein they opposed the development project was not against to Malays, just given an advised to relocated the development project to a safety place instead of build in a endanger steeply sloping hill (Hilary, 2010). Ethics of duties The ethics of duties theory is an act that shirt towards rules of utilitarianism. Philosopher Kant (1724-1804) discovers the ethics of duties theory is the fundamental moral law that would determined human’s action without regard to its consequences (White, 1993). In my article, we can seem that after consideration of the incident of the silting creeks, Land District Officers have do their job with applied the ethics of duties theory, in which issued the developer to stop working in the endanger area of development. Therefore, the District’s officer is only the important person to stop the incident run into a serious situation, where by the development project may impact more unlikely incidents to happen, such as land slide. Ethics of duties In antithesis, the ethics of duties theory is an act that shirt towards rules of egoism. In my article, the Land and District Officer and the developers had applied the egoism theory due to the interest of build houses for Malays and maximize shareholder’s profits, they had ignored the ethics of duties theory. As universal knowledge that forest reserve are not allow any developer to deforestation, in which under Act 313, National Forestry Act 1984 (Law of Malaysia, 2006). However, the Land and District Office had ignored the ethics of duty theory with giving the “work permit” to the developers to uprooting old growth in forest reserve to build houses in the dangerous steeply slope area. Ethics of right The ethics of right and justice theory come after the ethics of duties theory, and the ethics of right and justice theory explain that every individual in given situation with the result that everybody should get what they deserve. It’s related to philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) theory, he claimed that human should be entitled to the notion of right and moral right to gain the respected and protected in every action (Aldrich, 1999). In my article, the ethics of right theory was applied by the residents stay nearby the development project who opposed the development project, however, the District Officer only applied the ethics of right theory after incident of the silting creeks that feed into the river (Sungai Tela) and issued the stop-work order to developers. Virtue ethics Human who applied virtue ethics is contends with morally correct actions and behavior. Professor Sandra Borden proposes that virtue ethics theory refers to understanding of doing right thing and do thing right to addressing those ethical challenges (Borden, 2007). As the same, the Land and District Officers and the developers with the interest of profits had ignored virtue ethics, in which illegally deforestation steeply slope forest reserve to build house for Malays. Feminist ethics theory Feminist ethics theory is modern western ethics theory which Carol Gilligan(1982) approach to business ethics focuses on the importance of women have fairly different attitudes from men with significant impact on the way handled the ethical conflicts (Kuhse et al., 1998). In addition, feminist ethics theory is an approach to avoid harm for those principles such as peace and healthy social relationship, and care for one another. Thus, in my article the residents stay near to the development project had applied the feminist ethics theory to opposed the endanger development project, wherein they opposed it was not against to Malays and just as a simple meaning “care for one another”. Pollution act From the issued in my article, there are few related pollution acts: Act A1286 Street, Drainage and Building (Amendment) Act 2007 Act A1286 Street, Drainage and Building (Amendment) Act 2007 (Law of Malaysia, 2007) is an Act related to “the Garis Panduan Pembangunan di Kawasan Tanah Tinggi (GPPDKTT).” GPPDKTT stated that there is not allowed any development in an area with a gradient of above 35 degrees with the measured on existing contours and not after cutting and filling (Fernandez, 2006). As a part of development project is an area with gradient of above 35 degrees, so, the land are protect by Act A1286, Street, Drainage and Building (Amendment) Act 2007, which prohibit for any development project (Law of Malaysia, 2007). Act 313 National Forestry Act 1984 Act 313, National Forestry Act 1984 is an Act to provide for the administration, management and conservation of forests and forestry development within States of Malaysia and for connected purpose (Law of Malaysia, 2006). Therefore, forest reserve are protected by Act 313, National Forestry Act 1984, so, the Land and District Office is not allow to give any “work permit” to the any development project, because the development project is under the forest reserve area (Law of Malaysia, 2006). Thus, state government of Malaysia should take action against the Land and District Officer and the developers. Conclusion In conclusion, there are number of Acts playing their roles to protect our environment pollution, but somehow human who applied egoism theory for their own short-term or long-term benefits go against the Acts, for example, corruption. In addition, pollution is the most serious issued for everyone to take care, especially air pollution, it is because human need oxygen to continue survives and forest most important green environment supplier us oxygen. Other than that, although business ethics theory had teach in our education, but there still are people who keep continue deforestation. Therefore, the rules of regulations (Acts) should be strictly to all people who inevitably encroached into forest reserve by punishments. So, all of us should take responsible to our natural environment and stop people illegally deforestation the forest reserve. Every individual should be educated or adapted business ethics theories to save our globe from global warming.
South University Health Innovative Technologies Discussion.

Introduction:The complexities in healthcare clinical and business processes drives disruptive innovations in HIT. Sense making of healthcare leaders and managers may not be as sensitive compared to those who are knowledgeable and dedicated to the science, art, and drivers of HIT innovations. To achieve critical measures of cost and organizational efficiency, HIT governance, according to Glandon, Smaltz, & Slovensky (2013), allows for timely and accurate business decisions.Tasks:Review the current literature in HIT strategic planning and HIT governance.Compare and contrast HIT strategic planning and HIT governance.Identify processes/framework involved in HIT strategic planning and HIT governance.Identify and explore theoretical framework in HIT strategic planning and HIT governance.Evaluate the importance of HIT strategic planning and HIT governance in HIT acquisition and/or upgrade.
South University Health Innovative Technologies Discussion

Writing Assignment 1 Prompt: After reading the Ethical Dilemma Case in Chapter 2 of your text, answer the questions at the end of the case, “What do you do, and on what basis do you make your decisio

APA format. Base your answers upon your readings of the text and the application of your Christian Worldview. Writing Assignment 2 Case Study Response  Prompt: Answer the three questions at the end of the “Southwestern University: (A)” in the Case Studies section of Chapter 3. o  Requirements: A 250-word minimum, APA compliant response, answering the three questions as well as an analysis of the situation from the standpoint of your Christian Worldview.

Mathematics homework help

online assignment help Mathematics homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the student to Identify and explain the origins of health promotion programme assignment. The paper also provides additional information to use in the writing of the assignment paper. Below is the assessment description to follow:,Identify and explain the origins of health promotion programme assignment,Assignment Brief,As part of the formal assessment for the programme you are required to submit a Health Promotion assignment.  Please refer to your Student Handbook for full details of the programme assessment scheme and general information on preparing and submitting assignments.,Learning Outcomes:,After completing the module you should be able to:,1. Identify and explain the origins of health promotion.,2. Appraise the key theories and concepts that inform health promotion and relate these to specific health promotion approaches and methods.,3. Plan and evaluate health promotion programmes in light of specific examples showing an evidence-based approach, creativity and innovation.,4. Identify a variety of ,communication strategies, to disseminate health promotion messages.,Graduate attributes, Perform effectively within the professional environment. Work within a team, demonstrating interpersonal skills such as effective listening, negotiating, persuading and presentation. Be flexible and adaptable to changes within the professional environment.,Maximum word count: 4000 words,Identify and explain the origins of health promotion programme assignment,You must not include your name in your submission because Arden University operates anonymous marking, which means that markers should not be aware of the identity of the student. However, please do not forget to include your STU number.,Assignment Task (4000-Word Report), This assignment is worth 100% of the marks for the module., Background Context:, In the weeks since Public Health England (PHE) announced its partnership with Drinkaware for the ‘drink free days’ campaign, it has faced widespread criticism. The extent of the concern may have taken some, including PHE, by surprise. However, the fact it has raised the profile of debates about industry-Government partnerships may be seen by critics as an important repercussion.,An open letter expressing concern about the partnership has now been released, calling on UK public health scientists to sign and support its calls for PHE to “work with your Alcohol Leadership Board to formulate and publish guidelines for engagement with the alcohol industry and its associated organisations”. The letter argues the decision has led to significant “reputational risk to PHE’s status as a provider of impartial, evidence-based advice” and also its authors are “alarmed by public statements from PHE” in response to concerns raised. (Alcohol Policy UK, 2018).,Question 1:, Describe and discuss the origins of the ‘Alcohol Reduction strategy in England’; tracing it from the Ottawa Charter and also Alma Atta declaration to the Drinkaware campaign.,Further guidance:,a. Firstly, describe the history of the alcohol reduction programme from 1970 to the Launch of the Drinkaware campaign. Link this history to the Ottawa Charter and also Alma Atta declaration.,b. Secondly, discuss the rationale for the launch of the Drinkaware campaign and the involvement of Public Health England with the campaign.,c. Thirdly, support your work with properly cited and referenced source materials.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Mathematics homework help

The History Of Cheese

The History Of Cheese. In the world today, the cheese has become a key ingredient in many dishes in the world. Cheese is an ingredient that has been cruising around the place and make improvements delicious food, especially Italian Cuisine such as Spaghetti Carbonara, Cheese Pizza and many more, which has attracted many people enjoy of eating the food. In addition, the cheese has made everyone not only chefs and ordinary people also want to enjoy the cheese to create a different dish with cheese in it. Do all people on this planet know what the content in the cheese while everyone including children enjoy cheese even eat like that only. Cheese is a product of milk-based groups in it. Cheese produced in the time now not only produces one type but different types of cheese were produced from it.Differentiation each cheese produced has their different flavors, shapes, textures and more. Moreover, the cheese has its own life so that it can retain the moisture. We also need to know not only cheese produced from cow’s milk instead of the animals such as buffaloes, goats, sheep and more. Cheese not only be used but it is used as a secondary food such as Cheese Platter yet mixed with other cold cuts. Often guests will enjoy eating cheese after dessert. Chef who has a high talent, will always create something new by using cheese with other ingredients like black pepper, chives, garlic and more. This not only creates new foods and even enhance the flavor and aroma of the cheese. In this report, we can add more knowledge about how the cheese is produced. Apart from that we can learn more deeper about the origins of this cheese. Moreover, we also learned how cheese found in Ancient Greece, Roman Europe even in the days that have now spread throughout the world which has made cheese as an ingredient of their cuisine. Cheesemaker, the person who incharge or makes cheese according to the process of cheese production. Furthermore,we will attach the details of nutrition that has been in the cheese that makes people would obtain the cheese although in a small bite in a day. Lastly, we will see the impact that cheese has given towards the culture of the citizen in a country, which has become a trend even taking a picture. SAY CHEESE…… 2.0 History of Cheese The origin dates of cheese making range from 8000BC to 3000BC. However, no one really knows who made the first cheese but most authorities had considered that Middle East was the first area which is cheese being made. According to the ancient legend, it was made accidently by an Arabian merchant. The Arabian merchant has put his milk into a pouch which has been made by sheep stomach. The merchant carry the pouch along with him as he set out on a day’s journey across the desert. As he travelled, the heat from sun activated the enzyme rennin which found in the stomach lining. This action has caused the milk to separate into curd and whey. Thus, cheese was revealed. Based on ancient Greek mythology, the evidence of cheese making has been found in Egyptians tomb murals around at 2000BC. During the Ancient Greek period, cheese are been eaten. In Greek, cheese is called fornos which related to the basket where the cheese was deposited and separated from the whey. Cheese in other languages was derived from this greek word, for example, at French they used to call cheese as fromage or seems goes to Italian people they called cheese as formaggio. In Greek tradition, there was consumption that it was the Gods who showed the mortals how to make cheese. It is believe that cheese using has been use wider in Asia before it migrated to Europe. Then, during at Roman Empire, the process of cheese making has been expanded. Lots of different sources of milk began to be mixed and varieties of seasonings were added to produce cheese with rich in flavours. The Roman culture has developed the art of cheese making. The Roman cheese makers was a skilled artisans and they also has developed varieties of cheese. The Roman also credited with the first aging of cheese or cheese storage. The roman cheese makers were aware of the affects of various ripening technique which will be related to the taste and character of a particular cheese. The Romans and the Greeks has considered cheese as a luxury food and accessible to the wealthy. Cheese also has became their staple food which been used in both sweet and salty dishes. During Roman Empire, over 13 varieties of cheeses were produced. The Roman has spread their expertise in cheese making to Europe. In making cheese, they has developed dairy farming which to use cow’s milk to become the standard raw material. During this time, they are in an effort to perfect the curd-draining process. The Romans also invented the cheese press which is a technique that they exported as far as Great Britain. In France, especially in south and west, they have developed a wider range of cheeses because of rich in agricultural areas. They are more preferred in soft-cheese production and the hard-pressed cheese appeared to play a secondary role. This production was the reflection from the Rome-influenced culture of the nation. The production also mirroring the type of cheese that produced in the Mediterranean as opposed to the hard-pressed. It also more durable cheese that was developed in the northern regions of Europe which is can be stored and eaten during cold winter months. However, throughout the dark ages which is the Western European Early Middle Ages, circa 500 to 1000CE, there were little progress was made in developing new type of cheese. During the Middle-Ages, the European monks has invented of ripening and ageing techniques for cheese. The monks have produced milder-tasting cheeses. The communities of Jura and Alps mountain farmer could get together in dairy associations. In this situation, they enable to produce first-rate quality of cheeses. In the 7th Century, many cheeses been known by the region in which they were produced. However, during Renaissance on 14th to 16th century, cheese was considered as unhealthy food and the popularity of cheeses has decline. Luckily, in 19th century cheese regained favour and in start from this period they have started to move from farm to factory production. 3.0 SYMBOLISM OF CHEESE Cheese can be symbolized with a different perception by a different people. But generally cheese always related to something that can bring happiness. Here we had divided the symbolism to four which are economy, culture, religious, and social. 3.1 Economy If we look into the revolution or the movement of cheese began before Christ, different region or countries had their own originated cheese. During the glorious of Romans Emperor, they had develop the cheese into a high level with the manufactured of many types of cheese. The rich emperor at that time was a little bit dissatisfied with the quality of the cheese and later they had imported cheese from the Alpine areas, England, France, and parts of Asia. There we can see a network of import and export that they build in terms of exchange into their economy. We owe the Romans once again when they taught the techniques and the process to produce the cheese to the peoples that they conquered such as the Helvetti tribe in an Alpine area which is called Switzerland now. Nowadays, the industry of the cheese making is an important industry for the Switzerland and during 1900 they started very aggressive by operating 700 to 800 of cheese factories and now they are one of the largest producer of cheese based on world demand right now. Pasteurization actually came from its creator name which is Louis Pasteur that develop the process and introduce the concept of fermentation. He contribute and introduce the bacteria that can form a cheese in a fastest way and controlled bad bacteria. 3.2 Culture In France, cheese had their own specialty during the course of French meal. Not only at the fine dining restaurant they served course meal but at home they also practiced that. Every house at French will have stocks of cheese even they had special drawers for cheese in the refrigerator. The sequence of French meal start from appetizer and aperitif drink, which is light course and then followed by the main course, then the salad, and last but not least selection of cheese before the dessert and sometimes cheese can be a closing course which is replace the dessert. There is a maxim about cheese in France, “A French meal without the cheese course is not a French course”. Peoples’ mentality about cheese before this believe that eating cheese before sleep can cause a nightmare and gives you a restless night. However, in 2005 The British Cheese Board study made an experiment to the 200 participants which equilibrium to 100 of males and 100 of females to eat six different types of British cheese which were British Brie, Cheddar, Cheshire, Lancashire, Red Leicester, and Stilton before they sleep for a week. The results after a week show that no one had a nightmares and oppositely they had a good night’s sleep with the pleasant dreams. Flash back to the traditional believes for the Arabian, Persian, and European. The Arabian believe that if they dreams about fresh cheese its symbol as a happiness and health but if Cutted cheese its mean you will get an illness and need an operation. The Persian believe that if we eat fresh cheese in a dream its mean someone will have a good fortune according to how much the person ate. Dreams about Swiss cheese is something special to the European because it means the promises of prosperity, health and amenities of life. Dream working in the cheese factory show that you will have an improvement in the situation. 3.3 Religious As we all know that Islam and Judaism strictly prohibit their follower from eat cheeses that made with rennet from animals that not slaughtered properly according to the Halal or Kosher laws. Both faiths recognize cheese as a dairy products, but the Judaism cannot eat dairy products in the same time meal with any meats except poultry and fish because it is against the Kosher rules. Actually the Hebrews scripture said “you should not eat meat in its mother’s milk”, some study believe that when the meat and dairy products consume at the same time, the protein of both sources cannot be digested properly by the body and can affect health. 4.0 PROCESS PRODUCTION OF CHEESE In the process production of cheese we will divide it into two which are in the primitive era and the modern era. 4.1 Primitive Era The African, Asian, and Latin-American very addicted to yogurt and cheese no matter where they live even in the isolated area or in the urban areas. Usually the one that often making cheese is the woman at that time at their home. An example of cheese making in South America which is Cocoa Blanco cheese. The cheese started made with sour whey, and then coated with rancid butter, boric acid, coffee grounds, and ground chocolate cocoa -bean shells. After that, it is left under the scorching sun to dry and until it is sold. Another survey that had been made in other parts of West Africa found a small village where the farmers make cheese. The technique unusually impressive show good principles of manufacture, below are the steps of making the cheese by the farmers. First the fresh milk that they milking from the cow is heated in a pot to about the boiling point. After that, they added the extract called Quantum satis of leaves of a plant called Calatropia procera to the hot milk and the heating process is continued until it is coagulate. The coagulated substance then put in any cloth and dripped off for about 24 hours. The cheese mass that surfaces are next dried in the sun will formed a discus-like shape. To extract a strong red colour, the head of the threshed sorghum will boiled in the water. To make it look nice and as a protective layer, the dried cheese will dipped in the dye and becomes red like Edam cheese. The cheese can be keeps for more than one year, but if in the rainy season it is necessary to store it near to the fireplace. Cheese at that time majority were produced just for individual needs not in terms to gain profit or try to commercial it. However, the revolution of the cheese start in the modern era where the producing of cheeses were unlimited. 4.2 Modern Era In the modern era, they already build the technology that used to make cheese faster with good quality. There are few steps to make the quality cheese. First step To make a large of cheese, we need to use a lot of milk to produce it which is inquired the quality and purity of the milk. Second step Once the milk been tested and weighed, the milk has to pasteurized. It is to ensure that the cheese is made perfectly. In addition, it is to make sure the cheese that has been made is standardized. Third step Once everything is in order, we need to use a good bacteria and add in it to start the cheesemaking process. Now days, scientist has create a good bacteria, so that they able to produce a good and quality cheese. Besides that, the bacteria is to help enhance the falvor and texture of the cheese. Then, rennet which is called as the milk clotting enzyme are added in it, to coagulate the milk and form like a mass custard. Fourth step Next, they will cut into small pieces, where they begin to process of seperating the liquid and the solid of the milk. The solid of the milk (curds) will be cooked with a lower temperature to form a softer cheeses such as Ricotta, Mascarpone cheese and many more. Meanwhile the liquid of the milk (whey), are cooked with a higher temperature to form a harder cheese such as Romano, Gruyere cheese and many more. Fifth step To make the cheese, there will be a cheesemaker to cook it. The cheesemaker will cook and stir the liquid and solid of the milk with the proper temperature. They will achieve the firmess of the solid of the milk (curd). Meanwhile for the liquid (whey), they will drained it off properly and leaving it as a tightly curd. Sixth steps Once the liquid and solid changes into perfect curd according to the deisred temperature, the curd will be added with cheese salt in it which is to preserve the moisture and enhance the flavor of the cheese. Seventh steps The cheesemaker will pressing the determines the characteristic and shape of the cheese. Cover the cheese that has been pressed with a cloth or tissue. Most cheeses are pressed within three to twelve hours to complete the curd formation which is depending the size of the cheese. Cheese that will be pressing will be poured into a mould according to the sized that required. Eight step This is the last step process of making cheese which is curing. Curing for cheese is used for expand the ages of the cheese by developing the flavor and texture of the cheese within the time. Usually the cheese will be kept in a room that is carefully monitorized and controlled for the humidity of the cheese by using proper temperature on the cheese. 4.2.1 Equipment that has been used during modern era Pilot scale batch cooker It is used to cook the liquid and solid of the milk within the period of time with a proper temperature to cook it in a batch. Grinding machine It is used to grind the cheese into paste that is suitable with accurate moisture and fat for the next stage of cheesemaking process. Load cell conveyors It is used to control and record the weigh of the cheese through the process. Auger dump hopper Method that used to transferring the product from the blender into the batch cooker, where all the milk product has been added in the earlier stage. 4.2.2 Factor The spread of cheese through out the world Nutrition It is happens because the cheese contains the nutrition such as the vitamin, mineral and also fats that a body need most. In addition, it has become part of the daily meal of a person. Label/ Brand When a brand of product famous throughout the world, it enhances many people from other country to try the products and create a new product by using the cheese as the main ingredients. Technology In the new era, many people has invented a technology which able to cook, seal, packaging the product which contain cheese in it within period of time, which has make demand of obtain the cheese has increase from a level to another level. Production Different type of cheese, has different type of texture and flavor. That is why, many people would like to obtain the different type of cheese from the normal cheese, which has make to create a new creation of product by using the cheese that obtain. 5.0 TYPES OF CHEESE There are many types of cheese and can be classified to a few types. According to the International Dairy Federation, there are a round 500 types or varieties of cheese. The varieties of cheese can be classified into a few groups according to their characteristics. There are a few criteria that being looked to classified the types of cheese. Such as, ageing, milk content, fat content, country, moisture, method of making, moisture and more. Commonly cheese are categorizing by content, firmness, moisture and texture. The cheese are being categorizing from soft to hard. These are a few categorized of cheese; Fresh cheese, Natural rind cheese, Soft white-rind cheese, semi-soft cheeses and hard cheese. 5.1 Fresh cheese Fresh cheeses are eaten a few days after the cheese being cooked and only have a little time to develop a flavour. Those fresh cheeses are used in cooking to add texture and help in enhance flavour of food. It also helps to absorb oil and enhance other ingredient flavour to the foods. As we known, according to the history, fresh cheeses are originally discovered by nomadic tribes where accidently milk that being filled up inside the animal skin drained away. The milk leaving a firm and crumbly white lumps of fat that can be dried, store and kept for days. Fresh cheeses have a mild, lemony and acidic flavour. The fresh cheese flavour depend the type of animal milk use. Fresh cheeses have a high moisture content compared to the hard cheeses. It has wet and mousse-like texture. Example of cheese: Feta cheese The name of feta cheese from the Greek word “fetta” means slices. Feta cheese was originated from Greece. During 17th century, cheese was being served by cutting the cheese into slices. That why the name of cheese was given as feta cheese. Feta cheese is one of the age crumbly cheeses and commonly produces in block. The story of this cheese making is not known certainly, but there is a myth about the making of feta cheese. According to Ulysses narrates in Book 9 of the Homer’s Odyssey, Cylope Polyphemus was the first who create cheese (specific to feta cheese). If refer to the traditional method, the mixture of goat and cow milk are being left for around 30 hours than rennet being added inside the milk. It will help the coagulated process of milk, causing the separated of liquid and curdle. After that, the curds are being drain and resembles into a block shape. Muslin cloth, are use to raped and hanged the cheese to dry. Some people still use traditional method hanged the cheese by putting inside the animal stomach. Other examples of cheese are Ricotta cheese, Mozarella cheese and more. 5.2 Natural rind cheese Some fresh cheese, especially cheese that being produces using goat milk, will turn into natural rind or aged cheese. This process is due because of the cheese left to dry and drain for a long period time. The wet and rich protein surface of cheese attracts the production of moulds. These moulds are edible and it contributes to the ripening process. Nowadays, cheese makers will spray a solution that contains edible moulds (such as penicillium candidum) that helps ripening process. Mostly peoples are suspicious of moulds and sometimes the rinds flavour or texture doesn’t suit with the taste of the customer. These types of cheese have different shapes and can be covered with paprika powder, herb or peppers. There are traditionally three stages in the production of natural rind cheese; Stage one: The fresh cheese are still moisture and has no rinds. The flavour is still mild and lemony. (Up to 10 days) Stage two: The cheese that being stored in a room or cellar. The cheese will start lose moisture and thin rind will start to develop. The surface will attract a variety of micro such as pinicillium candidum. The moulds will star appears around ten days. Stage three: At around 10 to 12 days, a blue mould will appear and over a few weeks it will appear on the surface of the rind. Cheese will started to shrink and causing the wrinkles. The surface of the cheese will be encrusted with mould, has brittle texture and become firmer. Sometimes, it has a nutty, pungent aroma and taste. Examples of cheese: Crottin de Chavignol This cheese is the famous cheese, among the varieties of cheese base goat milk. This cheese was originated claim from the village of Chavignol, France. Since 16 century, the productions of small size of cheese were started. The word crottin is derived from the word “Crot” meaning small oil lamp made from burned clay. The mould clay is being use as cheese moulds. The shaped of this cheese is solid but soft and has nutty taste. Other examples of Natural rind cheese are Banon cheese, Bouton de Culotte nad more. 5.3 Soft, white-rind cheese Is a type of cheese where it has buttery-yellow colour inside and has white rind. There are at least 80 types of soft, white-rind cheese are being made from cow’s milk. There are two popular soft, white-rind cheeses, known as Camembert and Brie. Mostly these cheeses are almost liquid texture and not contain high fat this is due to the high content. Traditionally the making of these cheese are simple, milk are being reheat until warm, then rennet being add to help coagulated process. After the liquid and curd separate, the curd being scoop and put inside a moulds and left in a humid rooms. After the desire of moisture reached, the cheeses are removed to other room and place on the straw mat. This will help the ripening process. Nowadays, the cheese maker will spray the mould (Penicilium candidum) to help to develop faster rinds. The faster development of rind will help or protect the inside of cheese drying out. This is why the soft, whit rind cheese has soft texture inside and has whit rinds. Examples of cheese: Camembert de Normandie At year’s 1791 camembert cheese were firstly made by Normandy farmers known as Marie Harel. According to the history during French revolution, she gave a shelter to a priest know as Abbey Bonvoust since 1790. With the help from the priest, she improved the making or recipe of Camembert cheese. After a few year, the improvement of transport facilities help in the spread of this cheese and opening of camembert cheese outlet around Europe. In 1890 French engineering also contribute to the spread of this cheese. Where he creates a wooden box for easier to carried, those ideas have being used by all cheese camembert cheese producers. Camembert cheese is moulded flat round cheese that covers with white rind. This cheese has different taste according to their age. When it young it has milky and sweet taste around 20 days, when it reached 30 to 45 day it will have fruity and strong taste. Other examples of soft, white-rind cheese are Brie de Meux, Bomdard cheese, bougon cheese and more. 5.4 Semi-soft cheese Semi soft cheese can be classified into types washed-rinsed and washed-curd cheeses. The flavour of semi soft cheese ranges from mild to buttery to pungent flavour. Depend on their types these types of cheese can be slices, shredded and cube. 5.4.1 Washed-rinsed cheese According to the history washed rinsed cheese was being made During the Dark Ages Trappist. The Trappist monks need to go through 100 days fast without meat each year. They decide to produce stronger and meaty cheese. The moisture consistency of washed rinsed cheese similar to soft cheese but, the cheese used more rennet in the making process. More rennet is being added to produce firmer cheese. Besides that, the cheese are being put in more humid rooms, then being washed and rubbed with a mix of brine and bacteria. This act will encourage rapid growth of orange bacteria to brown-red bacteria on the rind. The bacteria growths on the surface of the rind and help create a texture similar to crème caramel. Examples of cheese: Epoisses de Bourgogne This cheese is a pungent unpasteurized cheese cow milk cheese. This cheese is made in a Village called Espoisees. Brillat- Savarin popular gastronome classed this cheese as “King of The cheese”. On the end of second war the production of this cheese stopped due to the decreasing of men population due to the war. On 1956, a farmer partner known as Robert and Simon Berthaut re-launch the production of Epoisses Cheese. This cheese has strong flavour and sweet cheese. Other examples of washed rind cheese are Baguette Laonaisse, Bishop Kennedy, Brick cheese and more. 5.4.2 Washed-curd cheese Is a cheese where during production process mix of the curd and whey being washed in water, to prevent the bacteria converts any remaining milk sugar into lactic acid. This act contributes to produce sweet cheeses that have smooth and rubbery texture. Examples of cheese: Leiden or Leidsekaas cheese On 17 the century, the Dutch East Indies one of company that lead to the beginning of spice trade between Indonesia and Europe. During that time cheese are already well known, the Dutch decide to do some experiment by adding spices to their cheese such as cumin, peppercorns and cloves. To create leiden cheese, the liquid is drained and the curd are sprinkles with a cumin and salt. Then the cheese is put inside a mould and lined with muslin cloth and pressed. After a few days the chesses are soaked in brine. 5.5 Hard Cheeses Many hard cheeses are factory made. These types of cheese content low moisture then soft cheese. These cheeses are being put inside a mould than be give forced with high pressure. The age of hard cheese are longer then soft cheeses and can be stored for a long time. Examples of cheeses: Cheddar cheese According to the history cheddar cheese were originated from English village of Cheddar at Sommerset, England. There is one myth about the making of cheddar. The story started where one girl decide to put a bucket of milk in the cave. Then she went home without brought the milk. After a long time she start to remember that she had put a bucket of milk in the cave, she went back to cave. While she came to the cave, she realized that the bacteria have turned the milk to hard curdle cheese. They also another myth, that believed King Henry have buy 10000 pounds of cheddar cheese and it shows that cheddar cheese were originated in England. As age of the cheese become longer, the taste of cheese become sharper and flavour. Young cheddar is age around 3 to 6 years, while other cheddar may be age and stored for several years. Other examples of hard cheese are Parmigiano cheese, Emmenttal cheese, Pecorino Romano cheese, Asiago cheese and more. 6.0 CONTRIBUTION Cheese has many contributions in culinary world in the past and in current. Cheese has been in the culinary world for such long time. With this kind of history, cheese is no doubt has many contributions in nutrition ways. People in the past accidentally produce cheese when they left the milk in the warmth or heated it in the earthenware pot. In the past, people often use cheese as one of ingredient. Nowadays, people have study the cheese and discover that cheese has much nutrition that is good for human body. In the past, cheese has been a kind of currency by the traders and merchant. In the culinary world, cheese has been one of the flavor enhancements. This can be seen when the Italian put cheese in their cooking. Cheese provides saltiness and buttery taste to the dish. Cheese also has been contributed in pasteurization method for milk product. Pasteurization method been created by Louis Pasture, the French chemist and microbiologist in April 1862. Current contribution is in health benefit. Scientist has study the art of cheese and discovers that there are several amount of nutrient in cheese. The major nutrients in cheese are protein, calcium, zinc, phosphorus, vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin B12. Protein is important to human growth and helping in build and repairing the tissue. Calcium is important muscle development, normal nerve and maintains the health of bones and teeth. Zinc is important in helping the immune system of our body and contributes in skin structure. Phosphorus is kind the same of calcium because it help in maintaining the bones and teeth. Vitamin A is important for our vision. Vitamin B2 is important because it is use as converter of food into energy in our body. Vitamin B12 is important for helping in producing cells in our body. 7.0 CONCLUSION In conclusion, there are many varieties of cheese in the world and it is one of food or ingredient that has long history. Even though it has been producing many centuries ago, it is one of well known ingredient in the culinary world. Cheese are very famous right now even if we go to the famous luxury restaurant or even the Mamak stall that used to sell Roti Naan with cheese. The use of cheese in culinary world was started centuries ago until today. The spread of cheese from the origin place has contribute to the world of culinary. Other than that, a question, why in the cartoon the mice always been trapped and crazy with the cheese?, look at the mice teeth, they were strong and it show how nutritious the cheese was. Nowaday cheesen are being made with full of nutritious because of proper procedure and process are use to ensure the high quality of cheese produce. Other than that, the revolution about dairy products nowadays are very agressive. Because of new invention and technology the making or manufactured of cheese are rapidly growth. New recipe and vareties of chees are be created. Maybe in our country it is not global used yet but we are hoping someday Malaysia can produce their own cheese with our own style. Lastly, we will see the impact that cheese has given towards the culture of the citizen in a country, which has become a trend even taking a picture. SAY CHEESE…… The History Of Cheese

The Rewarding System in Organization Report

The Rewarding System in Organization Report. Introduction The human resource function within organisations plays a critical role in planning, organising, directing, as well as determining the reward system. This is an important aspect because it helps in influencing workers’ motivation towards executing their roles (O’Driscoll and Donna 197). This paper analyzes the reward system used in my organisation and offers an elaborate analysis, as well as recommendations on how the challenge can be addressed efficiently. The Challenging HRM Aspect in my Organisation My organisation has the problem of an inefficient non-financial reward system. My organisation’s main HRM challenge lies in the recognition, development and self-actualisation dimension. In particular, the feedback mechanism is inefficient and it is difficult for both the management and the workers to determine their own progress. It equally makes it difficult for the organisation to accurately evaluate the needs of the workers in terms of the needed skills and development. Description of the challenge Workers are never accurately appraised in their respective jobs to determine their areas of strengths or weaknesses. Managers required to undertake the appraisal exercise have limited skills on how to employ the evaluation process. The exercise is not conducted on a regular basis, while the tools used are not efficient. Most supervisors appraise workers on the basis of the personal relations that they have rather than on the actual performance of the individuals. The inefficiency in the appraisal mechanism affects the feedback process of the organisation as the response gives an erroneous account of what the true organisational needs are. Workers who need further training are never selected because their feedback reports indicate that their on-job performances are beyond excellent. These workers are recognised as the best performing and are often recommended for promotion to perform even higher and more demanding roles. On the other hand, some hard working staffs in the organisation who are not in good personal terms with the appraising managers always receive negative feedback reports. Their appraisal is often doctored to depict their performance as poor and requiring more attention from the organisation. These workers never receive any recognition from the organisation, which ends up affecting their motivation and morale. Equity Theory and the HR Challenge in my organisation According to the equity theory, workers often assess their performance as well as attitudes through making comparisons with what their actual contributions to the work and the benefits they derive from it are (Chapman and Clare 121). They make comparisons with the contributions and benefits of references that they select from amongst the colleagues in the same organisation they serve. This determines their level of motivation in the sense that when their colleagues get more benefits yet they deem them to be contributing less in their roles, the workers become less motivated. On the other hand, when they determine that their colleagues have fewer benefits in terms of recognition or other non-financial benefits compared to theirs, they become more motivated especially if their input is also higher than that of the colleagues. In my organisation, most workers have become demotivated because of what they are considering as an inefficient feedback mechanism. From their own comparisons, they are able to determine the amount of input that their colleagues are making compared to theirs. However, the recognition and other non-financial benefits that they receive, which is determined by the feedback information, do not truly reflect on their personal comparisons. Causes of the Problem The reward system lacks appropriate vertical integration, which is critical in driving workers’ motivation. The appraisal mechanism used, for instance, does not establish desired employee competencies against which the actual performance of the workers is supposed to be measured. Managers conducting the appraisal exercise give out scores basing on their own thoughts and the personal relations they have with the workers. The performance, behaviours, as well as the competencies that the managers are evaluating does not integrate with important HR strategies that are required to produce an efficient reward system. The organisation does not have internal policies that are important in guiding and ensuring that the resultant appraisal and feedback mechanism is efficient. There are no existing guiding principles that the managers base their appraisal process on. Instead, each manager comes up with a system that he considers to be appropriate for guiding the whole process. This results in biased feedback reports whose main basis is on the kind of personal relationship that the manager holds with specific staffs in the organisation. Solution The organisation should consider using the 360-degree feedback mechanism in the evaluation of its employees. Such a mechanism will reduce instances of bias, where managers appraise workers basing on their personal relationships instead of applying professionalism. The 360-degree feedback mechanism is more efficient because it is a continuous process that evaluates the performance of workers and provides reports that can be relied upon in determining the rewards for workers, such as promotions and recognitions (Oz and Deniz 280). The 360-degree feedback mechanism will help in customising appraisal for each worker basing on their specific roles because of the heterogeneous nature of job skills and roles in my organisation. The feedback reports for each worker will be more acceptable because the appraisals are done from various quarters, including from the managers, colleagues, as well as the subordinates. An average drawn out appraisal from all these analyses will give a more true reflection of the workers’ position than is the case with the current practise where only managers perform the appraisals and determine the feedback report. A 360-degree feedback mechanism will also ensure that a vertically integrated reward strategy that is both deterministic and unitarist is achieved (Oz and Deniz 283). The need to involve more participants in the appraisal exercise will ensure that the reward system reflects on the mission and strategy of the organisation, and that it incorporates the organisation’s culture. In other words, the desired employee competence, behaviours and performance will be determined in advance and used as the benchmark for appraising workers rather than basing on individual points of reference as is the case currently. Implementation of the Solution How The reward system must be determined by the appraisal results that shall be achieved after conducting a 360-degree feedback. Appraisal will be conducted from all directions, including from the worker’s manager, his colleagues, as well as the subordinates. This should be done continuously as the worker’s actual performances are compared to the desired standards set out by the organisation (Murdoch 1263). An analysis of all the appraisal results should produce one average record that should be communicated to the worker to convey his results. The average result should also be used as the main determinant of the worker’s reward value from the organisation. When The execution of the 360-degree feedback mechanism should be done continuously. Workers perform their duties and roles on a daily basis and, therefore, the appraisal should be done every day. The feedback report may be issued periodically, such as after every four months after compiling all the numerous reports from the various sources conducting the evaluation. This will help the workers to put in the necessary changes that are needed to improve on their weak areas, while also enhancing performance on areas where they are strong. By who Appraisals should be conducted from three main sources within the organisation. The first source should involve the workers’ immediate manager or supervisor. The second source of appraisal should be colleagues working together in executing similar roles within the organisation. A third source should include subordinates working under a given worker. These sources should be independent and work towards providing an objective result. The final feedback report should be prepared and conveyed to the worker by the manager, who will also use its findings to determine the appropriate reward for the worker. Likely Obstacles The reward system may remain to be inefficient due to lack of frank and honest judgment conducted during the appraisal (Ghorpade 140). For instance, colleagues may opt to provide an erroneous evaluation for fear of seeing their fellow workers being rewarded more benefits. There could also be laxity in implementing the feedback information in terms of marching it with the appropriate reward. Conclusion My organisation experiences an inefficient reward system that is not offering sufficient non-financial rewards mainly because of the poor feedback mechanism that is employed. Workers receive their appraisal feedback that does not accurately reflect on their actual performances. This has affected the level of motivation within the organisation as workers feel their colleagues whose input are relatively lower are being rewarded more than can be compared to their own rewards. The company should address this inefficiency by adopting use of the 360-degree feedback mechanism, which is more reliable and highly efficient. Rewarding workers using the reports of this system will be more acceptable and will help in driving the morale higher compared to the situation currently. Works Cited Chapman, Jonathan, and Clare Kelliher. “Influences On Reward Mix Determination: Reward Consultants’ Perspectives.” Employee Relations 33.2 (2011): 121-139. Print. Ghorpade, Jai. “Managing Five Paradoxes Of 360-Degree Feedback.” Academy Of Management Executive 14.1 (2000): 140-150. Print. Murdoch, Adrian. “Going Full Circle.” Accountancy International 122.1263 (1998): 48-48. Print. O’Driscoll, Michael P., and Donna M. Randall. “Perceived Organisational Support, Satisfaction With Rewards, And Employee Job Involvement And Organisational Commitment.” Applied Psychology: An International Review 48.2 (1999): 197-209. Print. OZ, Ozge, and Deniz Buyukkilic Seren. “Developing The Application Of 360 Degree Performance Appraisal Through Logic Model.” International Journal of BusinessThe Rewarding System in Organization Report

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