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Human impact on coral reefs

Human Impact On Coral Reefs In The Last 30 Years Abstract Coral reefs are the homes that provide shelter for approximately one quarter of all known marine species as well as being the most diverse ecosystems. Coral reefs are vulnerable to even the slightest environmental changes. A review of the literature of the last 30 years shows that the frequency of human activity has intensified to a new level where human actions have extended to the coral reefs on a global scale. Humans are actively damaging the coral reef ecosystems on our earth. Coral reefs are overfished, poisoned by chemical pollution, smothered by sediment, and choked by macroalgae growing on nutrient rich sewage and fertilizer runoff. In the meantime, global warming and ocean acidification is a greater contribution to coral reef mortality. The main driving force behind the coral crisis is the continuing increase in human population. These will give a burden to environment, and eventually will impact on marine life, especially the coral reefs. Through the review of the past papers, I found that from the least and latest topic of ocean acidification to the largest one (sedimentation and nutrient enrichment), scientists are getting concerned about the problem relate to carbon dioxide which results in climate change and ocean acidification globally, especially in the recent years. Lots of coral reef scientists have risen to this key issue. Introduction “Coral reefs are evaluated to cover 284,300 square kilometers, with the Indo-Pacific region (including the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia and the Pacific) accounting for 91.9% of the total. Southeast Asia accounts for 32.3% of that figure, while the Pacific including Australia accounts for 40.8%. Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs only account for 7.6% of world total”. (Spalding, M., Ravilious, C., and Green, E. (2001). World Atlas of Coral Reefs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press and UNEP/WCMC) It is reported that Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Fiji contain almost over half of the world’s reefs. It is now generally acknowledged that coral reefs are among the most threatened global ecosystems, and among the most vital (Costanza et al. 1997; Bryant et al. 1998; Boesch et al. 2000; Reaser et al. 2000; Wilkinson 2000). However, one of the upcoming crises is a major threat of death of corals and large scale damage of coral reefs in all over the world. This crisis is partly a result of the frequency of human activities which are having a negative effect on marine ecosystems, especially on coral reef ecosystems. A study from 1998 showed that coral reefs around the world were affected by human activities (Lauretta B. et al. 1998, Fig. 2). The study showed the relative proportion of reefs at risk in five regions, with Southeast Asia having the highest area at risk. This phenomenon probably is related to the overfishing in this area which leads to coral reefs being at the highest risk compared to the rest of the world. It is known that the current situation is directly or indirectly consistent with human activities. However, the question remains that to what extent has human activity changed the coral reef ecosystems? So in this report, I would use ISI web database to search articles related to coral reefs crisis. Basically, I will try to answer this question. To do this I will discuss the various threats to coral reef, including overfishing and fish live trade issue, pollution-including terrestrial runoff, chemical compounds and sedimentation, and macroalgae overgrowth which is causing by nutrient enrichment under the seawater, and global warming and ocean acidification which contribute to coral disease and coral mortality. Impacts Of Overfishing It is sure about that overfishing in general is a damaging problem to many coral reefs around the world. In this field, it is shown that scientists did research in the topic of overfishing and fish trade was increasing since 1990. (Figure 3) In recent years, as a result of human interference on coral reefs, coral mortality is higher than ever before. When this occurs, the algae immediately take this opportunity for growth, which results in seedlings of coral not being able to attach to the reef. This type of event highlights the important role of herbivorous fish on the restoration of coral reefs. But if herbivorous coral reef fish are captured in large numbers, ethnic groups are difficult to recover. In this situation, macroalgae continues to overgrow, and inhibits the growth of corals. For example, The Caribbean region has been hit particularly hard, with 40% of absolute coral cover lost since the late 1970s due to overfishing and macroalgae overgrowth (Gardner et al. 2003). So some authors argue that overfishing is an important reason why reef corals have declined in recent years. (Aronson et al. 2006) However, overfishing has also been due to the improvement of global fishing technology, and a variety of advanced equipment is used in the exploitation of fishing. A large number of fish becomes extinct annually. As a result of advanced fishing technology, the world’s annual catch of fish is continuing to rise. Indeed, on one hand, increased fishing will provide sufficient global supply of fish products. However, at the same time, the increase in fisheries production will reduce the global average price of fish in the global market, and this decline will lead to the reduction of fishing profits, which in turn will drive an increase in catches again, ultimately leading to a vicious circle in fisheries. On the other hand, large scale fishing can lead to the sharp decline in fish population. Without predators, algae can overgrow and suppress coral recruitment. Even though, some scientists argue that these algae are not directly killing corals. In fact, they are competing with corals in the space and intake of light. So without light, corals will die eventually due to corals can not get nutrients to survive. (Figure 4) Pollution A major threat besides the overexploitation of fishery resources is undoubtedly the strong increase in coastal development, and discharge of untreated sewage into the near-shore waters, resulting in enormous amounts of nutrients spreading into the sea and coastal zones (Burke et al., 2002; Wilkinson, 2002; Brown et al., 2006; UNEP, 2006). For example, around 60% of the wastewater discharged into the Caspian Sea is untreated, in Latin America and the Caribbean the figure is close to 80%, and in large parts of Africa and the Indo-Pacific the proportion is as high as 80-90% (UNEP, 2006). Agricultural run-off to the ocean, Nitrogen exports to the marine environment is projected to increase at least 14% globally by 2030 (UNEP, 2006). During the past 30 years, more and more scientists were on to the problems of sedimentation and nutrient enrichment and chemical pollution and oil spills. It is shown that a big number of topics on pollution and nutrient enrichment and so on. (Figure 5 and 6) Basically, the scientists wanted to understand how did sedimentation and nutrient enrichment and chemical pollution and oil spills impact on the corals? There are various mechanisms by which these factors can harm coral reefs. First of all, suspended sediment makes water turbid which allows less sunlight to penetrate the water. With less sunlight, zooxanthellae which live within the coral’s tissue can not photosynthesize to produce organic nutrients that support the corals to thrive. In addition, it is known that zooxanthellae are sensitive to chemical changes (Parker et al. 2008). In industrial wastewater and farming runoff, there are always chemical compounds which can make zooxanthellae toxic to corals as well as in the case of oil spills. So to protect themselves, corals have to eject the zooxanthellae (Parker et al. 2008). After a period in this situation, corals will die. Furthermore, farming near the coast results in large quantities of sediment and soil going into sea and onto coral reefs. This dirt, silt or sand can make water muddy, smothering the corals (Rogers 1990). In addition, the use of fertilizers for farming is another problem resulting in increased nutrient flow into the ocean. The discharge human sewage leads to the nutrient enrichment in certain areas, especially in the estuary, which may result in rapid growth of algae which as mentioned before they will outcompete corals, cutting off the supply of light as well. Ocean Acidification In this area, it is shown that more and more conservationists were interesting in ocean acidification in recent years (Figure 7). It seems a very new field that scientists have only focused on just 7 years ago. It might be scientists aware of the issue of acidification rising, which is now noticing that acid level rising makes an impact on coral reefs. Ocean acidification is related to the carbon dioxide being released in to the atmosphere and reacting with seawater. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere now exceeds 380 ppm, which is more than 80 ppm above the maximum values of the past 740,000 years (Petit et al. 1999; EPICA community members, Nature. 2004). Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form a weak acid H2CO3, which results in acid levels increasing in the oceans of the world. Ocean acidification is a current key problem that all marine animals have to face, especially coral reefs. As previous mentioned that corals get organic nutrients from a mutualistic symbiont – zooxanthellae to grow. These algae are sensitive to acid rising in the seawater. If the environmental conditions are changing, corals will eject algae and turn to white, a phenomenon known as coral bleaching. Global Warming With respect to global warming, corals are sensitive to the sudden temperature changing as well, which means the change of temperature is a factor causes their photosynthetic process to break down. When this happens, zooxanthellae become toxic to corals. Then, if they want to protect themselves, the corals have to expel the zooxanthellae. And they will get starved and become bleaching. As is figure 8 shown that another very important threat affecting coral reefs is global warming. The rise in temperature can result coral bleaching. It is usual to see coral bleaching just temperature a little higher than hottest summer temperature (Parker et al. 2008). Large-scale bleaching events seem to be becoming increasingly common (Wellington et al. 2001). If temperature continues to increase, in the future, this means that coral bleaching events may increase their frequency an extent of severity. Even though populations adapt and corals do survive, this pressure increases their susceptibility to disease and reduces their ability to reproduce. Overall From 11393 articles found in the literature search on the topics of coral reefs, one eighth of papers are related to the impact of human activities on coral reefs (Figure 9 and Figure 10). Of course, there should be more factors impacting on coral reefs and have contributed to their mortality. Indeed, the coral reef crisis in all over the world is getting worse and worse, even in the future the coral reef would face further threats. But this does not mean we have no ideas to save them, the figure 11 also shows that marine biologists were concerned about the coral reef crisis more than before, larger possibly because more and more scientists were aware of the importance of coral reefs to the entire marine ecosystems. Protecting coral reef ecosystems probably is an effective pathway to get most species recovered. Conclusion During the past 30 years, marine ecosystems took place some changes. The interference of human activities directly or indirectly gives more and more burden for our earth. The damaged environment makes some species become threatened species or endangered species, even critical endangered species. Even though, coral reefs are not becoming extinct, they are facing high risk which leads them to die. Indeed, the world lost a large scale of coral reefs which all due to the humans since early 20th century. From the review of the literature of the past 3 decades, scientists are focusing now more on climate changes, including global warming and ocean acidification, which results in corals death. Compared to the previous large number and key issues, like fishing and pollution problems, scientists are beginning to find more new factors that influence the coral reefs. From this trend, we can see that there should be more work to do to find a solution to marine scientists. With the population continuing to rise, it is difficult to imagine what will happen in the near future. For the humans, perhaps, they have to think about what they can and should do to reduce the dead of corals and the damage of coral reefs. To find a solution to solve the coral reef issues, humans have to give more actively motivations and passions to change the current situations.
CDB 16 – Final Thoughts. I’m trying to learn for my Writing class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Please provide your final thoughts on any and/or all of the following:

Is there any information that you learned in this class that you were surprised about and/or unaware of? If so, what was it and what impact did it have on you when you learned about it?
Are there any topics that you would have liked that we spend more time on OR less time on? If so, which topics and how much time would have been ideal?
Are there any concepts and/or terms that you may still be struggling with or that you struggled with, but now understand? If so, what were they and would you have benefited from more examples?
Did this class inspire you to learn more about the Chicano community or possibly become involved in Chicanx activism? If so, what else would you like to learn about and/or become involved with?
Do you think the Chicanx community will be able to mobilize itself as thoroughly as it did for the Chicano Movement and Chicano Moratorium? Why or why not?

Talk about Caesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta
CDB 16 – Final Thoughts

Course Reflection. I need an explanation for this Law question to help me study.

Introduction:
Throughout the course, many facets of criminal justice, including research, leadership, ethics, theory, conflict resolution, and professional communications were explored. These explorations spanned the gamut of criminal justice agencies and encompassed a vast array of application based settings. Focus will be on learning connections as we look back, and anticipated applications as we look ahead.

Competency 1: Apply an ethics-centered, evidence-based analysis to complex situations encountered by criminal justice practitioners.
Competency 2: Explain the antecedents and consequences of crime in the broader context of interdisciplinary knowledge.
Competency 3: Integrate theoretical, scientific, and practical methods in application to solve problems relevant to criminal justice.
Competency 4: Describe effective conflict resolution techniques for culturally diverse group interactions.
Competency 5: Assess the ethical, community-focused leadership skills required for successful criminal justice practitioners in a wide range of interactions.

Instructions:

Identify the most important concepts, skills, or insights you gained from learning throughout your Criminal Justice course journey, based on Competencies 1–5.
Explain how you will use these concepts, skills, or insights in a current or future career.
Express how the course has changed your perspectives in a criminal justice career context.

Special Instructions:
Create a 1 page essay in APA format according to the instructions above. Use 2 scholarly sources for references. Be sure to utilize in-text citations.
Course Reflection

University of the Cumberlands Career Path in IT Security Specialist Report.

Forming a Career Path in Information Technology – Describe few areas of interest and explain the career path. Career IdentificationAs it’s name suggests, the career identification component the career planning process is when you select just one occupation, among the many you’ve considered. During this step you’ll indentify the occupation that you’re most interested in, as well as few alternatives to fall back on if your first choice doesn’t pan out. Now that you know which occupation you’re going to pursue, you’ll want to prepare to enter your chosen field. Identify all the requirements (e.g. education, costs, etc.) for entering your chosen career field.
University of the Cumberlands Career Path in IT Security Specialist Report

Wit by Margaret Edson – Analysis

In the play Wit by Margaret Edson, the relationships between the doctors are in need of examination. Dr. Harvey Kelekian, and Jason Posner, is morally viewed characters because of their discussions with the patient. Furthermore, the death of Vivian Bearing in the play Wit by Margaret Edson plays a role by teaching Vivian how to use compassion. In which, she could than die in more of a peaceful manner. “The doctors help Vivian fight the battle against ovarian cancer and ultimately revealing that kindness is a simple reward of action “(Edson, 2012). “However, the lack of compassion that Vivian receives from the doctors reveals that she is like all humans, who long for kindness. Dr. Jason forgot his bedside manners in a clinical manner showing how he feels for Vivian” (Edson, 2012). Dr. Jason would not properly greet Vivian during her examination process for the treatment of ovarian cancer and left her stomach uncovered, she was not properly diagnosed with ovarian cancer, which left her unstablized. Vivian felt that there is no respect for her, she is sarcastic towards Dr. Jason and makes comments towards Dr. Jason because he does not show some consideration for her. Vivian rejects Susie the nurse, who is kind to her and eventually becomes appreciative of the kindness that the nurse shows her during her stay in the hospital for chemotherapy; the nurse cares for Vivian’s wellbeing and cares for her physically. Furthermore, the nurse does whatever she can to make Vivian’s stay in the hospital comfortable. Vivian’s nurse has every intent to be straightforward with her and her disapproval of her doctor’s choices. Due to honesty and respect, “Vivian befriended Susie and the only person in the entire play she let close to her. ” With phrases such as I wanted her to come and see me” (Edson, p. 64). The play takes place during the final hours of Dr. Vivian Bearing, a university professor of English, dying of ovarian cancer. Vivian recalls the initial diagnosis of stage 1V metastatic ovarian cancer from her oncologist Dr. Harvey Kelekian. “The doctor than proposes an experimental chemotherapeutic treatment regimen consisting of eight rounds at full dosage” (Edson, 2012). Over the course of the play, Vivian reflects on her life through the intricacies of the english language, especially the use of Wit in the metaphysical poetry of John Donne. Throughout the play, she recites Donne’s Holy Sonnet X, “Death be not proud”, while reflecting upon her condition” (Wilson, 2004). “Vivian has lived her life alone, is unmarried and without children, her parents are deceased and she has no emergency contacts” (Edson, 2012). “Margaret Edson is about a woman dealing with her life’s issues with an uncommon approach. Edson got the idea for the plot after many hours of volunteering at a hospital” (Wilson, 2009). Instead of being gloomy and negative which lead Vivian’s remains witty and tough during her struggle with different stages of ovarian cancer. Throughout her life, Vivian and those around her have been an active part of student mentor relationships with someone retaining to Vivian’s condition. “Whether it was personality or behavioral changes, a change in life direction, at least one person involved in each relationship underwent a transformation” (Wilson, 2009). The power and result of these relationships, serving as fundamental themes in playwrights formed one or both participants and their future goals at the times the relationships were occurring. Vivian also tried to thoroughly illustrate her point and eventually gave up trying to understand, but unconsciously comprehended her viewpoints. The important information she utilized throughout her life because of this conversation and relationship was how to better understand John Donne’s pieces, allowing her to expertly teach his work (Cite). She was also able to discover the differences between different effects on his sonnets and even herself. A valuable relationship not experienced with her treatment was between Dr. Jason Posner. Vivian’s primary doctor Dr. Harvey Kelekian, Jason worked directly under him and always listened to his mentor and showed off what he learned in front of him. “Addressing Kelekian the quizzes than regarding Vivian’s medicine options with the question “ok, problem areas with Hex and Vin” (Edson, 2012). Dr. Kelekian had pushed Jason to learn as much as he can, while also doing something beneficial to medicine. Dr. Jason was working on a research project and constructed on Vivian and the dedication to Dr. Kelekian, which his job was so strong that Jason did not realize how impersonal he was to his patient. Both doctors want to keep Vivian alive and didn’t always take their individual desires and feelings into account when directly interacting with them. The play gives a visual context in comparison to the book, in which describes her as intellectual and challenged person. Thus, Vivian becomes emotional during the chemotherapy treatment. Additionally, Vivian has a Ph.D., and is a renowned professor of English who has spent years studying and teaching the brilliant, yet difficult metaphysical sonnets of John Donne. When Vivian was diagnosed with terminal ovarian cancer, her approach to the study has been aggressively getting worse. Comparison, of the book illustrates how the course of her illness could make a change in her life. In addition, her time at the hospital is as a prize patient at a major teaching hospital, Vivian comes to review her life and her work with a profound humor that are transformative both for her and for the audience. Thus, “Vivian Bearing walks on the empty stage during the play, pushing her IV pole. She is fifty, tall and very thin, bare foot, and completely bald” (Edson. p.7). Vivian describes herself in detail that she is dying and her ovarian cancer is progressively getting worse. “Furthermore, she speaks with Dr. Kelekian and explains that the doctors are developing an experimental combination of drugs to help cure Vivian’s ovarian cancer, which is also a stage three that is moving into stage four. Thus, “Dr. Kelekian then describes to Vivian that she must be very tough” (Edson, p.12). Furthermore, the doctor stated that there are side effects and the treatment of chemotherapy would be good for her. The doctor than stated that she also has stage three and four metastatic ovarian cancers and there is no stage five. Furthermore, “it appears to be a matter as the saying goes of life and death” (Edson, p.13). Thus, “Death be not proud, though some have called thee mighty and dreadful, for, thou art not so” (Edson, p. 13). “Vivian than explains that she is in isolation because she is being treated for cancer and her treatment imperils her health” (Edson, p.39). “Vivian also states that John Donne would revel in it, if he wrote a poem about it. She also stated that her students would flounder in it, because paradox is too difficult to understand” (Edson, p.39). “Every ambiguity, every shifting awareness could draw so much from the play. Now at the height of her powers, she grandly disconnects herself from the IV” (Edson, p.40). Technicians remove the bed and hand her a pointer; “The poetry of the early seventeenth century. “What has been called the metaphysical school, considers an intractable mental puzzle by exercising the outstanding human faculty of the era, namely wit” (Edson, p.40). “The greatest Wit, the greatest English poet, some would say was John Donne. In the Holy Sonnets, Donne applied his capacious, agile Wit to the larger aspects of the human experience: life, death, and God” (Edson, p.40). Susie than explains that the doctor’s like to save lives. Therefore, anything is okay, as long as life continues. It does not matter if you are hooked up to a million machines. Kelekian is a great researcher and everything like Jason has honor and wants to know more things. Susie than states that she can be full code, “which means that if your heart stops, they’ll call a Code Blue and the code team will come and resuscitate you and take you to Intensive Care until you stabilize again” (Edson, 2012). “Alternatively, you can be “Do Not Resuscitate”, so if your heart stops we will just let it; you will be “DNR”. You can think about it, but I wanted to present both choices before Kelekian and Jason talk to you” (Edson, p.54). “E.M. Ashford stated to Miss Bearing that you take this to lightly. Moreover, this is a metaphysical poetry, not the modern novel. In addition, “The standards of scholarship and critical reading, which would apply to any other text, are simply enough for Vivian” (Edson, 2012). Thus, “the effort will total the results in a meaningful way of the sonnet, begins with a valiant struggle with death calling on all the forces of intellect, and vanquish the enemy” (Edson, 2012). Additionally, it is ultimately about overcoming the seemingly in separable barriers separating life, death, and eternal life. At that moment, Vivian explains her death as a metaphysical conceit. Furthermore, Vivian’s former undergraduate student, Jason is trying casually to understand Vivian undergoing chemotherapy. Therefore, “Vivian Bearing, the main character from Margaret Edson’s play Wit is not like those other teachers. She is tough and nonetheless does not care about her students and their many struggles” (Wilson, 2004).Thus, “Her only passion is for 17th century poetry, particularly the complex sonnets of John Donne” (Edson, 2012). In some parts of the play, Dr. Kelekian seems sympathetic towards Vivian leading readers to believe that he is a morally sound character. However, “at some points in the play Dr. Kelekian seems to discuss Vivian as a parent asking their child to handle an adult issue” (Edson, 2012). Furthermore, the doctor knows how much pain she is going through, which Vivian will be in pain during the Hex and Vin treatments. Making sure that Vivian is trying to recognize the side effects of the treatment. “In question, Dr. Kelekian invites knowledge to Vivian making her feel important, although the two doctors are completely different in subjects of doctorates, while Dr. Kelekian units himself as well as Vivian as educators showing his humanity towards her” (Wilson, 2009). He is steadfast about Vivian’s chemotherapy treatment and does not consider Vivian’s opinions creating a wall between them. Moreover, as Vivian goes through series of tests and ways to treat her ovarian cancer, Vivian undergoes a series of tests and then knows the prognosis is not good. However, Vivian tries to overcome her fear of hospitalization to get better. Additionally she expresses her thoughts as being a teacher and scholar specializing in the holy sonnets of John Donne. Furthermore, Vivian tries to illuminate her achievements in the world of scholarship and show what happens to her as she receives treatment of aggressive chemotherapy for eight months. What Vivian is trying to perceive is the reality of her life’s experiences about how she will overcome the aggressive chemotherapy treatment. Thus, “Vivian recalls her child hood with her father and takes a look back from her past of an counter with her graduate school professor, E.M. Ashford, after she decides that nothing will stop her from becoming a top-notch scholar” (Edson, 2012). Furthermore, Jason tries to save Vivian’s life; in treating her cancer, Vivian’s chemotherapy weakens, the cancer starts to take full control of her body. The doctor is taking less and less notice of her, which she than relies on her nurse, who sees her suffering from the pain of her treatments. Furthermore, the nurse is kind to her and helps her decide, if she wants a DNR, which is do not resuscitate. Vivian’s enjoyment of Susie’s care and company, and affection were shown. “Susie’s kindness also allowed Vivian to feel comfortable enough to finally open up about her real feelings of fear and confusion as she sorrowfully confided in her and said, “I am scared” (Edson, 2012). She than says how she do not feel sure of herself anymore, Vivian rests in peace with herself, as she dies. Thus, “through the morally ambiguous character of Dr. Harvey Kelekian and Jason Posner, who tried to help Vivian to recognize the mistakes of the past and see that kindness is simple, nevertheless a powerful gesture” (Edson, 2012). Vivian has strength and weaknesses that are exposed because of Susie’s own qualities, which helped her, emphasize how people are only capable of being who they are because of their experiences through their life. Vivian had educated, Susie had showed her some sense of weakness and she has been educated to the level it takes to be a nurse whereas, Vivian has gone beyond her own expectations. This shows that she has strength in knowledge of English literature and reveals the weakness of Susie being illiterate. Vivian than comes to terms and finally learns how to be compassionate on her last few months on earth due to her ‘deathly’ illness and the way one person can affect another person. Though Vivian meets an unfortunate end in her life she than decides that the only resolution is peace. She exhibits her life and her final days to drive home a message of kindness and compassion, turning a sad ending to a happy conclusion. Margaret Edson utilizes Vivian’s flash backs not only to provide back ground of her life, but also provide evidence to her past actions and former passions. Leading to the audiences and understanding of her strive for knowledge and the lack of success without the human interaction to accompany her Wit. Vivian has viewpoints that the strength and the pride in her prestigious position, which maintained and would garner a fixed sense of fulfillment. She found that the simplicity of human kindness could have an impact greater than the answer she thought she had acquired from years of study. Life and death had beginnings and endings and people come in terms with the end of life, people make life more enjoyable and how they present their life. Work Cited: “About.com Search – Find it now!.” About.com Search – Find it now!. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. Givhan, Jennifer. “Crossing The Language Barrier: Coalescing The Mind / Body Split And Embracing Kristeva’s Semiotic In Margaret Edson’s “Wit”. “Women

Disruptive Innovation and Non-Consumption Coursework

best assignment help Disruptive Innovation The theory of disruptive innovation appeared in 1995. Since that time, many modern companies use this theory as a guide to a successful business. Disruptive innovation is a process whereby a company develops a simple and low-cost product or service which occupies the bottom of the market and over time, begins to continuously go upmarket and ousts its competitors. The main reason for a product to move upmarket is the company’s pursuit of more profits (Christensen). In general, the reason why disruptive innovation happens is that usually, good companies are aware of innovations, but the environment of their business does not allow them to apply these technologies the first moment they appear, as they simply do not have enough money for their implementation, and because the adoption of these technologies will take most of their resources which are vital in their current competition. Thus, according to Christensen, the value networks of a company places value on disruptive innovation which is not enough for the competition, whereas new companies usually develop their value networks, which are different and allow them to begin the process of ousting the older company out of the business (Christensen). As a result, since the profit margin cannot grow infinitely, older companies reach the point when customers cannot buy their product, and they collapse. Certainly, there are ways to prevent that from happening. For example, at a certain point, a company should go down-market and strengthen its position. However, to do so, the company requires more resources, but with a good business strategy that presupposes good preparation for this shift and its timely implementation, the company can succeed (Ojomo). In the UAE, the authorities focused their attention on disruptive innovation already in 1999. That year, they created TECOM (Technology, Electronics, Commerce, and Media), which maintained the business environment in the country in a way that it prevents disruptive innovation (Al-Qirim 1898). It represents the so-called ecosystem for innovation where there are thousands of companies in Dubai and the rest of the country which are connected and together contribute to the development of the state instead of ousting each other from the business (Kennedy 121). Non-consumption Non-consumption is the refusal of customers to purchase products or services primarily due to their cost. The notion of non-consumption is closely connected to the notion of disruptive innovation in a way that when the process of disruptive innovation begins, it inevitably leads to non-consumption which is the main reason for the ousted company to go bankrupt (Ojomo). In Christensen’s opinion, managers, investors, entrepreneurs can compete against non-consumption by investing in a certain kind of innovation which is called market-creating innovation. This type of innovation allows transforming expensive and complex products into cheaper and simpler ones, thereby making them accessible to a much greater number of people. Thus, market-creating innovations eliminate non-consumption and lead to consumption. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Companies that use this type of innovation are regarded as “drivers” for economic growth. Certainly, applying this type of innovation requires additional resources, but if a company prepares for this shift beforehand, it usually succeeds (Xiao 1753). As for the UAE, since the problem of disruptive innovation is under thorough control, the risk of non-consumption reduces to a minimum. In general, the principle of market-creating innovations dominates business in the UAE. Additionally, the problem of non-consumption is not common in the country, as they use a more collaborative approach in doing business rather than competitive (Stall). Works Cited Al-Qirim, Nabeel. “An Empirical Investigation of Smart Board Innovations in Teaching in UAE University.” Education and Information Technologies, vol. 21, no. 6, 2016, pp. 1895-1911. Christensen, Clayton M. et al. “What Is Disruptive Innovation?” Harvard Business Review. 2015. Web. Kennedy, William R. et al. Dubai – The Epicenter of Modern Innovation: A Guide to Implementing Innovation Strategies. CRC Press, 2017. Ojomo, Efosa. “Non-Consumption is Your Fiercest Competition — and It Is Winning.” Christensen Institute. 2016. Web. Stall, Leonard. “‘Disruptive Innovation’ Debated in Dubai.” Web. We will write a custom Coursework on Disruptive Innovation and Non-Consumption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Xiao, Na. “How Non-Consumption Goals (Elicited by Competitive Setting or Social Risk) and Self-Confidence Influence the Importance of Trivial Attributes in Product Evaluation.” European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50, no. 9/10, 2016, pp. 1746-1766.

Suicide in Northern Canada: A Sociological Perspective

Suicide in Northern Canada: A Sociological Perspective from Two Contrasting Views Joel Ontiveros I. Introduction A growing suicide problem has plagued an indigenous community in northern Canada. Different indigenous communities have had a spike in suicide and attempted suicide due to many social and economic issues. In this essay, I aim to contrast two sociological perspectives of Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx in relation to how and why the native population in northern Canada is having a suicide crisis. II. Suicide in Northern Canada In the Pimicikamak Cree Nation in northern Canada there have been six deaths from suicide within the first months of 2016. In addition to these there have been one hundred and forty attempted suicides within the same indigenous community. According to the New York Times article, “[a] Wave of Indigenous Suicides Leaves Canadian Town Appealing for Help,” author Liam Stack claims that this wave of suicides is attributed to a faulty relationship between the Canadian government and the native community. The area residents live in extreme poverty and have an unemployment rate of eighty-five percent. Moreover, the native communities’ poverty leads to a sense of alienation from the non-native southern Canadians who live a more comfortable life. The community and other native communities in northern Canada receive no government investments and do not have access to employment. In addition, there are no hospitals and mental health institutions for hundreds of miles away from the communities. The community, “only [has one] fill-time mental health worker [who] has no medical or psychological training, just a bachelor’s degree in social work.”[1] Stack claims that the lack of government cooperation with the communities and trauma from colonialism is what led up to this epidemic. In retrospect, the natives were forced into an alien culture and were stripped of their ancient culture. III. Solidarity and Anomic Suicide From a historical point of view, Emile Durkheim would argue that the spike in suicides in northern Canada is a result of “the historical transformation from a more primitive mechanical society to [a] more organic society.”[2] Durkheim claimed that a mechanical society is attached together by the common duty that everybody merely does the same type of things. In a mechanical society, all individuals would have a job to fulfill, such as hunting or gathering. This mechanical solidarity would result in individuals having a place in society and feeling a sense of belonging. It is evident that before the Americas were colonized, the natives lived in a mechanical solidarity system that consisted in every individual having a role. These determined roles focused on the collective and did not emphasize individualism. In contrast, once a society has a larger amount of people with more interaction, what Durkheim termed dynamic density, then that society will convert to an organic solidarity, Additionally, a division of labor is a factor in this social paradigm. The society becomes more efficient in production because the division of labor demands that the majority of individuals become specialized at a certain task. He believed that anomie happens in an organic society, which is defined as” A sense associated with organic solidarity, of not knowing what one is expected to do; of being adrift in society without any clear and secure moorings.[3] Indeed, the native population in northern Canada has become a victim of organic solidarity. The lack of government resources and jobs leads individuals to feel alienated. These individuals do not have a place in modern society because of the lack of jobs and the improper assimilation that was inhumane in the first place, and did not fully incorporate the natives into the European Canadian society. In Durkheim’s book Suicide, “he argued that people a more likely to kill themselves when they do not know what is expected of them.”[4] He created categories of suicide that explain why suicide happens. One of his four types of suicide is termed anomic suicide, which he defined as: People are more likely to kill themselves when they do not know what is expected of them, where regulation is low, and they are largely free to run wild. This mad pursuit is likely to prove unsatisfying and, as a result, a higher percentage of people in such a situation are apt to commit this type of suicide.[5] It is evident that the general suicides in northern Canada can be linked to anomic suicide. The individuals do not have access to jobs or resources and live in a society that constantly promotes individualism. The lack of not knowing what to do with oneself, could lead to many existential dilemmas that repressed societies must confront. IV. Class Conflict In a contrasting sociological view, one could link a spike of suicides in northern Canada to the alienation of individuals from class conflict. Karl Marx argued that under capitalism, individuals become alienated from their family, friends, and coworkers, because of a constant conflict between the workers and capitalists. The workers or proletariat have a subsistent wage that merely lets them survive, the majority of natives living in northern Canada do not even have jobs because of an 85% unemployment rate. The natives could be labeled as the lumpenproletariat, or individuals that are below the workers, who may be constantly unemployed. While the lumpenproletariat is below the workers, they still are affected by the clash between the proletariat and bourgeoisie. The capitalists are constantly seeking ways to take advantage of surplus wages, which causes a conflict between the workers. The exploitation of surplus value leads to less resources for communities such as the northern native Canadians. The lack of resources due to exploitation can be compounded with Durkheim’s organic solidarity, and anomic suicide to highlight the spike in suicides. Additionally, bourgeoisie dominant ideology dictates what norms/mores are to be assimilated by a community. These assimilations have created a cultural genocide for the indigenous population. V. Conclusion The indigenous of northern Canada have seen a spike in suicide because of anomic suicide and the sense of not belonging or knowing what to do in an organic solidarity paradigm. The rise in suicide can also be linked to the class conflict between the capitalists and the workers. Although, the majority of the natives are unemployed, they still are affected by the dominant ideology which dictates the norms that they were forced to assimilate. [1] Cite article pg 2 [2] Book pg 15 [3] Book pg 20 [4] Pg 22 [5] Pg 22

UC Wk 1 Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage Discussion Questions

UC Wk 1 Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage Discussion Questions.

I’m working on a management question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Read and reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Then post what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding in each assigned textbook chapter.Your initial post should be based upon the assigned reading for the week, so the textbook should be a source listed in your reference section and cited within the body of the text. Other sources are not required but feel free to use them if they aid in your discussion.Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:Think of a successful project and an unsuccessful project with which you are familiar. What distinguishes the two, both in terms of the process used to develop them and their outcomes?Compare and contrast the organizational cultures at Amazon and Google. Imagine if you were in charge of a project team at both companies. How might your approach to managing a project, developing your team, and coordinating with different functional departments differ at the two firms?[Your post must be substantive and demonstrate insight gained from the course material. Postings must be in the student’s own words – do not provide quotes!][Your initial post should be at least 450+ words and in APA format (including Times New Roman with font size 12 and double spaced). Post the actual body of your paper in the discussion thread then attach a Word version of the paper for APA review]
UC Wk 1 Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage Discussion Questions

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