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Human Behavior And The Social Environment Philosophy Essay

Skinner is a radical behaviorist and determinist who proposed that human behavior is controlled by objective observable factors such as environmental conditions and genetic factors. He suggested that human behavior can be classified into two types: respondents and operants. Respondents are behaviors that caused by environmental stimulus while operants are behaviors that act on the environment. He asserted that both respondents and operants are totally controlled by the environment. The main difference of these two kinds of behaviors is the nature of the control. Respondent is elicited by an environmental stimulus while operant occurs before the environmental stimulus. The environmental consequences which due to operants will control the behaviors that follows. There are three major ways that the environmental consequences can control behaviors: reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Inner State Skinner defined inner state such as feelings and emotions as a predisposition to act which means affecting the probability of occurrence in certain behaviors. He claimed that inner state is the effects of genetic make-up and personal experiences rather than the cause of behaviors. Thinking and Decision Making Skinner perceived thinking as a kind of behavior which is also affected by our own past experiences and through other’s instructions. A kind of thinking that Skinner mentioned is “decision making” which is closely related to making choices. Skinner asserted that free choices do not exist. Our past experiences, behaviors and behavioral consequences control the decisions or choices that we make. Freedom According to Skinner (1971), “Freedom is a matter of contingencies of reinforcement, not of the feelings the contingencies generate” (p. 38). He defined freedom as a behavioral process but nothing related to the state of mind. He believes that freedom can be partly experienced when we could avoid or escape from aversive elements of the environment. However, we still can’t free ourselves from the environment. Self- Control Although Skinner emphasized that behaviors are entirely controlled, our determined behaviors can modify the physical and social environments which exert different effects on our behavior, thus controlling ourselves indirectly. He believed that the behavior which causes aversive consequences can be controlled by negative reinforcement such as avoiding or escaping from the situation in order to reduce the probability of being punished. The Perspective from Rogers Rogers took the “humanistic phenomenology” approach (Nye, p. 98) to understand human development. Self-Actualization Rogers believed that self-actualization, which includes personal growth and realization of basic potentialities, exists in human. He suggested that we should not set any absolute limit to the level of actualization as our full potential is always an unknown based on our present knowledge. Inner Human Experiencing To study human behavior, Roger emphasized the importance of inner human experiencing. This refers to evaluating ourselves subjectively such as our thoughts and feelings and trying to understand others empathetically. The “Self Theory” The subjective awareness of ourselves and the surrounding environment are the most important determinants of behaviors. The objective reality of the environment is not an important factor that determines behaviors. This means that the realistic self-concept develops a perception of the external reality and the circumstance in which we find ourselves, thus affecting behaviors. Unconditional Positive Regard Rogers suggested that positive regards are innate needs of humans, which include love, acceptance and respect. These needs are usually fulfilled by others who are in intimate relationships with us. Unconditional positive regards mean these needs can be fulfilled simply because we, as humans, are worthy. When these needs are not given unconditionally, especially in childhood, then there is a higher possibility for unfavorable characteristics to be developed. On the contrary, conditioned positive regards refer to regards that are only given when we meet others’ expectations. The key differences in viewing human development between Skinner and Rogers Views on Human Nature In Roger’s approach, he assumed that we naturally have an actualizing tendency and are “growth-motivated persons” (Nye, p. 135). On the other hand, Skinner viewed humans as “environmentally controlled persons” (Nye, p. 135) who are being predisposed and manipulated since birth to become products of the environment. Views on Personality Development Regarding personality development, Skinner stressed that it depends primarily on the outcomes that our behaviors have. We all have different personalities which make us as unique persons because there are differences in our reinforcement histories. The stronger the history of positive reinforcement is, the more likely for us to well-develop a favorable personality. Differently, Roger believed that humans have the potential to maintain an ever-upward spiraling in development if we are exposed to unconditional positive regards. Views on Human Behavior Although Rogers admitted that there is an influence of the environment on human behaviors, he stressed that the subjective, inner feelings and experiences play the most significant role in determining behaviors. In contrast, Skinner insisted that our behaviors are merely controlled by genetic and environmental factors but not any of our inner states. He believed that we are controlled by the environment in three major ways: reinforcement, extinction and punishment. Views on Freedom When it comes to freedom, Rogers perceived it as something inner, subjective and existential. As long as the openness and responsiveness to the totality of our experiencing are developed within us, we could experience a sense of freedom and choose the way we behave. On the other hand, Skinner argued that freedom is nothing related to the state of mind. Humans are not free to decide our own fates but are determined by the environment. My commentary on Rogers and Skinner Perspectives I prefer Rogers over Skinner perspective on human development. I think that Skinner over-emphasized on behavior control which is dehumanizing and might indirectly mislead the society to treat persons as objects or machines which to be manipulated. I tried to imagine how my life would have become if Rogers perspective didn’t ever existed and my personal beliefs were all based on Skinners approach. All of my behaviors and experiences were predetermined and being controlled which I did not have any choices at all. I couldn’t experience the sense of satisfaction from what I endeavored to achieve since i would believe that favorable environment was the only reason which contributed to my success. It would be discouraging and my life would have less meaning. On the other hand, Rogers perspective makes me feel optimistic towards life by believing that the potential for growth and actualization reside within myself. Despite things are falling apart in times of adversity, I still live with hope and strongly believe that I am equipped with the power to overcome difficulties and live a better life in the future. Rogers perspective enhanced my self-understanding especially through the concept of unconditional positive regards. According to my own personal experiences, I strongly agree with Rogers that unconditional positive regards are prominent to the development of a healthy, fully functioning person. In my childhood, I had learnt that love and acceptance could only be gained with the condition that I was well-behaved, independent and expressed with favorable feelings and emotions. As a result, I have been experiencing psychological discomforts over the years with the feeling of being “broken”. I mean there is a large discrepancy between my actual and ideal self which Rogers called it as “incongruence” (Nye, 2000, p. 110). Moreover, I appreciated Rogers who had taken an inclusive approach to study human development which involves objective, subjective and empathic perspectives. He paid great attention to the inner state of human while at the same time didn’t deny that the environment affects how we behave. All, in all, I think both perspectives have its interest to offer and undoubtedly allowed me to enhance self-understanding, the behaviors of others as well as the effects of the physical and social environment. Although the understanding of theories on human development is important, I believe that we should keep in mind not to overlook each individual’s unique personality and experiences nor over-generalize individuals by imposing these theories on them.
consciousness/the self/personal identity.

Choose any two of the philosophers that we read in Unit 2. Recap each philosopher’s main view about consciousness/the self/personal identity. Explain at least one difference between the two philosophers’ views and state which view you prefer. Then, offer an argument (i.e., evidence) against the view that you reject.If you need to re-familiarize yourself with the central issues on personal identity, I suggest that you review the following (20-minute) podcast: The Self and Personal Identity. Additional information regarding personal identity can also be found here:…

Start with making a careful summary of two of the philosophers we read in Unit 2. What were their main concepts and definitions, what were their distinctions? How did they imagine that the self was different from the brain or different from the mind? Restate their theory and include “direct quotes”, specific references from their work.
Explain carefully how these views compare and contrast. Be sure to identify and explain at least one difference between the philosophers’ views. How do they define a key concept or make a major distinction differently?
State which view you prefer.
Offer an argument against the view that you reject.Formatting:
The body of the essay must be (1250-1500 words) in length
1 inch margins
12 point, Times New Roman font
Title Page
Words Cited Page – cite all quotations/paraphrases used by naming the author of the work, the tile and the chapter/section that you are citing from.
Properly use MLA in-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quoting (Purdue OWL MLA Formatting and Style Guide – Here is an example essay with MLA citations.
Writing Tips: Tips for proper citations for the readings and Podcast:
For all your sources, you should do “direct quotes” with parentheses citations in the paper, and full Works Cited information on the last page.
For Podcasts: There might not a publication date, but there can be information about when you accessed the podcast/viewed it/listened to it. (The example citations below from the Purdue OWL site could be dates when these podcasts were heard and viewed by the student, for example.)
I would follow the format at the Purdue OWL site below for the Works Cited, and then in the text of the paper, use a parenthesis with the time, as in “the podcast says x.” (Bell and Philips, 2:19) for two minutes and nineteen seconds. It’s always a good idea to listen to the podcast, pause it, and take notes with times!
If you aren’t sure how to do citations for our online readings, that is alright, check this Purdue OWL site for that information as well, there are all different kinds of sources listed on the left side menu: . Scroll all the way down to the bottom of the page and locate the following information: For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.Audio Podcast: Bell, T., & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from Video Podcast: Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from Additional tips: John C. Bean, in his book Engaging Ideas (2011) cites three ways that students tend to avoid a thesis or write in spite of the ones they have developed. TAKE CARE NOT TO COMMIT ANY OF THE FOLLOWING MISTAKES IN YOUR WRITING OF THIS PAPER
“And Then” Writing – “And Then” writing is essentially chronological, narrating a person’s life or series of events. Students often do this when they are asked to analyze text(s). They, instead, just tell you what happened, event by event. Or, you might see this in a literature review in which a student just summarizes the articles in the order in which they are read.
“All About” Writing – “All About” writing strives to say EVERYTHING about a topic or issue. The paper may be somewhat organized because the student has addressed things topically but s/he has also failed to produce a thesis or position that guides the paper. The topics are, then, not reasons for the thesis. The structure is inappropriate and ineffective in a thesis-governed paper.
“Data Dump” Writing – “Data Dumps” on the other hand have no apparent structure. There is little transition or cohesion between the things that are stated and discussed. The student has no guiding thesis, no guiding idea, and so s/he goes to Google and grabs it all. These are often the most likely to be plagiarized because the student is just cutting and pasting from websites (and occasionally books or journals). It is incomprehensible and unoriginal.
consciousness/the self/personal identity

FNU Case Management & Role Improving Quality & Sensitive Measurements Questions.

assignment 1 Define case management and care management and compare the differences.Mention and discuss the case management concepts into the clinical practice of community health nursing.Give the definition of family, mention, and discuss the different types of families, mention, and discuss the model of care for families.Describe strategies for moving from intervention at the family level to intervention at the aggregate levelAPA format word document, A minimum of 2 evidence-based references, min 800 wordsassignment 2 1. Discuss the role of the nurse in quality improvement.2. Describe nursing-sensitive measurements and why they are important in Nursing care delivery. Each question must have at least 3 paragraphs and you must use at 3 least references (APA) included in your post.
FNU Case Management & Role Improving Quality & Sensitive Measurements Questions

3 pages story review. to this web site and choose any story that written by Guy de Maupassant (but not “The Necklace”) then do as the following:Required components:Read any story written by Guy de Maupassant (but not “The Necklace”)Write 750 words (3 pages), double-spacedInclude a “Works Cited” page using correct MLA formatting for the textbook and the work you found the other story in.Information to include:Write a one-paragraph summary of the plotDecide if the story focuses on plot, character, setting, or irony.Explain why you think so.Pick one significant quotation from the story and explain what you think it means fully. Cite the quotation with the page number.Finally, write about three different things that are similar about the story you read and “The Necklace” story.
3 pages story review

beginning work in this discussion thread, read pages 51 through 80 of Understanding Corporate Annual Reports, Voluntary disclosures in corporate annual reports – More than meets the eye, and Integrated Performance Report. This is the time to share in discussion format your critical learnings and any details from your AOR. These thoughts should be qualitative, quantitative, generic, and specific. The learnings should be related to your AOR and what you can put to work in the short- and long-term in the real world. Please use 150 words or more.

Prior to beginning work in this discussion thread, read pages 51 through 80 of Understanding Corporate Annual Reports, Voluntary disclosures in corporate annual reports – More than meets the eye, and Integrated Performance Report. This is the time to share in discussion format your critical learnings and any details from your AOR. These thoughts should be qualitative, quantitative, generic, and specific. The learnings should be related to your AOR and what you can put to work in the short- and long-term in the real world. Please use 150 words or more.

Monroe College Project management Questions

programming assignment help Monroe College Project management Questions.

Question 1 Please respond to the following discussion with a well thought out response with relating to at least one source (cite using APA). 

Think about the construction project, what are some examples of internal and external stakeholders.
Find an example stakeholder analysis online, share the link and offer an overview of how it compares to the example given as link 
How must a project manager consider the people side of change management?

Question 2 Choose a journal article related to change management within projects and write a 2-3 page review of the article.  Please choose a peer reviewed journal, and an article that has been published in the past five (5) years with article title, author’s name and year of publication. It should contain the following headings:

    Summary of the article
    Relevant points made by the author
    Critique of the article
    Application of the concepts in the article

Question 3 Do Exercise 5B “Should Coca-Cola, Build, Borrow, or Buy in 2020 -2021?” Steps 1, 2, and 3.  (When accessing Coca-Cola’s website, you’ll have to click on “Press Center,”.)  Then Do Exercise 6A “Perform a SWOT Analysis for Coca-Cola” as an individual. 
Monroe College Project management Questions

MDC Caring Attributes Associated with Working as A Covid 19 Tester Discussion

MDC Caring Attributes Associated with Working as A Covid 19 Tester Discussion.

PLEASE KEEP IN MIND THAT I AM A NURSE AND CURRENT JOB IS BEING A COVID TESTER. I CURRENTLY CONDUCT HUNDREDS AND HUNDREDS OF COVID 19 TESTING AT A JOB SITE. I DO THE SWABBING FOR THE PATIENT THAT IS LATER TAKEN TO THE LABORATORY TO DETERMINE IF THE PATIENT IS POSITIVE WITH COVID OR NEGATIVE. THERE ARE NO DOCTORS IN SITE, ONLY MY COLLEAGUES WHICH ARE NURSES AS WELL. WE CONDUCT COVID 19 TESTING. PATIENT ARE ABLE TO DRIVE THROUGH THE TESTING SITE AND HAVE THE TESTED CONDUCTED IN THEIR CAR. THE PATIENTS RECEIVE THE RESULTS VIA EMAIL, WITH SAME DAY RESULTS.Describe caring attributes of the culture where you currently practice.Which attributes stand out as having significant influence on patients, nurses, and other healthcare professionals?How do you see effective communication relating to patient outcomes in this setting?What is the evidence for this?RESOURCES:APA FORMATTEXTBOOK: American Nurses Association. (2015). Nursing: scope and standards of practice (3rd ed.).pp. 53-66, p. 71, and p. 771 OUTSIDE SCHOLARLY SOURCE
MDC Caring Attributes Associated with Working as A Covid 19 Tester Discussion

Rivier College Wk 13 Performance Management and Decision Making Discussion

Rivier College Wk 13 Performance Management and Decision Making Discussion.

After completing the reading this week, we reflect on a few key concepts this week:Discuss what performance management is and how it influences effective teams.Review table 11.1, define leadership behaviors (in your own words) and note which behaviors are beneficial at specific organizational activities (example: project planning, leading coworkers, etc…). Please note at least five organizational activities and be specific when responding.Note at least two organizational capabilities and compare and contrast each.Please be sure to answer all the questions above in the initial post.Please ensure the initial post and two response posts are substantive. Substantive posts will do at least TWO of the following:Ask an interesting, thoughtful question pertaining to the topicExpand on the topic, by adding additional thoughtful informationAnswer a question posted by another student in detailShare an applicable personal experienceProvide an outside sourceMake an argumentAt least one scholarly (peer-reviewed) resource should be used in the initial discussion thread. Please ensure to use information from your readings and other sources , Use APA references and in-text citations.
Rivier College Wk 13 Performance Management and Decision Making Discussion

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