Get help from the best in academic writing. Using the following scenario, apply the 4 common errors in everyday reasoning: A man who has smoked cigarettes Using the following scenario, apply the 4 common errors in everyday reasoning: A man who has smoked cigarettes for 10 years attempts to quit smoking. In his first attempt, he tried using Nicorette gum, but was not able to quit successfully. He threw his hands up and said “This is useless, nothing works.” Can you spot this man’s errors in reasoning? Explain how he has used all 4 errors. What research topics are you interested in and why? For each topic that you identify, create a social science question and explain the goal of that research. (See the examples in the text p 7 – 10). Responses should be 5 – 7 sentences in length; no need to post reply responses to your classmates. This is worth 5 points and will be graded on demonstration of knowledge and writing conventions.
SCSU The 5G Technology Innovation & Transformation SWOT & Article Analysis Discussion.

I’m working on a marketing writing question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Summarizing and analyzing new technologies can help a business achieve competitive advantages. To simulate this common business task, locate an article (online or offline) written in the past twelve months describing a new technology or a new application for an existing technology that you believe has a strong impact in today’s business world. The article should be from a credible source (defined as a journal or website regarded as an authority in its field).Once you have an appropriate article, write two (2) concise and clear paragraphs using active sentences. The first paragraph summarizes the article in your words. The second paragraph analyzes the impact the technology or its usage has on businesses and the competitive advantages it offers. Analyze the technology using SWOT analysis, Porter’s Five Forces or Porter’s Three Generic Strategies. Think critically about the technology and do not limit yourself to the views provided in the article.Please find two articles that really good credible sources. This is a marketing paper
SCSU The 5G Technology Innovation & Transformation SWOT & Article Analysis Discussion

This activity allows you to practice writing an interview summary. Good summaries provide readers with an overview of the interview content rather than just transcribing the answers like the example below. Summaries also highlight general topics that were discussed in the interview and mention if the discussion revealed anything surprising. Here are some general guidelines for summarizing an interview. Write an introduction. Provide the crucial details about the interview. State the subject’s name and position. Explain why you interviewed the subject, and how the information informs your research objective. Give a brief overview. Provide an overview of the interview. Include general topics that you discussed with the interview subject and address the major themes of the subject’s answers. Do not go into great detail; instead offer summary statements that give the reader an idea of the content. Discuss the major findings. Note any discoveries you made during the interview. Include only the facts or anecdotes that are relevant to the purpose of the interview and (or) your research objectives. If you uncovered anything that was surprising, discuss it in this section. Conclude the interview summary. Summarize (3–5 sentences) the interview and your major findings. Restate your plans for using the information you gathered during the interview.
Cuyamaca Photoreactivation Helps In Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair Questions.

read experiment 6 in microbiology : UV Damage and photo reactivation and answer the following questions I provided pictures of the results in order to do the graph and figure out the data 1.Rolling circle replication produces long concatemers of double stranded P22 RNA2.What fraction of the population was killed per second with photoreactivation? Did photoreactivation affect the UV killing? Was your survival curve linear? Would you expect it to be linear?3.Can you determine from your graph, how long it would take to reduce the population of Serratia marcescens to zero? If not, how could you determine a practical time for sterilization of the surface of a plate under the conditions we used?4.What is the major cause of DNA damage by UV light? Describe three mechanisms for repair of DNA damage by UV light.5.How could you vary the UV dose without changing the time of irradiation?6.What properties would you expect for a mutant deficient in photoreactivation compared to a mutant deficient in all of the UV repair systems? [Hint: What is unique about photoreactivation?]7.Serratia marcescens makes “brick” red colored colonies when incubated at room temperature, but sometimes rare colonies appear white colored. This occurs more often after UV irradiation. What is the most likely explanation for this result?
Cuyamaca Photoreactivation Helps In Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair Questions

French Cycling Culture Essay

French Cycling Culture Essay. History of Tour de France According to Thompson the history of this great race takes us back to the period in the late nineteenth century. During this period there was dramatic change within the country following the collapse of the second empire (7). A new third republic was proclaimed and with it major changes began to emerge within society in France. For the working class who were either unable or unwilling to flee German troops the new regime represented an opportunity for social democracy under the commune (Thomson 7). For conservative citizens of the country, the military debacle, foreign invasion and political vacuum due to Napoleons III’s abdication faith in the republic had been rattled. The French president would later send troops to Paris ending the experiment on self government (Thompson 7). Following this there was rapid progress in changes to legislation within the country resulting in promotion of patriotism and unity between all regions, social classes and political convictions (Thompson 8). In addition to this the country busied itself with expanding its railroad network deep into the French countryside. During this period the nation’s urban architecture also changed significantly and the great steel and glass architecture of the period spawned monumental structures like the Eiffel Tower (Thomson 8). It was also during this period that inventors and entrepreneurs began to promote new locomotive technologies such as the bicycle, automobile and airplane. These new technologies challenged the traditional conceptions of time and space. The era was characterized by International exhibitions where the country would present to the world a self confident image of accomplishment, flair and technological know-how (Thompson 8). The middle class within the country was expanding at a very rapid rate and saw the introduction of mail order shopping supported by the growing railroad network (Thompson 9). Just as it may be assumed that mass consumption of goods was a part of this era, so too was the mass consumption of leisure. Changes in legislation saw a reduction in the number of working hours coupled with an increase in wages (Thompson 9). This prompted enterprising business people to venture into modern forms of entertainment such as wax figures, music halls and the first movie theaters. However, it is noted that no form of entertainment and leisure appealed to people more than sport (Thompson 9). The French participated in several sports including gymnastics, soccer, tennis, rugby and track and field. However, no sport captured their imagination, time, energy or discretionary as much as cycling (Thompson 9). This prompted the political optimists and individuals profiting from the changes to equate the change with progress and the promise of a greater future for the nation (Thompson 9). Some even saw sort as a very likely candidate for national regeneration following the effects of the war with Germany and the political and social divisions in the country. During the period the bicycle came to symbolize both the promise of modernity and the inherent dangers associated with it. Following this several inventors busied themselves with the development and improvement of bicycles. During this period numerous changes were made to the machines including the introduction of spokes connecting the hub to the rim (Thompson 10). In addition to this was the innovation of the free wheel made possible through the use of ball bearings. In this era also, changes were made that resulted in the production of a less precarious bicycle than the Penny Farthing (Thompson 10). Primitive wooden wheels were also gradually replaced by solid rubber wheels and eventually hollow rubber tires (Thompson 10). It is based on these refinements that the initial dangerous machines were refined into comfortable and reliable machines (Thompson 10). Following these developments and road races on bicycles soon became a popular event in France. In light of this growing popularity the cycling and sports enthusiasts created new opportunity for clothing designers, newspapers and bicycle shops (Thompson 17). According to Saviola, this prompted the French cyclist and journalist Henri Desgrange to begin initial efforts to initiate the race in 1903 (Saviola 7). Desgrange was appointed to head the newspaper in 1900 when he was only thirty five years old. Though a trained solicitor by profession he was also an avid cyclist who had obtained an amateur cyclists license (Thompson 19). Following this achievement he trained persistently and rose among the ranks within the cycling industry to become a manger of one of the popular velodromes in Paris. Throughout this period he would be a contributor of articles to newspapers and magazines. Prior to this a former assistant of a competing newspaper, L’Auto-Velo, had joined Desgrange’s staff and had presented a novel idea to him over a lunch meeting. The assistant had noted that the main reason for the popularity of the L’Auto-Velo news paper was due to the immensely popular automobile races they organized (Thompson 17). Using this information it became apparent to Desgrange that the best way to beat his competitor was by organizing an even larger and more prestigious event. The main aim of this event was to draw more readers from the L’Auto-Velo to Le Velo (Thompson 17). The two then began to consider a Tour de France that would be organized to be covered in stages with rest days in between. To earn his new bosses trust the assistant began to develop a six day track race where racers covered hundreds of kilometers daily for almost a week. He had noted that large provinces had been asking to be included in the itinerary for events including the best racers and were willing to support the Tour de France (Thompson 18). After managing to convince the newspaper treasurer to support the idea, Desgrange was eventually won over and the paper began earnest plans to launch the race the following summer. At the same time the owner of the L’Auto-Velo had take the Le Velo newspaper to court of allegations of infringement. In his argument, he stated that the second term in the name of the newspaper constituted infringement. He won the court case and in 1903 the Le Velo newspaper was renamed L’Auto (Thompson 18). This would not impede the success of the Tour de France and the new newspaper would soon become dominant in the French sports press. The route for the Tour is best illustrated in a map of France drawn by Francesca Paoletti as it illustrates the highlights the route takes through the French countryside (See Appendix A). Reasons for the Rivalry between Le Velo and L’Auto-Velo The main reasons for L’Auto-Velo’s desire to bring down Le Velo can be attributed to economic and political considerations. It has been noted that L’Auto-Velo was financed by a powerful automobile manufacturer (Thompson 18). By the turn of the century the papers had become fierce rivals due to the major following the Le Velo had garnered and its competitive advertising rates. In addition to this, it has been noted that the commercials takes were very high with the main financer of L’Auto-Velo accounting for 15% of the French automobile market (Thompson 18). In addition to that the Le Velo was a major political irritant. This can be seen in the Dreyfus affair where the papers both took the same side in their analysis of the matter. It should be noted that this did not sit well with some of the financiers of the L’Auto-Velo paper who strongly felt the paper was to be none aligned in political matters (Thompson 18). Following a humiliating defeat in politics Giffard’s rivals would capitalize on the situation and launch the L’Auto-Velo newspaper. Famous Cyclists In discussing some of the famous cyclists that have participated in the Tour de France the discussion will also go into some of the details of how the race is ran. For example it has been reported that it is traditional for the first week of the Tour de France to cover several consecutive days of flat stages (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). This stage of the race is best suited for sprinters. These are cyclists who have the ability to quickly accelerate their bicycles to speeds of above 40 Mph (65 Kph). These sprinters are usually the most muscular looking and opportunistic cyclists involved in the race. During these flats stages riders compete strategically based on the flow of the day. The team will move slow if the group is unmotivated and fast if spirited (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). It has been noted that as the race enters the final miles it has been observed that each team attempts to surround their sprinter. It has often been argued that Mario Cipollini of Italy is the greatest sprinter in cycling history. Due to his flamboyance, charisma and outspoken personality he managed to rule the sprints in the Tour de France and the Tour of Italy for over a decade (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). He won the world championship road race in 2002 but has built a reputation from his furious sprint finishes. He has reportedly won 12 stages of the Tour de France and 42 stages of the Tour of Italy (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). Another category of riders that are within the pack are the rouleurs. This category is often largely out of the limelight but constitute the greater percentage of the cyclists in the Tour de France (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). This category includes riders with the ability to maintain a steady and strong pace for several hours. It has been reported that on windy days, rainy days ad any other day this category have the most thankless duty of setting the pace for the race (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). This category often forms the biggest percentage of a team’s riders. Their duty includes going to the head of the pack and acting as wind breaks. As the cyclists who control the mood of the race their contribution is invaluable yet their individual time for glory is rare (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). This group expends the most energy on the team since they do not have the benefit of drafting. Frankie Andreu of Michigan is among the most popular rouleurs. He has completed the Tour de France nine times and holds the current American record for finishes (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). He retired in 2000 following 12 years of professional cycling packed with hard work. He managed to accomplish a second place finish in a Tour de France stage. He managed eighth position in the 1988 Seoul Olympic road race and fourth position in the 1996 Olympic rod race in Atlanta (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). Another category of riders that will be considered is that of the time trial specialists. In the time trials the cyclists compete rider against rider and cyclists advance based on their own skills. These races are often referred to as the Race of Truth (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). In these races, the best racers master an ability to pedal at a sustained high rate of speed without exceeding their individual cardio vascular limits. For this reason time trialists and the bikes they ride represent the epitome of cycling efficiency (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). In these races everything is state of the art. The equipment used is aero dynamic and designed for maximum performance. For this reason teams spend countless hours and money on development and refinement of equipment (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). In this category of riders one great name is that of Greg LeMond. He became the first American to win the Tour de France in 1986. He later returned to the race in 1989 and recorded a monumental victory. In this race he used two novel approaches to win the race in the closest finish in the history of the Tour (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). His first approach was to decline to receive his time recordings and opted to ride the race based on his feelings. He also used triathlete handle bars that allowed him an aerodynamic tuck. These strategies allowed him to narrow his time deficiency and win the Tour by eight seconds (Liggett, Raia and Lewis). A discussion on the Tour de France would not be compete without mentioning one of the most popular racers to ever be associated with the Tour, Lance Armstrong. As a professional cyclist he first managed to win the Tour in 1999 amid stiff competition. During this race the first eight stages had been characterized by a back and forth struggle among the contenders. However, in the ninth stage, an exceptionally difficult stage characterized by an especially difficult climb, Lance Armstrong managed to come out victorious (Bradley 25). This sudden ascension to the front of the pack would offer the much needed confidence that allowed him to triumph despite the fact that there were still eight stages of the race. He built a comfortable lead and won the race at least seven minutes ahead of the closest contender (Bradley 26). The following year he would again return to the field in exceptional form to reclaim the Tour de France title in 2000 (Bradley 32). In the year 2001 he was contracted with cancer and began to receive treatment for the ailment. This did not deter him from participating in the Tour in 2001. Victory in this race would not come easy for the two time champion who had fallen to 23rd position by the 10th stage of a 20 stage race (Doeden 1). He would have to use curious techniques to bluff the competition to gain an advantage. Following this bluff he managed to fall into second position and eventually won the race to manage three consecutive Tour de France titles (Doeden 5). By the end of an illustrious career he would take the title a record six times (Bannon and Moyer 69). Controversies The Tour de France has become so popular in France that the month of July would not be the same without this major event taking place. However, in recent times there has been concern over the changes observed with regard to the popularity of the event. Part of the reason for this is due to what appears to be a trend towards doping among the professional participants of the race (Thompson xvi). The Tour successfully managed to survive the drug related death of English racer Tom Simpson which occurred in 1967. The crisis with regard to doping again reared its head in 1978 and 1998 (Thompson xvi). These events have contributed in part to the reduction in popularity of the Tour and there is a need to consider whether they can have a lasting impact on the race. It has been reported that for a long period the physical endurance that the race requires has allowed participating athletes to become established a role models within society. In addition to this it has been noted that due to the financial incentive and competitive essence of the Tour, several racers have resorted to drugs to ease the suffering and improve their cycling prowess (Thompson xvii). This trend has continued to damage the image of the sort and the race with incidents continually being reported (Thompson xx). Information related to doping has continued to damage the public perception in relation to the Tour. An example of this is seen in articles that were published that allegedly proved the fact that Lance Armstrong used banned drugs to win the 1999 Tour de France (Pampel 209). The article goes further to articulate why the substance managed to pass the test by the World Doping Agency. The presence and continual emergence of such incidents and information has seriously damaged the public perception in relation to the Tour. Additional information It goes without saying that the Tour de France is among the most popular sporting events in France. However, the French are also reported to be passionate lovers of the outdoors aside from their love of competitive cycling. This is seen in the fact that the French Cycling Federation (FFC) has only about 100,000 members countrywide. This is in sharp contrast to the fact that almost 30% (approx. 18 million) of the French population ride a bike occasionally (Andreff and Szymanski 398). This goes to support reports that indicate bicycles are considered special in most European industrialized countries. The above fact comes into play because bikes can be used as an instrument for either transportation or sport. This makes the bicycle perennial and not easily substituted. It has been reported that due to this culture French bicycle producers sell between 2 and 3 million machines annually (Andreff and Szymanski 398). Many of the riders cycle for recreation purposes. In addition to recreational cycling activities it is reported that touring the French countryside on bicycles is a very popular affair. There are plenty of accommodation facilities in the country that cater for cycling tourists. These include chateaus, village hostelry, to mention a few. These facilities come in a wide variety and are aimed to facilitate suitable accommodation for travelers on various budgets (Gelber 409). In addition to hotel rooms the country has a large number of camping and caravan parks which are frequented by cycling tourists (Gelber 409). In the rural areas the tourists are also likely to find Gites or Chambres d’Hotes, which refer to wide range of accommodation in the rural areas (Gelber 410). There are also hostels, hotels and refuges all aimed at ensuring travelers on the trail have access to safe and suitable accommodation. Works Cited Andreff, Wladimir, and Stefan Szymanski. Handbook on the economics of sport. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2006. Print. Bannon, Joseph J., and Susan M. Moyer. Lance Armstrong: Six-Time Tour de France Champion. Austin: Austin American-Statesman, 2004. Print. Bradley, Michael. Lance Armstrong. White Plains, NY: Benchmark Books, 2005. Print. Doeden, Matt. Lance Armstrong. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 2006. Print. Gelber, Ethan. Cycling France. Victoria: Lonely Planet, 2009. Print. Liggett, Phil, James Raia, and Sammarye Lewis. Tour de France for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing Inc., 2005. Print. McGann, Bill, and Carol McGann. The story of the tour de France: How a newspaper promotion became the greatest sporting event in the world, Volume I: 1903-1964. Indianapolis: Dog Ear Publishing, 2006. Print. Pampel, Fred C. Drugs and Sports. New York: Facts on File Inc., 2007. Print. Thompson, Christopher S. The Tour de France: a Cultural History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008. Print. Saviola, Joseph A. The Tour de France: solving addition problems involving regrouping. Printed in the USA: Rosen Classroom, 2004. Print. Appendix: Map of France (McGann and McGann viii) French Cycling Culture Essay

Advantage Energy Technology Data Center Migration Case Study

essay writing service free Advantage Energy Technology Data Center Migration Case Study.

Read the Case ” Advantage Energy Technology Data Center Migration – Part A” at the end of the chapter 6 and response to the following questions:Brian Smith, network administrator at Advanced Energy Technology (AET), has been given the responsibility of implementing the migration of a large data center to a new office location. Careful planning is needed because AET operates in the highly competitive petroleum industry. AET is one of five national software companies that provide an accounting and business management package for oil jobbers and gasoline distributors. A few years ago, AET jumped into the “application service provider” world. Their large data center provides clients with remote access to AET’s complete suite of application software systems. Traditionally, one of AET’s primary competitive advantages has been the company’s trademark IT reliability. Due to the complexity of this project, Brian will have to use a parallel method of implementation. Although this will increase project costs, a parallel approach is essential if reliability is not to be compromised.Currently, AET’s data center is located on the second floor of a renovated old bank building in downtown Corvallis, Oregon. The company is moving to a new, one-level building located in the recently developed industrial complex at the Corvallis International Airport. On February 1, Brian is formally assigned the task by the Vice President of Operations, Dan Whitmore, with the following guidelines:· From start to finish, it is anticipated the entire project will take three to four months to complete.· It is essential that AET’s 235 clients suffer no downtime.Whitmore advises Brian to come back to the Executive Committee on February 15, with a presentation on the scope of the project that includes costs, “first-cut” timeline, and proposed project team members.Brian had some preliminary discussions with some of AET’s managers and directors from each of the functional departments and then arranged for a full-day scope Page 203meeting on February 4 with a few of the managers and technical representatives from operations, systems, facilities, and applications. The scope team determined the following:· Three to four months is a feasible project timeline and first-cut cost estimate is $80,000–$90,000 (this includes the infrastructure upgrade of the new site).· Critical to the “no-downtime” requirement is the need to completely rely on AET’s remote disaster recovery “hot” site for full functionality.· Brian will serve as project manager of a team consisting of one team member each from facilities, operations/systems, operations/telecommunications, systems & applications, and customer service.Brian’s Executive Committee report was positively received and, after a few modifications and recommendations, he was formally charged with responsibility for the project. Brian recruited his team and scheduled their first team meeting (March 1) as the initial task of his project planning process.Once the initial meeting is conducted Brian can hire the contractors to renovate the new data center. During this time Brian will figure out how to design the network. Brian estimates that screening and hiring a contractor will take about one week and that the network design will take about two weeks. The new center requires a new ventilation system. The manufacturer’s requirements include an ambient temperature of 67 degrees to keep all of the data servers running at optimal speeds. The ventilation system has a lead time of three weeks. Brian will also need to order new racks to hold the servers, switches, and other network devices. The racks have a two-week delivery time.The data center supervisor requested that Brian replace all of the old power supplies and data cables. Brian will need to order these as well. Because Brian has a great relationship with the vendor, they guarantee that it will take only one week lead time for the power supplies and the data cables. Once the new ventilation system and racks arrive, Brian can begin installing them. It will take one week to install the ventilation system and three weeks to install the racks. The renovation of the new data center can begin as soon as the contractors have been hired. The contractors tell Brian that construction will take 20 days. Once the construction begins and after Brian installs the ventilation system and racks, the city inspector must approve the construction of the raised floor.The city inspector will take two days to approve the infrastructure. After the city inspection and after the new power supplies and cables have arrived, Brian can install the power supplies and run the cables. Brian estimates that it will take five days to install the power supplies and one week to run all of the data cables. Before Brian can assign an actual date for taking the network off line and switching to the hot remote site, he must get approval from each of the functional units (“Switchover Approval”). Meetings with each of the functional units will require one week. During this time he can initiate a power check to ensure that each of the racks has sufficient voltage. This will require only one day.Upon completion of the power check, he can take one week to install his test servers. The test servers will test all of the primary network functions and act as a safeguard before the network is taken off line. The batteries must be charged, ventilation installed, and test servers up and running before management can be assured that the new infrastructure is safe, which will take two days. Then they will sign off the Primary Systems check, taking one day of intense meetings. They will also set an official date for the network move.Page 204Brian is happy that everything has gone well thus far and is convinced that the move will go just as smoothly. Now that an official date is set, the network will be shut down for a day. Brian must move all of the network components to the new data center. Brian will do the move over the weekend—two days—when user traffic is at low point.Generate a priority matrix for AET’s system move.Develop a WBS for Brian’s project. Include duration (days) and predecessorsUsing a project planning tool, generate a network diagram for this project.Note: Base your plan on the following guidelines: eight-hour days, five-day weeks except for when Brian moves the network components over a weekend, no holiday breaks, March 1, 2010, is the project start date. Ordering Ventilation System, New Racks, and Power Supplies/Cables takes only one actual day of work. The remaining days are the time necessary for the vendors to fill and ship the order to Brian. So use Finish to Start lags here. Assume that five days after the start of the Renovation of the Data Center that the raised floor will be ready for inspection (a Start-to-Start lag).2 pages or slightly above required
Advantage Energy Technology Data Center Migration Case Study

Small presentation. I will send the options later.

Small presentation. I will send the options later..

Once upon a time, a man ate a bad batch of cinnamon toast for lunch. This one action began the spread of a deadly disease, with a high contagion rate – the Cinnamon Toast Virus. Slowly this virus dispersed throughout the world, requiring quick decisions to be made at the regional, country and state level. You have just found out that in the Kellogg North America Region, there was a government mandate stating that all plant employees must wear masks while at work. The mandate is set to be enforced beginning on Monday, today is Thursday. The expectation is that this mandate will last at least 6 months, but there is a strong possibility that there will be governmental recommendations to continue wearing face coverings for up to 18 additional months. Plan that you will need to have a mask supply for 2 years. The rule states that plants are not allowed to operate if workers are not wearing face coverings, knowing this risk, you must decide on an action and present it to the Board of Directors. With only 3 days to make a decision, what will you do? There are some things you know up front, First, Kellogg’s has 30 plants within North America that you need to supply for. Within each plant, there are 250 employees. Second, there are four options of masks that you will need to do a costbenefit analysis on. Third, we ask that you work to have an efficient amount of supply on hand, should this ever happen again. Lastly, shutting down a plant is costly, each plant that shuts down due to minimal masks will cost Kellogg’s $100,000 per day. While the safety of Kellogg’s employees is the top priority, the company’s commitments to sustainability is equally as important. Your mission, as Kellogg’s MRO Leader is to explore each of the following options and make sure we can provide high quality masks to our employees working during these strenuous circumstances. We want to make sure we prioritize our workers’ safety, while also making a smart investment for our company. You will be presenting to the Kellogg’s Board of Directors, so make sure your solution is viable in both the short and long-term in terms of sustainability and safety. Explain the decision you made and why it is the best course of action given the 4 options. Option
Small presentation. I will send the options later.

Information Systems development

There are many definitions of Information Systems (IS) for this paper I have chosen to use a Laudon and Laudon definition. “An Information system is a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store and distribute information to support decision making in an organisation”. Laudon and Laudon (2004) The development of such systems is done by using a series of methodologies and processes that can be used in order to develop and make use of the information system (IS) to the best of their ability. Over the years IS has progressed immensely with many different types of computer systems such as Basic data processing systems, Integrated data processing systems, Decision Support Systems and Management Information Systems. With each system the potential has grown as to what could be achieved with such systems. IS has developed from one of the oldest development tools: Flow charting in the 1920s, to later in the 1960s when software development methodology emerged. Around the 1970s business journals began to publish articles on IS whose characteristics and capabilities differed from these of previous systems. These systems effected the management of many different organisations and managers began to be familiar with their capabilities, characteristics, design philosophy, elements and structure. According to Elliott (2004) the Systems development life cycle is considered to be the oldest formalized methodology for building information systems, and can still be found today. Information technology departments that are in larger organisations tend to strongly influence the information technology growth such as the decision support tools utilizing the Web for their analysis and their use of graphical user interfaces that allow decision makers to be flexible, efficient, and to easily view and process the data and models by using familiar Web browsers. From a managerial prospective many of the failures of information systems development have been caused by traditional methods, due to the way in which the organisations have interacted with the technology and how technology worked with the organization’s business processes. Mintzberg’s (1980) classic study of top managers suggests that managers perform 10 major roles that can be classified into three major categories, Interpersonal, Informational and Decisional. Each of which involves subcategories, Interpersonal consisted of Figurehead: which involved the manager performing tasks such as ceremonial and symbolic duties as the head of the organisation. Leader: involving a proper work atmosphere of external contacts to gather information. Liaison: develops and maintains a network of external contacts to gather information. Informational involves the following; Monitor: gathering internal and external information relevant to the organisation. Disseminator that transmits factual and value based information to subordinates. Spokesperson: that communicates to the outside world on performance and polices. And the final category Decisional this involves Entrepreneur: which designs and initiates change in the organisation. Disturbance: whereby the handler deals with unexpected events and operational breakdown. The Resource Allocator: that controls and authorises the use of organisational resources. And finally the Negotiator: which participates in the negotiation of activities with other organisations and individuals. To perform these roles managers need their information to be delivered accurately, efficiently and reliability. In addition to the information they require the managers also need to utilize the computers directly to support and improve decision making. Nichols (1969) Information and the management hierarchy reading, tells of the amount or quantity of information that is provided to each decision maker is a function of the state of the arts and the individual decision maker as determined by the application of the tailoring concept. The managerial hierarchy and the degree of summary of information by where there is a top, middle and lower level of management. It is the information that exists in the internal environment and the environment in which the organisation exists is the external environment. This means the level of information is summarized more and more as the levels of management increase on the hierarchy structure, with top level management having the most summarized reports. The degree of structure is also central, Gorry and Scott-Morton’s classical framework which is based on Simon (1977) reading, the suggestion that decision making processes fall along a continuum that ranges from highly structured to highly unstructured decisions. The structure processes being the routine and repetitive problems for which standard solution methods exist. Semi structured problems are ones that fall between structured and unstructured and also that have elements of both. Unstructured processes are complex and where there is no simple solution. The steps of control; Intelligence, Design, Choice and Implementation where later added by Simon (1977). This involved searching for conditions that call for decisions, Inventing, developing and analyzing possible alternative courses of action, selecting a course of action from among those available and for the last phase to adapt the selected course of action for the decision situation. A system designer’s job is to define the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. In Mason’s reading (1969) how a designer answers the following questions will depend on how the system is created. 1. What is the best point of articulation between the information system and the decision maker? That is, where should the information system end and the decision maker begin? 2. What is the nature of the assumptions which are incorporated in the information system and which consequently influence the user’s decision making. 3. Are they consistent with the decision makers needs? It is up to the designer how he answers these questions. The designer’s choice centres on the sequence of activities which begins with the state of the business itself and ends with the actual decision. The sequence of activities are summarised by Mason (1969) as follows: A source consisting of the physical activities and objects which are relevant to the business. The observation, measurement and recording of data from the source. The drawing of inferences and predictions from the data. The evaluation of inferences with regard to the values of the organization and the choosing of a course of action. The taking of a course of action. The first point of articulation between the information system and the decision maker occurs when they are separated between the process of collecting data and that of drawing inferences. This is sometimes referred to as a databank or database approach. In addition to this point Nichols’s (1969) classification and Information, whereby he suggests that many people reduce the diversity of their environment to manageable order by resorting to the classification and to the formation of general ideas about groups of things. Simply put people use it as an aid to comprehend the information. This is called Information generation, and this requires four steps if it is to be useful beyond the moment of observation or useful to individuals and groups other than the observer is also important. The classification of data, establishment of procedures for recording data that facilitates recall and also sufficiently simplifies the operation, summarisation of data that is classified and recorded and the specification of the collection procedure of the system. The Classification reduces the complexity of the material, provides a means of identification by grouping similar things together, provides a record of experience and orders and relates classes of events. Three characteristics are: The classes must not overlap and must be mutually exclusive. The items in the classification system must be in distinct categories. The basis of the classification must be related to some specific goal. Ackoffs (1967) reading suggests that there is an abundance of irrelevant information causing the biggest problem for managers as apposed to a lack of relevant information. For a manager to do his/her job correctly they do not have to understand how an IS works just know how to use it. The manager’s need for the information that he/she requires are rarely satisfied, so the better the communication between managers means the improvement in the organisations performance. Without a framework the Management Information System (MIS) would tend to serve the strongest manager and as a result fail to do its task, and this in turn brings unnecessary expense to the organisation. It is an essential part of viewing a management information system if the organisation is to plan effectively. I found that Rappaport’s (1968) reading to some extent agrees with Ackoffs theory, that managers should be trained and know how to do their job. Managers should develop better techniques and guidelines for example using exception reporting for discovering systems costs and to develop a more reliable method for hiring systems designers. The design of a MIS according to H. Van der Heijden (2009) is the shaping of data from transaction systems into management information systems, for the purpose of managerial decision making. The data is shaped by structuring, querying, aggregation and visualization. Then it must be judged as to its suitability by the managers who will make the decisions. Gorry (1971) takes the view that a framework developed here is one for managerial activities and not for information systems. It is away of looking at decisions that are made in an organization. Information systems should exist only to support decisions and hence we are looking for a characterisation of organisational activity in terms of the type of decisions involved. Keens (1980) paper on Translating analytic techniques into useful tools agrees with Gorry on the available technology that becomes an opportunity for managers to take advantage of and help them in their own jobs and on their own terms. Different kinds of Frameworks exist from the traditional Waterfall model right through to new models such as Rapid application design. Decision Support Systems are created to help people make decisions by providing access to information and analytical tools. A DSS allows the users to pose what-if questions and by changing a number of variables will then find out what the outcomes would be. The classification of a DSS can be done in several ways as not every DSS fits into one category, there is usually a mix of two or more architectures in one. Holsapple and Whinston classified DSS into six frameworks; Text-oriented, Database-oriented, Spreadsheet-oriented, Solver-oriented, Rule-oriented and Compound DSS. The most popular is the classification of the hybrid system which includes two or more of the five basic structures. The support given by DSS can be separated into three sections Personal, Group and Organizational support. The components could be classified as Inputs: factors, numbers and characteristics to analyze. User knowledge and Expertise: inputs requiring manual analysis by the user. Outputs: transformed data from which decisions are generated. Decisions: the results generated by the DSS based on user criteria. DSS supports the manager’s decisions rather than replaces their judgement. It is a fundamental managerial activity. An example from the paper: a branding manager must determine prices, promotion and advertising budgets and sales force allocation for a product. Up to now, he has set advertising expenditures as a percent of the sales forecast. This is a convenient rule of thumb but obviously not the best approach, since advertising should surely influence sales. The manager has computer reports and forecasts available, but most of his analysis is completed informally. He has several years of experience in his job and feels he has a good sense of the particular market. He makes his decision sequentially: he determines price first, forecasts sales, and then perhaps adjusts the price and makes a new forecast. Next, he sets the advertising budget. As he lacks the time for a details analysis, he only looks at a few combinations. However this system does little to support this decision process for the manager if he is unwilling to use the DDS. Keens (1980) suggests the managers attention to this approach could be structured better and with some effort the parameters, constraints and relationships could be identified and a single solution derived, but it is up to the manager to interact with the system to achieve the optimum report. Also the manager must be involved in all design aspects of the system. As the design of the system must be fully understood, I found Huber’s (1981) explanation useful as he has outlined the following set of four conceptual models for portraying and interpreting organisations decision environments. They are the Rational Model, the Political/Competitive Model, the Garbage Can Model and the Program Model. These four models serve the process in three different ways. They provide a framework of interpreting the decision making in organisations. The DSS are generally more useful if they are custom designed for the decision maker’s environment and the model suggests the nature of information and decision aids that may be useful in specific types of organizational environments. Uma V Devi article on the Role of the Decision system for decision making process in global environment explains clearly what is required of the DSS. The most important aspects of the DSS are ease of use, its ability to allow non technical people to deal with the system directly. A problem that can occur with the DSS is not letting the person who needs the systems data the most, deal with the system directly. This information should not be restricted to specific users of the system. The resources should be distributed between all and then no data will go unused as it has done so in the past. The ideal Decision Support System in sharp contrast to previous methods of designing applications should not be a system at all in the strict sense of the term. Instead it should be a system with a high decision support generator that can be used by professionals that can design prototypes to suit the specific needs of the tasks. This adaptive tool must allow quick design changes if the original design does not closely match a person’s information gathering style or needs. To adequately support the human element, this highly adaptive support capability must be able to provide access to operational data and as well as to summarise data that already has been processed by application programs designed for other specific operational tasks. Equally important this tool must provide the professional with access to an organization’s raw data and it must also allow the access to be accomplished in one step using a single uncomplicated procedure or command, without having to re-key non summary data. Conclusion The overall views of Information System development has developed immensely over the years and its continued growth with new technologies are emerging all the time. For data to be made meaningful it must have a purpose. The purpose of the stored data should reflect the purpose and type of the information system. The improvement of organisations and the information systems in them is not a matter of making more information available, but to limit the human attention so that it can focus on the information that is most important and most relevant to the decisions that have to be made. References Ackoff, R. L. (1967). “Management Misinformation Systems.” Management Science. Gorry, G. A. and M. S. S. Morton (1971). “Framework for Management Information Systems.” Sloan Management Review. Huber, G. P. (1981). “The Nature of Organizational Decision Making and the Design of Decision Support Systems.” MIS Quarterly. Keen, P. G. W. (1980). “Decision Support Systems – Translating Analytic Techniques into Useful Tools.” Sloan Management Review. Mason, R. (1969). “Basic Concepts for Designing Management Information Systems.” AIS Research Paper No. 8. Mintzberg, H. and F. Westley (2001). “Decision making: It’s not what you think.” MIT Sloan Management Review. Nichols, G. E. 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