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How has targeting helped you to have a better understanding on your state senate universe?, assignment help

How has targeting helped you to have a better understanding on your state senate universe?, assignment help.

Breaking news! Your candidate and campaign have failed to reach the late September fundraising goal and you must reduce your overall budget by $30,000.However, based on your recent knowledge of targeting, you should now be able to reduce the size of the mail universe in your budget to focus on persuasion.InstructionsPlease rework your mail budget from Week 1 to increase the number of waves of direct mail, but reduce the size of the universe in these mail runs. Post this new budget in the discussion thread below along with brief answers to the following questions:How has targeting helped you to have a better understanding on your state senate universe?How many additional waves of mail can you now send to targeting voters?Based on this new landscape, how do you refocus your budget to deliver the maximum amount of paid media in your budget?
How has targeting helped you to have a better understanding on your state senate universe?, assignment help

MN 207 Purdue Global University Population Parameters Actual Value Discussion.

Unit 9 DiscussionundefinedSubscribeDiscussion OverviewReview the discussion requirements.Sample statistics, such as the sample mean or the sample proportion, can be used to estimate a population parameter (such as the population mean or the population proportion). For example, you can estimate the true mean weight of all full-term, newborn babies in the entire world by collecting a sample and using that sample to generate a 95% confidence interval.Because the sample is typically a relatively small portion of the entire population, errors will have to be considered. Using a sample to create a range or interval of values that estimates a population parameter is called a “confidence interval.”Post 1: Initial ResponseAfter completing your readings for this unit, think about and share your response to the following questions:Offer at least two examples of a population parameter that you cannot calculate, but that you can estimate. Some examples might be the true percentage of the number of bass in Lake Erie or the mean hours of sleep per night for all U.S. college students. In your own words, why do you think it is impossible to know the actual value of any population parameter?A sample can be used to estimate a population parameter. How does the sample size affect the estimate?To estimate a population parameter (such as the population mean or population proportion) using a confidence interval first requires one to calculate the margin of error, E. The value of the margin of error, E, can be calculated using the appropriate formula. The formula depends on whether one is estimating a mean or estimating a proportion.The Margin of Error, E, for a 95% confidence interval for means is: E=1.96sn√ where s is the sample standard deviation and n is the sample size.Invent a quantitative variable, such as age, weight, exam score, etc. Thinking about that variable, create a small set of data (30 data values) to describe that variable. Use Excel to calculate the sample mean of your data and the sample standard deviation. If you create 30 values, the sample size is 30. Then, calculate the margin of error.MM207 Discussion Rubric: 30 pointsStart a New Thread
MN 207 Purdue Global University Population Parameters Actual Value Discussion

National University Obamas Same Path Ad Rhetorical Analysis Paper.

Choose any political ad. Here are two good archives (or you may find the ad anywhere on the Internet as long as you can provide a link):
• Stanford University Political Communication Lab
The Living Room Candidate: Presidential Campaign Commercials 1952-2016
Be sure to post a direct URL link to your ad after your name on the paper.
Your task is to do a rhetorical analysis of a political advertisement. In our class, we covered two types of rhetorical analysis—Aristotelian Analysis and Metaphor Analysis. Your paper can focus on one or both of these methods. Use whichever terms help you best explain the rhetorical strategies of the political ad. In your paper’s introduction, you will likely have to put the advertisement in context and explain the rhetorical situation of the ad.
The body paragraphs should break down the ad and reassemble it to make points. Lastly, your paper should have some element of synthesis in it as well. It should incorporate ideas from the following list of class readings.
The conclusion of the paper will likely reflect on whether or not you found the ad rhetorically effective and why.
• Lakoff and Johnson. “Metaphors We Live By.”
• Osborn, Michael. “Archetypal Metaphor in Rhetoric: The Light-Dark Family.”• Geary, James. Excerpt from I is an Other, “Metaphor and Politics.”
• Fowles, Jib. “Advertising’s 15 Basic Appeals.”
• Lakoff, George. “Don’t Think of an Elephant”
National University Obamas Same Path Ad Rhetorical Analysis Paper

Deep Convolutional Neural Models for Image Quality Prediction

Deep Convolutional Neural Models for Image Quality Prediction Introduction: The vital role played by images in human life is manifested by the proverb “A picture is worth thousand words”. The pipelines from picture content generation to consumption are fraught with numerous sources of distortions. Storage and the transmission bandwidth constraints result in induced degradation because of the demand for different compression techniques that reduce storage requirement. Transmission errors and packet losses during communication are other sources that contribute to image distortions. Image processing algorithms used for adopting the changes in resolution, format and color are few more forms of image degradations. Humans can judge image quality almost as a reflex action, but it is impractical to interleave human judgment of image quality as a part of information systems design. Machine evaluation of image quality has been realized as an important area of research in the light of this. Automatic Quality assessment algorithms can be used for optimization purposes, where one maximizes quality at a given cost, for comparative analysis between different alternatives and to benchmark image processing systems and algorithms. Existing Work: Picture-quality models:Picture-quality models are generally classified according to whether a pristine reference image is available for comparison. Full-reference and reduced-reference models assume that a reference is available; otherwise, the model is no-reference, or blind. Reference models are generally deployed when a process is applied to an original image, such as compression or enhancement. No-reference models are applied when the quality of an original image is in question, as in a source inspection process, or when analyzing the image. Generally, no reference prediction is a more difficult problem. No-reference picture-quality models rely heavily on regular models of natural picture statistics [1]. Deep learning and CNNs: Deep learning made breakthrough impact on such difficult problems as speech recognition and image classification, achieving improvements in performance that are significantly superior to those obtained using conventional model-based methods. One of the principal advantages of deep-learning models is the remarkable generalization capabilities that they can acquire when they are trained on large-scale labeled data sets. deep-learning models employ multiple levels of linear and nonlinear transformations to generate highly general data representations [2]. Open-source frameworks such as TensorFlow [3] have also greatly increased the accessibility of deep-learning models, and their application to diverse image processing and analysis problems has greatly expanded. A common conception is that CNNs resemble processing by neurons in visual cortex. This idea largely arises from the observation that, in deep convolutional networks deploying many layers of adaptation on images, early layers of processing often resemble the profiles of low-level cortical neurons in visual area V1, i.e., directionally tuned Gabor filters [4], or neurons in visual area V2 implicated in assembling low-level representations of image structure [5]. At early layers of network abstraction, these perceptual attributes make them appealing tools for adaption to the picture-quality prediction problem. Datasets:The performance of deep-learning models generally depends heavily on the size of the available training data set(s). Currently available legacy, public-domain, subjective picture-quality databases include LIVE IQA [6], TID2013 [7] are relatively small. LIVE IQA contains 29 diverse natural images distorted using five different image distortion types that could occur in real-world applications. The judgments from the subjects are processed and are converted to Difference Mean Opinion Score for each distorted image. The LIVE “In the Wild” Challenge Database [8] with nearly 1,200 unique pictures, each afflicted by a unique, unknown combination of highly diverse authentic distortions and judged by more than 350,000 unique human subjects) is of moderate size. Image recognition data sets such as ImageNet [9] contain tens of millions of labeled images. Common strategies for overcoming this labeled image paucity are data augmentation techniques, which seek to multiply the effective volume of image data via rotations, cropping, and reflections. In another common strategy, the images used for training are divided into many small patches. However, the scores that subjects would apply to a local image patch will generally differ greatly from those applied to the entire image. While generating a large amount of picture content is simple, ensuring adequate distortion diversity and realism is much harder. CNN-based no-reference Image quaity models: Several CNN-based picture-quality prediction models have attempted to use patch-based labeling to increase the set of informative (ground-truth) training samples. Generally, two types of training approaches have been used: patchwise and imagewise, as depicted in Figure 1. In the former, each image patch is independently regressed onto its target. In the latter, the patch features or predicted scores are aggregated or pooled, then regressed onto a single ground-truth subjective score. The first application of a spatial CNN model to the picture quality prediction problem was reported in [11], wherein a high-dimensional input image was directly fed into a shallow CNN model without finding handcrafted features. To obtain more data, each input image was subdivided into small patches as a method of data augmentation, each being assigned the same subjective-quality score during training. Patchwise training was used, and, during application, the predicted patch scores were averaged. Li et al. utilized a deep CNN model that was pretrained on the ImageNet data set [12]. A network-in-network (NiN) structure was used to enhance the abstraction ability of the model. The final layer of the pretrained model was replaced by regression layers, which mapped the learned features onto subjective scores. Image patches were regressed onto identical subjective-quality scores during training. Figure 1. Patchwise and imagewise strategies used to train patch-based picture-quality prediction models [10]. Bosse et al. deployed a deeper, 12-layer CNN model fed only by raw RGB image patches to learn a no-reference picture- quality model [13]. They proposed two training strategies: patchwise training and weighted average patch aggregation, whereby the relative importance of each patch was weighted by training on a subnetwork. The overall loss function was optimized in an end-to-end manner. The authors reported state-of-the-art prediction accuracies on the major synthetic distortion picture-quality databases. To overcome overfitting problems that can arise from a lack of adequate local ground-truth scores, several authors have suggested training deep CNN models in two separate stages: a pretraining stage, using a large number of algorithm-generated proxy ground-truth quality scores, followed by a stage of regression onto a smaller set of subjective scores. For example, [14] describes a two-stage CNN-based no-reference-quality prediction model. The model attains highly competitive prediction accuracy on the legacy data sets. Proposed work: The proposed work aims at designing and implementing a no-reference model for image quality prediction using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. The works aims at analyzing and comparing the existing methods in terms of the following critical aspects. Strategies to overcome the paucity of large labeled training datasets. Architecture of the deep CNN to be used. The number of stages in training the CNN Aggregation and pooling techniques for better prediction. References [1] A. C. Bovik, “Automatic prediction of perceptual image and video quality,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 2008–2024, 2013. [2] A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and G. E. Hinton, “ImageNet classification with deep convolutional neural networks,” in Proc. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems Conf. 2012, pp. 1097–1105. [3] M. Abadi, A. Agarwal, P. Barham, E. Brevdo, Z. Chen, C. Citro, G. S. Corrado, A. Davis, et al., “TensorFlow: Large-scale machine learning on heterogeneous systems.” [Online]. Available: https://www.tensorflow.org/ [4] M. Clark and A. C. Bovik, “Experiments in segmenting texton patterns using localized spatial filters,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 707–717, 1989. [5] H. Lee, C. Ekanadham, and A. Y. Ng, “Sparse deep belief net model for visual area V2,” in Proc. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems Conf., 2008, pp. 873–880. [6] H. Sheikh, M. Sabir, and A. Bovik, “A statistical evaluation of recent full reference image quality assessment algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 3440–3451, 2006. [7] N. Ponomarenko, L. Jin, O. Ieremeiev, V. Lukin, K. Egiazarian, J. Astola, B. Vozel, K. Chehdi, et al., “Image database TID2013: Peculiarities, results and perspectives,” Signal Process. Image Commun., vol. 30, pp. 57–77, Jan. 2015. [8] D. Ghadiyaram and A. C. Bovik, “Massive online crowdsourced study of subjective and objective picture quality,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 372–387, 2016. [9] J. Deng, W. Dong, R. Socher, L.-J. Li, K. Li, and L. Fei-Fei, “ImageNet: A largescale hierarchical image database,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2009, pp. 248–255. [10] J. Kim, H. Zeng, D. Ghadiyaram, S. Lee, L. Zhang, A. C. Bovik, “Deep convolutional neural models for picture-quality prediction: Challenges and solutions to data-driven image quality assessment” in IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 130-141, 2017. [11] L. Kang, P. Ye, Y. Li, and D. Doermann, “Convolutional neural networks for noreference image quality assessment,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2014, pp. 1733–1740. [12] Y. Li, L. M. Po, L. Feng, and F. Yuan, “No-reference image quality assessment with deep convolutional neural networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Digital Signal Processing, 2016, pp. 685–689. [13] S. Bosse, D. Maniry, T. Wiegand, and W. Samek, “A deep neural network for image quality assessment,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, 2016, pp. 3773–3777. [14] J. Kim and S. Lee, “Fully deep blind image quality predictor,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 206–220, 2017.

Haitian Revolution in 1791-1804 Analysis Research Paper

cheap assignment writing service Table of Contents Introduction Overview Literature review Discussion Analysis Conclusion Works Cited Bibliography Introduction On January 1, 1804, Haiti declared independence, becoming the second independent nation in the West and the first free black republic in the world. This triumph followed the long and violent Haitian slave revolution in which Haiti, specifically the island of Saint Dominique, suffered from. After the enlightenment, the Rights of Man act provided equality among all Frenchmen, including blacks and mulattos. In reply, the Haitian slaves originally from Africa revolted. During the rebellion, “the Haitian slaves burned every plantation throughout the fertile regions of Haiti and executed all Frenchmen they could find” (Hooker, par 2). A vast amount of people living in Saint Dominique fled the island in fear of their lives. On the other hand, this revolution freed the African people of Saint Dominique from the inexcusable harsh treatments that they had to tolerate. This revolt has been considered both the best thing that Haiti had ever experienced and also the most disastrous. The Haitian slave revolution was justified because of the harsh working conditions within the plantations, the callous living conditions, and the unbelievable successes. The working conditions on the plantations within Saint Dominique provided reasoning for the slaves to revolt. During the rebellion, the plantations were the main workplace for the slaves. The sugar and coffee plantations provided France with their most rich overseas possession. The development of plantation agriculture profoundly affected the island’s ecology. African slaves toiled ceaselessly to clear forests for sugar fields, and massive erosion ensued, particularly on the steep marginal slopes that had been allocated to slaves for their subsistence crops. (Thomas, pp. 144-46) Slavery is a social institution based upon dominance and submission. Slavery involves a person owning another person and using the latter for labor. Persons who are the property of others are also slaves. Slavery is a cruel and oppressive system in which people are held against their will either by warfare, purchase, or birth (Aufhauser 811). Slavery has been outlawed in almost every country. But it is still practiced today. Capitalism which is a system based upon exploitation has been the primary cause of slavery. It is an inhuman system organized around profit. It is a system of inequality, forced labor, slavery, and servitude. The genesis of capitalism was based upon the increased influence of the ruling classes, the amassing of wealth, the development of the European states, and the underdevelopment of their colonies. This naturally led to a profit-seeking system that would lead to exploitation, slavery, and servitude. African slaves were first shipped to Portugal by Henry the navigator (Aufhauser, p. 811). Overview The start of the European colonial age also marked the destruction of the Native American cultures. European states began seizing, plundering, and decimating the Native American cultures and their resources. The destruction of the Native American populations fueled the demand for slaves that built the European economies, industrial revolution and transformed the United States from an agricultural state into an industrialized state in the nineteenth century. The glorious progress and impressive economic standards of the United States and Europe have been built upon the backs of millions of slaves. The United States had an agrarian-based economy before and after its war of independence. Since the British colonists did not find any gold, they harvested crops. They required African slaves for agriculture. As the colonists created plantations, they required labor for their economic expansion and profit. Racist ideologies were invented to justify the subjugation of the slaves (Blackburn, p. 56). African slaves who had been beaten, starved, and transported in subhuman conditions were now sold to white owners who grew rich and powerful. African slaves were subjected to the most vicious system that continues to dominate the United States. According to Walter Prytulak, all political systems are capitalist in nature and derive their power from slavery. The difference is that in some countries, the state owns the slaves, while in others, the private corporations own the slaves. Each state has injustice, inequality, crime, and corruption. To survive in these states, one has to become a slave to the system. Prytulak argues that “American capitalism” is unique because slavery is “appreciated” and that its glitter is so bedazzling that it is impossible to believe that there is any lack of freedom. Capitalism gives the slave a human face by giving him dignity and making him believe that if he works hard, he will be valued as an asset. (Collins, pp. 11-32) Literature review Slavery has never been abolished, but instead, it has become more refined in a capitalist society. Capitalist societies use legal loopholes to make sure that the system of slavery is not removed and the Lady of Justice is not offended or overlooked. After the collapse of the USSR in 1991 and the subsequent transformation of China’s communist-based economy into a capitalist-based economy, there was much talk of new world order. Globalization was hailed as the new solution for the world’s problems. Globalization was considered as the springboard for capitalism to launch its revolution to unknown frontiers. The technological revolution has simply aided capitalism in making slavery a global phenomenon. Capitalism has bypassed national sovereignty and transformed the world into one large market. It has made capitalism more powerful by enhancing its capacity for production and attracted more consumers. (Thomas, pp. 144-146) Capitalism has evolved from an economic viewpoint to being an entire mode of life (Rajaee, p. 32). The brutal exploitation of African slaves bred resistance. The Haitian slave revolt is an example of a successful anti-capitalist struggle. Under French rule, Haiti had become a rich colony. It had sugar and coffee plantations with African slave labor. The upper-class whites enjoyed a luxurious life while the black slaves had to endure poor living conditions. Many died because of malnutrition and abuse. They had no rights and could be beaten or killed by their owners (Hogg, p. 29). France was weakened after the revolution of 1789. Taking advantage of the internal situation, Haitian freedom fighters rose against their oppressors, wiping them out and destroying the plantations. The uprising had become a full-scale civil war. France tried to reach an accommodation with the slaves by abolishing slavery. Fighting, however, continued, and European powers also intervened in the hopes of seizing the colony. François Dominique Toussaint Louverture, a former slave, took part in the slave revolt. He was initially part of the Spanish army, but when France abolished slavery, he joined forces with them and defeated the Spanish. Toussaint Louverture unified Haiti by defeating his internal rivals. He never declared independence, but he demanded that both whites and blacks continue to produce their crops without slavery. By 1804 Haiti had become an independent state by defeating all the French armies and massacring the white inhabitants (Hogg, p. 33). The heroic Haitian struggle for independence was spearheaded by slaves. It had far-reaching effects on the United States and its neighbors. The successful revolution by Toussaint and the Haitians was a source of pride for many African slaves. Many uprisings were launched in the United States. Southern American owners were now even more reluctant to free their slaves and increased their oppression of the slaves. Simon Bolivar made slavery one of his objectives after Haiti supported him in his independence war against the Spanish. Slavery was a system used to increase profits and reinforce capitalism. It was also used to suppress blacks and subjugate those (Boney, p. 449). Discussion The profits from slave trading and from tobacco, sugar, and coffee plantations helped develop West Europe’s economies, banking industry, insurance, shipbuilding, iron and other industries. Seaports like Bristol, Liverpool, and Seville became the first industrial powerhouses because of the arrival of slaves. In England, the county of Lancashire became the first major manufacturing town. The county’s growth depended upon the growth of Liverpool through slave trading (Thomas, p. 420). The dominance of West Europe during the colonial age was due to its colonies in the New World, abundant coal, and access to West Africa. African slaves were working in the New World, and the profits derived from those products fueled the drive for European domination of Asia. The markets created by the African slave trade and the plantation economies for British manufactured goods as diverse as iron, textiles, glass, and china were important stimuli for the growth of industrial capitalism in Britain (Post, p.290). While slavery effectively transformed Europe and the United States into major economic and military powers, they devastated Africa. Slavery had a detrimental effect on the economy of Africa. Slavery also created insecurity and a massive depopulation of the continent (Thomas 600). The United States established the most powerful form of capitalism by wiping out the indigenous people and using the labor of millions of African slaves. Cotton, which was a major export of the United States, was driven by slaves living in plantations in the American South (Collins, p. 59). The huge number of slaves that reached America is staggering. There were 33,000 slaves in 1700, and they reached a number of six million by the 1850s. At least 500,000 Africans died during the passage to the New World. This huge and despicable trade remains one of the greatest tragedies of the world. According to Lewis Gray: ‘The plantation was a capitalistic type of agricultural organization in which a considerable number of unfree laborers were employed under unified direction and control in the production of a staple crop.’ The planters were socially committed people, individually driven, and successfully utilized the slaves for the accumulation of profits. The “plantations on Haiti [offered] some of the [cruelest] conditions that African-American slaves ever had to suffer” (Hooker, par 1) because the sugar and coffee crops required vast amounts of labor done by slaves. As a result, the slaves largely outnumbered the French. “They worked from sun up to sun down in the difficult climate of Saint-Domingue” (Corbett, par 20). Consequently, the slaves had a high mortality rate from overworking. In fact, these conditions were so atrocious that the African slaves only lasted about ten years on the plantations. The burning of the plantations was, in a way, just a symbol of the end of slavery on the plantations in Haiti. The long working hours and high death rate that the slaves endured justifies the Haitian Slave Revolution. The “brutal and dehumanizing” (Thomson, par 3) conditions that the slaves of Haiti experienced were enough to provide reasoning and validity for the mayhem in the revolution. The slave owners feared the slaves because the “slaves outnumbered slaveholders by fifteen to one” (Thomson, par 4). The slave owners took unspeakably cruel and punishing conditions to keep the slaves confined and to deter any thoughts of rebellion. “Malnutrition and starvation also were common because plantation owners failed to plan adequately for food shortages, drought, and natural disasters, and slaves were allowed scarce time to tend their own crops. The slaves have also had “virtually no medical care, were not allowed to learn to read or write, and in general, were treated much worse than the work animals on the plantation. The slaves in the United States were often threatened to be sold to Saint-Dominique. The American slaves with brutal conditions were very reluctant to work in Saint Dominique because of the much more cruel conditions. The cruel and harsh conditions were mainly caused because “the French slave owners found it much easier to replace slaves by purchasing new ones than in worrying much to preserve the lives of existing slaves. This animal-like treatment that the slaves encountered fuelled the slaves for the revolt. The Haitian Slave Revolt is justified because of the inexcusable treatment they were faced with. (Prytulak, pp. 84-89) Analysis As humanity evolved, they began to form groups and classes. Eventually, some groups acquired power, wealth, and military might. They used their superior technology and military might subjugate other people. Slavery, dictatorship, class exploitation, and war were all products of this primitive capitalism. History also records that the oppressed people resisted this primitive form of oppression. Capitalism evolved into a more sophisticated one about five hundred years ago. Capitalism is the most direct form of exploitation and slavery. It is based upon profits and exploitation. Modern racism also developed alongside capitalism. This racism was used against slaves from Africa as well as other people. Capitalism has been responsible for much social degeneration and crisis in the world. It has deluded the world into believing that it is the solution for the world’s problems. It has been responsible for mass starvation, disease, warfare, racism, nationalism, and fascism. Communism, on the other hand, is a system that seeks not to reform capitalism but to destroy this system of oppression and classes. It strives for the destruction of the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie and replaces it with a society dominated by the worker’s class. Communism is based upon creating an economy and educational system which is egalitarian in nature (Pipes, p. 67). The USSR was a primary example of a communist state where the workers had more political power than any other nation. There was universal education and health for everyone. The economy and society were organized alongside egalitarian principles (Pipes, p. 67). However, Communism was also responsible for mass starvation, gulags, forced industrialization, and collective agricultural policies that killed millions of people. It is estimated that millions of people were killed by Stalin’s forced industrialization and collectivization program. Under communism, China mass murdered millions of its people. Famine and social chaos caused mass murders in China during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge destroyed every pillar of society and forced everyone to work in agriculture. It is estimated that millions of people died during the Khmer Rouge’s control of Cambodia. Eventually, while the communist elite preached the equality of workers inside their regimes, they lived a life of luxury by using goods from the West. The average person was fed on the slogans of Karl Marx, Lenin, and Stalin that the West is the source of all evil and that the USSR is the primary example of a worker’s paradise. In the end, however, this system was bound to collapse due to the inherent contradictions inside it. By the 1990s, industrial production was lagging behind the West, and there were grain shortages. The political repression and dictatorship created by the Soviets worsened the conditions of the workers. It was a new form of slavery. The ideals of Karl Marx and Lenin were never achieved and implemented. The communist elite, like their capitalist counterparts in the West, began to exploit the workers. The achievements following the Haitian Slave Revolt were so outstanding that they could justify the rebellion. Prior to the revolt, the slaves could be considered the lowest order of society. Within fifteen years following the revolt, the slaves were able to better transform the social, political, and economic life of the colony. Socially, the slaves became free and independent citizens. They also declared equality between all men regardless of race. Politically, the former slaves created a second American state which was the first independent non-European state to be carved out of the European universal empires. The slaves also improved their economy by transforming their conventional tropical plantation agriculture, especially in the north, from a structure dominated by large estates into a society of small-scale, marginal self-sufficient producers. They also reoriented away from export dependency toward an internal marketing system supplemented by a minor export sector. Haiti’s improved colony following the Haitian Slave Revolt illustrates the true success of the revolution. (Rajaee, pp. 52-59) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The Haitian Slave Revolt was a major accomplishment for people of African-American descent. The Haitian revolution was justified because of the iniquitous workplace, the dehumanizing conditions, and the astonishing outcomes. The ultimate solution to end slavery is a middle way between Capitalism and Communism. At the same time, the evils of Communism must not be forgotten. A society must be created where there is a balance between individual rights and community rights. (Wallerstein, pp. 117-128) A society must be created where the right to undertake private enterprise is respected yet also helps protect the individual from the evils of capitalism. A mixed economy ensures the freedom of people to travel, buy, organize, communicate and sell freely. The state subsidizes or controls strategic assets like electricity, water, schools, banks, etc. A mixed economy is the best solution to the current evils of Capitalism. It also would act as a shield to prevent the evils of Communism from happening again. Mixed economies are economic systems that mix elements of the free market and planned economies. A mixed economy keeps loss and gain to a minimum. This is because the economy changes. The economic success of the community also results in raising the standards of living of the citizens. Mixed economies also have types of welfare systems to help the poor people in bearing health and education costs. It also provides support to unemployed people. This also helps doctors and health professionals gain training before seeking employment. The government also has a major role in the corporate sector. This can increase production and efficiency. The result of this revolution still has its mark in the present day, which shows its true success. This revolution fueled by the “passions of men and women slaves has brought equality and power to the modern-day African society. Despite the tragedies and violent actions taken by the slaves, the Haitian Revolt is a well-earned accomplishment for not only the slaves but for the nation for creating equality. The Haitian Revolt is considered a remarkable feat and is well justified. (Blackburn, pp. 38-44) Works Cited Aufhauser, R. Keith. Slavery and Scientific Management. US: Journal of Economic History, 1973. Blackburn, Robin. The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern,. London: Verso, 1997. Hogg, Peter C. African Slave Trade and Its Suppression. US: Routledge, 2006. Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440 – 1870 . US: Simon

Price Mechanism Functions In A Free Market Economy Economics Essay

Question 1 Explain how the price mechanism functions in a free market economy in order to solve the basic economics problem of scarcity. The concept of scarcity in Economics is based on the fact that the human desires are infinite and insatiable and these desires exceed the production of number of products because of limited resources. The needs of businesses, governments and individuals are never satisfied. Usually the products either deprecate or become obsolete with time and there is a need to substitute them. It is argued that this state of being insatiable is basic human nature. Some say that advertisements are an influential factor in generating new needs. This lust is not only limited to new products or services but also to personal life like need for luxury etc. (Arnold, 2001) Resources are fewer in number but the demands are infinite. Price mechanism determines the resource allocation in a free market economic system. Desires of consumers are unlimited but the resources are limited. That is why there is a need to balance the allocation of these resources. Usually pricing is used to determine the allocation of resources in competing uses. Any fluctuation in the demand will result in a fluctuation in supply. Price is used as an indicator. Obviously an increased demand will result in scarcity of the product which will increase the price. The supply of these products is increased to meet the needs of the market. Also this will result in an increase in profits for the producers. Similarly the decrease in demand will result in a decrease in supply. The decrease in demand of a product will result in decrease in the profit margin earned through that specific product. So producers decrease the supply of that product and utilize the resources in production of other products that are more in demand. (Krugman, 2009) Figure 1relationship between demand and price Pricing method is considered advantageous as it allows the allocation of resources more efficiently. This results in technical efficiency as the products are produced at the lowest unit cost. The producers want to produce the products at the nominal costs in the competitive market. The chances of gaining some profit encourage the producers to reduce costs, introduce new products and increase the production of the current products. It is expected that in the long run this phenomenon will result in production of products at lowest unit cost and allocation of resources will be optimal. (Forstater, 2007) Figure 2 A fluctuation in demand affects price as well Allocative efficiency is also adapted by the markets. The demand determines the production or supply of the product. As in the figure above, it can be seen that the increased demand increases the price and a decreased demand decreases the price. Prices are used as indicators to determine where the highest resource allocation is required (usually the products that give highest profit). This creates a unique balance and makes the resource allocation beneficial for everyone. This can be understood by the example of production of laptops. If the demand for laptop increases, laptop manufacturers will increase their productions while the manufacturers of desktop will decrease their production. The production will be according to the demand curve of the market. Which means that the production of most wanted products is increased. Additionally, the market adjusts the changes in demand with the change in supply so that there is no scarcity of any product. (Gwartney, 2005) Question 2 Using diagrams discuss any three types of elasticity with which you are familiar. Explain why they are important. Curve’s elasticity can be defined as the level to which supply or demand curve responds to fluctuation in price. Elasticity of different products is different because of the difference in the demand of the product in the market. Essential products like food and clothing are immune to price changes due to the fact that customers will still buy them regardless of price hikes. These products are considered inelastic. On the other hand if the price of a good product or service that is not essential element of day to day life increases, its consumption will decrease. Such products, whose demand or supply changes with the change in price are highly elastic,. (Arnold, 2001) Elasticity can be calculated by using the equation: Considering the above equation, if elasticity of the curve is lesser than one; it denotes that the curve is inelastic. If it is equal to or more than one, it denotes that the curve is elastic.(Forstater, 2007) The slope of curve of demand is negative. If a slight increase in the price of a product results in a huge decrease in the demand, this will result in a flatter or horizontal demand curve. The flatter curve denotes that the specific product or service is highly elastic. Figure 3 Elastic Demand On the other hand an upright or slightly vertical curve is used to depict an inelastic demand. Figure 4 Inelastic Demand Similarly for supply, for elastic product or service the curve is flat or horizontal. Flatter curve shows that elasticity is greater than or equal to one. Figure 5 Elastic Supply For supply, inelastic curve is represented by an upright or almost vertical curve. Figure 6 Inelastic Supply A. Factors Affecting Demand Elasticity Demand’s price elasticity is affected by the following three factors: (Forstater, 2007) 1. The availability of substitutes – If there are alternatives for a service or product, of course its demand will be more elastic. This means that even a slight increase in the price of a product should result in a decrease in demand of that product. Let’s take a scenario of caffeinated drinks. If there is a price hike of say 50 cents for one cup of coffee. It can be substituted by a cup of tea. This makes coffee an elastic good. On the other hand if the price hike is of caffeine (main ingredient of tea and coffee) rather than of the product, it will result in little or decrease in demand of caffeinated drinks (tea or coffee). As, there are no other alternatives for caffeine, this makes caffeine an inelastic products. If a product is unique meaning having no alternatives, it is considered inelastic. 2. Amount of income available to spend on the good – Demand elasticity is highly dependent on the amount a person can spend on a certain product or service. This means that if the income of a person does not increase but the price of a product increases, the demand of that product will decrease. If the income is stable, then the demand of the product will become elastic. 3. Time – Time is also an important factor that considerably affects the demand elasticity. If there is an increase in price of product say a can of beer. And the consumer finds out he cannot afford to buy 2 or 3 cans of beer at that price in one day. He will reduce the consumption of beer. B. Income Elasticity of Demand The second factor mentioned above states that if income tends to stay the same but the price of the product increases, it will result in a decrease in demand. On the other hand increase in income will result in increase in demand. So income elasticity of demand can be defined as the extent to which the increase in income will result in heightened demand of the product. Following equation shows the income elasticity of demand: ED = Elasticity of Demand Q = Quantity; Y = Income; EDy = Income Elasticity of Demand Demand of an item has high income elasticity if EDy is more than one. Demand is considered income inelastic if EDy is lesser than 0 (Arnold, 2001)

Academy College Latin Americas NACLA Report

Academy College Latin Americas NACLA Report.

For this assignment, you are to read current news articles about Latin America from the website for the North American Congress of Latin America (NACLA) and submit two short reviews during the semester. Please submit one review per due date. Each review is to be at least 3-4 pages and each due date corresponds to a regional topic in Latin America. The due dates for these reports are January 15 and 22. Here are the regional topics corresponding to each due date:January 15: Mexico, Border issues and Latinx communities, the Caribbean (Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, etc.)January 22: Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, Nicaragua, and Belize) and South America (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Venezuela)Please submit your reports through Canvas in either of the following formats: doc, docx or PDF (if you are using Google Docs or Apple Pages to compose your review, please be sure to convert your paper to docx or PDF before submitting it). Late papers will be accepted for each submission, but only for one week after the assigned due dates and will be assessed a full grade deduction. Please use both a title page and a works cited page (neither of these pages count toward your 3-4 pages of text). These two reports will count as a combined 30% toward your final grade. In your works cited page, compose your article entry in a format like this:Hilary Goodfriend, “El Bukelazo: Shades of Dictatorship in El Salvador,” NACLA Report on the Americas website (February 19, 2020).In terms of the content of each report, I am looking for two main points of discussion. First, you should devote the first half of the report to a summary of the main points in the article that you selected. To help you to address this issue, consider some of these questions: What is the main issue being discussed? (i.e. immigration, elections, education, environment, women’s issues, crime, etc.) Who are the main personalities mentioned in the article? (i.e. Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, President-Elect Biden, President Trump, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, etc.) How does the issue affect the people of the country mentioned in the article? Does the issue have any connection with United States interests? What do you think could be the best solution to resolve this problem?And for the second point of discussion, please analyze the article that you selected and present your point of view on the story. For example, how do you feel about the story? How did this article contribute to your understanding about modern Latin America? And what do you think about the author’s perspective on the article? How does this topic relate to contemporary political, economic or cultural themes in the United States today? Here is a list of articles from the NACLA website pertaining to regions for your second due date. Everybody, just pick any one article from this list for your January 22 review. The dates in parenthesis indicate when the article was published. For the Jan. 22 due date, your reviews will focus on a Central American or a South American nation. These articles range in date from February 2019 to January 2021. Central America:BelizeIn Belize, a Win for Black Dockworkers (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Costa Rica:Costa Rica’s Covid-19 Response Scapegoats Nicaraguan Migrants (July 2020) (Links to an external site.)El Salvador:100 Days of Nayib Bukele in El Salvador: Social Movement Perspectives (Interview) (Sept. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Building a Church of the Poor (Dec. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Confronting Internal Forced Displacement in El Salvador (Feb. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Death by Deportation, With Help From the Human Rights Establishment (March 2020) (Links to an external site.)Deportation Contagions (March 2020) (Links to an external site.)El Bukelazo: Shades of Dictatorship in El Salvador (Feb. 2020) (Links to an external site.)El Salvador’s Backslide (Feb. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Poets and Prophets of Resistance: Intellectuals and the Origins of El Salvador’s Civil War (Book Review) (Aug. 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Hollywood Kid: The Violent Life and Violent Death of an MS-13 Hitman (Book Review) (Nov. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Guatemala:A Dispatch From the Caravan (Feb. 2020) (Links to an external site.)A Victory for Guatemala’s Pacto de Corruptos (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)Defending Consultation: Indigenous Resistance Against the Escobal Mine in Guatemala (May 2019) (Links to an external site.)Democracy in Crisis in Guatemala (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)Guatemala: Impunity for War Criminals, Again (Feb. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Guatemalan Child Refugees, Then and Now (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Guatemalans Have Had Enough (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)“History Moves Forward. You Cannot Go Back:” An Interview with Judge Yassmín Barrios (May 2019) (Links to an external site.)In Guatemala, Finding a Voice in Indigenous Community Radio (July 2019) (Links to an external site.)In Guatemala, Out with the Old, In with the Older (Aug. 2019) (Links to an external site.)In Guatemala, Resignations are Not Enough (Dec. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Indigenous Guatemalan Journalist Faces Charges after Reporting on Protest (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Is Guatemala a “Safe Third Country” for Disposable People? (Aug. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Officials Conceal Conditions at Guatemala Mental Health Hospital During Pandemic (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)Remembering Guatemala’s Martyr of Justice: An Interview with Francisco Goldman (Dec. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Sex Workers Unionize in Guatemala (Feb. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Talking Like a Mining Company: The Escobal Mine in Guatemala (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Garífuna Voices of Guatemala’s Armed Conflict (Dec. 2020) (Links to an external site.)U.S. Archeologist Seeks to Privatize Maya Historic Sites in the Name of Conservation (Aug. 2020) (Links to an external site.)White Flags as Guatemalans Grow Hungry (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)Honduras:A State of Mistrust (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Climate Change Haunts a Ghostly Border in Honduras (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)For Murdered Honduran Organizer Berta Cáceres, “Any Injustice Was Her Battle” (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)Garífuna Community Demands Return of Kidnapped Leaders (July 2020) (Links to an external site.)Honduras a Decade after the Coup: An Interview with Luis Méndez (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)On Honduras (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)Political Prisoners Released as Government’s Legitimacy Crumbles in Honduras (Interview) (Sept. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Flame of Opposition in Honduras (Sept. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Roots of the National Strike in Honduras: An Interview with Bayron Rodríguez Pineda (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)U.S. Violence Prevention in Honduras: Help or Hypocrisy? (March 2020) (Links to an external site.)Who Killed Berta Cáceres (Book Review) (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)Nicaragua:Deciphering Nicaragua’s Tepid Covid Response (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Anti-Sandinista Youth of Nicaragua (Feb. 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Sandinista Labor Paradox (Sept. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Youth Leading Nicaragua’s Uprising, One Year Later (Apr. 2019)South America:Argentina:A Clash of Interests in Villa 31 (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Activists Call for Legislation to Protect Argentina’s Wetlands (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Activists Keep Argentina’s Abortion Reform on the Agenda Despite Covid-19 (July 2020) (Links to an external site.)Another IMF Bailout in Argentina (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)Argentina: A Tentative Case for Democratic Populism (Jan. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Argentina’s Failing Fracking Experiment (Apr. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Argentina and the IMF: What to Expect with the Likely Return of Kirchnerism (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Decades After Argentina’s Dictatorship, the Abuelas Continue Reuniting Families (Mar. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Demands for Land and Housing Continue After Guernica Eviction (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Feminists Fight Covid on Buenos Aires’ Urban Margins (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)In Argentina, a “Right Turn” That Wasn’t and Left-Peronism’s Unlikely Comeback (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)In Argentina, the Next Generation Finds Its Voice (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)Macri’s Failed Fracking Dreams (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)Macri’s Yellow Balloons (Aug. 2019) (Links to an external site.)”Our Struggle is Not Just for Ourselves, It is For All Workers” (Apr. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Public Debt Defines First Year of Fernández Presidency (Dec. 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Audacity and Calculations of Cristina Kirchner (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Consequences of Mr. Macri (Apr. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Bolivia:A New MAS Era in Bolivia (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Bolivia’s Path to Camacho (Interview) (Nov. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Bolivia’s Plurinational Healthcare Revolution Will Not Be Defeated (Dec. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Bolivia’s School Closures Will Deepen Divide of Who Gets to Study (Sept. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Bolivia’s Tragic Turmoil (Nov. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Bolivia Has Provided Us a Radical Vision of Hope (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Centuries of Fire: Rebel Memory and Andean Utopias in Bolivia (Book Excerpt) (Apr. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Evo Morales Wins Bolivia’s Election, but Fraud Allegations Tarnish the Victory (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)History at the Barricades: Evo Morales and the Power of the Past in Bolivian Politics (Book Excerpt) (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)MAS Regains Bolivian Presidency (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Remembering Orlando Gutiérrez of the Bolivia Miners Union (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)State Violence in Áñez’s Bolivia: Interview with Human Rights Lawyer David Inca Apaza (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)Survivors Fight for Justice for 2003 Bolivian Military Massacre (Nov. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Highs and Lows of Bolivia’s Rebel City (Dec. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Trump Bets on Closer Ties with Bolivia (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)Understanding Bolivia’s Nightmare (Nov. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Understanding MAS’s Winning Strategy in Bolivia (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Will Evo Morales Survive Bolivia’s Fires? (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Brazil:Attacks on Brazilian Press Increase Under Bolsonaro (Apr. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Bolsonaro and Brazil Court the Global Far Right (Aug. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Brazil: Corruption as a Mode of Rule (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)Brazil Falters In Public Health Leadership (July 2020) (Links to an external site.)Brazil’s Vulnerable Left Behind in the Pandemic (March 2020) (Links to an external site.)Finding Marielle Franco’s Killers (March 2019) (Links to an external site.)Guns, Crime, and Corruption: Bolsonaro’s First Month in Office (Feb. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Lawfare Unmasked in Brazil (July 2019) (Links to an external site.)Lingering Trauma in Brazil: Police Violence Against Black Women (Dec. 2018) (Links to an external site.)Marielle Franco, Presente! (March 2018) (Links to an external site.)Marielle Franco’s Seeds: Black Women and the 2020 Brazilian Election (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Outsourcing Repression (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)Pandemic Worsens Working Conditions in Brazil’s Informal Care Economy (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Paulinho Paiakan Dies of Covid-19 in Brazil (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)“Racial Democracy” Reloaded (July 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Burning Quest to Revive a Nationalist Vision in Brazil’s Amazon (Dec. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Inversion of Human Rights in Brazil (Jan. 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Losing Struggle for Brazilian Democracy (Film Review) (July 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Social Cost of Bolsonaro’s Denial (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)Triggering Police Violence in Brazil (Apr. 2019) (Links to an external site.)U.S. Expands Influence in the Brazilian Amazon During Pandemic (Aug. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Understanding the Fires in South America (Aug. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Urbanismo Miliciano in Rio de Janeiro (also available in Spanish)(Jan 2020) (Links to an external site.)We Will All Be Judged By History: Political Upheaval in Brazil (Aug. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Chile:Burying Pinochet (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Children who Come from Afar (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Chile’s Environmental Betrayal (Oct. 2019)(Links to an external site.)Chile’s Struggle to Democratize the State (Feb. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Chilean Arpilleras Sustain Political Momentum During Lockdown (July 2020)(Links to an external site.)Creativity at the Service of Social Mobilization in Chile (Dec. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Fire and Fury in the Chilean “Oasis” (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)In Chile, the Post-Neoliberal Future is Now (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)Mapuche Political Prisoners Continue Struggle for Land and Freedom (Dec. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Pinochet-era Intelligence Agent Faces Extradition from Australia (July 2020) (Links to an external site.)Professors Test the Limits of “Me Too” in Chile (May 2019) (Links to an external site.)Social Progress Deferred in Chile (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Chilean State Seeks to Ban the Poets (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Reality in Chile (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Santiago Metro as a Microcosm of Chile (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Toward a People’s Constitution for Chile (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Colombia:A New Progressive Movement Scores Landslide Local Victories in Colombia (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Behind the National Strike in Colombia (Nov. 2019) (Links to an external site.)“Birds of Passage:” Indigenous Communities Rewrite the Drug War (March 2019) (Links to an external site.)Colombia’s Environmental Crisis Accelerates Under Duque (Apr. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Colombia’s Longest Insurgency and the Last Chance for Peace? (Dec. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Colombians Question Deployment of U.S. Security Forces (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)Coronavirus and the Colombian Countryside (May 2020 (Links to an external site.)Creative Resistance in Medellín’s Changing Public Space (Dec. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Empty Seats and Full Streets in the Colombian Minga (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Former FARC Combatants Face Their Pasts (Apr. 2019) (Links to an external site.)In Colombia, Civil Society Fights for Peace (Apr. 2019) (Links to an external site.)In Colombia, the Press Under Fire (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)Kilo: Life and Death Inside the Secret World of the Cocaine Cartels (Sept. 2020) (Book Review) (Links to an external site.)Massacres in Colombia Lay Bare Next Phase of the Conflict (Sept. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Protests Against Police Brutality Spread in Colombia (Sept. 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Brink of Extinction in Colombia (Sept. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Green Erasure of Indigenous Life (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Specter of Colombia in the U.S. Presidential Election (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Wide-Angle Lens of Colombia’s National Strike (Dec. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Vital Decomposition (Book Review) (July 2020) (Links to an external site.)Will Megaprojects Destroy Colombia’s Peace Process? (Aug. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Women Weaving Life in Southern Colombia (Apr. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Ecuador:Carceral Pandemic Politics and Epidemiological Elites in Ecuador (Sept. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Ecuador: Society’s Reaction to IMF Austerity Package (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Ecuador Grapples with Food Sovereignty (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)Ecuador Indigenous Protests Braved ‘War Zone’ to Win People’s Victory, But Anti-IMF Fight Not Over (Oct. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Ecuadorians Seek Truth and Justice, While the Government Prepares a New IMF Deal (Dec. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Elected Left, Governing Right (March 2019) (Links to an external site.)In Ecuador, Lawfare Marches on Despite Coronavirus (Apr. 2020) (Links to an external site.)The Long Coup in Ecuador (Nov. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Orphanhoods in the Ecuadorian Andes (Dec. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Paraguay:A Ray of Light for Paraguay’s Trans Community (Nov. 2019) (Links to an external site.)COVID-19 Drives Unlikely Changes in Paraguay (Apr. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Inside Paraguay’s Coronavirus Shelters (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)Paraguay Stifles Criticism After Two Girls Killed in Military Raid (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Remembering Paraguay’s Great War (also available in Spanish) (March 2020) (Links to an external site.)Tales of Terror on the Triple Frontier (Apr. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Dam that (Almost) Brought Down Paraguay’s President (Aug. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Peru:A 30-Year Quest for Justice in Peru (March 2019) (Links to an external site.)A Narrowly-Avoided Constitutional Crisis in Peru (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)A New Era of Protest Rocks Peru (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)An Uncertain Way Forward for Peru (Jan. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Covid-19 and Extraction Pressures in the Peruvian Amazon (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)Lima’s Wall(s) of Shame (Apr. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Peru Dissolves its Congress, Setting Up a Fight for the Political Future (Nov. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Peru Passes Coronavirus Risk to the Working Class (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)Peruvians Reject Politics as Usual (Nov. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Revisiting Peru’s Agrarian Reform (Film Review) (June 2020) (Links to an external site.)Rings of Corruption in Peru (June 2019) (Links to an external site.)Silenced No More in Peru (Sept. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Politiquería of Vizcarra’s Call for Early Elections in Peru (Sept. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Will the Peruvian Amazon Finally Have Political Representation in 2020? (Jan. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Suriname:Suriname on Election’s Eve (May 2020) (Links to an external site.)Uruguay:From Police Reform to Police Repression: 50 Years after an Assassination (Aug. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Venezuela:A History of Inconvenient Allies and Convenient Enemies (Apr. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Bolívar’s Afterlife in the Americas (Book Review) (Oct. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Caught in the Crossfire: Mothers’ Everyday Resistance in Caracas (Sept. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Four Scenarios for Venezuela’s Parliamentary Elections (Dec. 2020) (Links to an external site.)From Middle Power to Regime Change Specialist: Canada and the Venezuela Crisis(March 2019) (Links to an external site.)Juan Guaidó’s Policy Proposals: “The Venezuela to Come” or the Venezuela that has already been? (March 2019) (Links to an external site.)Learning from Venezuela’s Missteps in Building Urban Popular Power (also available in Spanish) (Dec. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Narco-terrorism Charges Against Maduro and the “Cartel of the Suns” (Apr. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Racism and State Violence in Venezuela (July 2020) (Links to an external site.)Regime Change “Made in the U.S.A.” (Feb. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Spectacle, Internationalization, and the Elephant in the Room in Venezuela’s Crisis (May 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Battle of “The Lost World” in Venezuela’s Gran Sabana (Apr. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Stalemate in Venezuela (Sept. 2019) (Links to an external site.)The Triple Crisis in Venezuela (Apr. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Untangling the Gordian Knot: Negotiating Shared Power in Venezuela (March 2019) (Links to an external site.)Venezuela’s Opposition at a Crossroads (also available in Spanish) (Feb. 2020) (Links to an external site.)Venezuela’s Popular Sectors and the Future of a Country (Feb. 2019) (Links to an external site.)Venezuelan Women Confront State Violence (July 2020) (Links to an external site.)Washington Doubles Down on its Military Intervention Script in Venezuela (May 2019) (Links to an external site.)Washington Intensifies Its Collective Punishment of Venezuelans (Aug. 2019)
Academy College Latin Americas NACLA Report

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