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How Has Italian Culture Developed Through Its Places and Spaces?

When we think about Italian culture what comes to mind? You might think about the famous landmarks associated with Italy, the incredible food, the beautiful nature of the people that inhabit the country. But, unless you are aware of the deep and elongated history of Italy as a country not many people realise that the Italian culture has in fact faced many challenges, and these challenges still exist today through the division between the North and the South of Italy. From antiquity through to the 20th century, Italy was at the forefront of Western cultural development and the foundation and origin of the Etruscan civilisations, the Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance to name a few. All of which influenced and impacted the development of the Italian Peninsula. However, the unification of Italy was an extremely long process that didn’t take place until 1861. It also took about 400 years for the common language to become the language of all Italians. But although Italy unified in 1861 there is still a questione meridionale ‘southern question’ which continues to influence and shape the cultural identity and history of Italy. Let us first consider the division between North and South in purview of its historical context. The Italian state as we know it today was formed on the back of an extensive and extended reorganisation, or, Risorgimento. During the second half of the eighteenth century, a Bourgeoisie revolution was underway in Italy’s North and South, displacing its aristocracy and exploiting large masses of peasants. By the end of the eighteenth century, this wealthy middle class ensured that capitalism was prevalent in both the Northern and Southern regions of Italy. In the immediate Post-War period, Italy was left impoverished. In the Northern region’s productivity was reduced, whereas in the significantly worse-off South, problems mounted. The South was severely underdeveloped relative to the industrial North. The mafia regained substantial power in some of the regions of Southern Italy, first in Sicily and then in Calabria and Campania. Efforts at reconstruction post-War and a recalibration of society away from the horrors of an autocratic regime were ironically hindered by the emergence of democratic organisations that dallied over divisions between Communism (considered a post-Mussolini refuge) and the Christian Democrats. However, the North-South separation maintained its supremacy in broad practice. This was reflected in the on-going debate that continued to characterise the Questione Meridionale among public opinion makers and scholars. So too did the depictions of the South find their way into popular culture and Giovanni Comisso describes the arrival of Southern Italian migrants to parts of the North: “È difficle riuscire a capire cosa trasportino questi piccoli uomini della Luciana e dalla Calabria, forse coperte, cuscini, forse addirittura i loro materassi arrotolati, come i beduini le loro stuoie per giaciglio”. Efforts to re-establish an equitable division of resources across the country were chided given the lack of Southern output and so long as policy was geared this way, the gap between North and South was cast as a national issue – not just a question of reducing the economic division, but of the unification of the social, cultural and municipal life of the two Italies. The Christian Democrat party attempted to bridge the gulf between North and South by adopting policies based on the solidarity principal derived from Villari’s criticism that Italian unity would be threatened if the North continued to neglect the South, a view that sits at the centre of this essay insofar as the Northern neglect because less of a problem for the South and more a problem for the North itself. From 1958 to 1962 there was a huge move in modern Italy’s economic and social structure otherwise known as the miracolo economico and this period of growth resulted in transformation across the country, even in parts of the South.27 The country was expanding its industrial status and power at an amount previously unseen. Before this time, the nation was still in vital stages of improvement, with agriculture being its largest segment of occupation, particularly in the Mezzogiorno28. Italy’s north was gaining significantly from national and international manufacturing investment, including, notably, FIAT’s new production line based in Italy, as well as many other new investors wishing to take advantage of Italy’s general low costs of labour and need for work.29 This was known as the “Economic Miracle” and it was about to rapidly change Italy, not just economically, but socially. While the populace of North Italy were undergoing benefits from this industrial serge, those in the south of the country were still disadvantaged. The South had gained little during the “miracle”, and so, many Southerners decided to emigrate overseas or towards the North in search of work, and an improved quality of life for themselves and their families. Reactions to these immigrants among Northern Italians showed how deeply popular attitudes had been informed by the North-South dichotomy which underpinned the ‘Questione Meridionale.’ This was the era when the derogatory use of the epithet terroni30 became common throughout the North to signify Southern Italians solely by their specific backgrounds. Italy experienced its last industrial revolution, the Third Italy, from 1982-1995 and was described by Arnaldo Bagnasco, who has recorded in the centre northeast a widespread industrialisation based on small and medium enterprises and industrial districts. From Rome northwards, due to its standard of living, productive infrastructure and quality of services, Italy was deemed finally unified, and became the world’s fifth industrial power. But the South became marginalised, a burden, a place of the infamous mafia and cronyism, an “inferno” as defined by Giorgio Bocca33. Above all, the South was no longer functional to the economic development of the country. A more contemporary film which contains a representation of the South in contemporary Italy is ‘Benvenuti al Sud’40 . The movie revolves around stereotypes of both the North and South, but mainly follows a postal worker’s expectations of what the South will be like and how his new life changes those stereotypes. From the perspective of the protagonist, and all of his friends in the North, Naples is essentially a run down, crime-ridden area filled with low class and nefarious types. These stereotypes contrast starkly with the truth revealed in this films. ‘Benvenuti al Sud’ is a common example of the cultural tensions that have been brought about by the divide in Italy. Whilst Northern Italy is very industrial, many parts of Southern Italy still remain poor and underdeveloped. People of the South continue to hold on to their traditional family values and customs whilst those in the North believe in an ‘every man for himself’ approach. With this has come complications, as the South remains backward and unwilling to let go of their provincial identity. Vast quantities of Italian taxpayer funds are dispensed to development in the South, through programs that begin with optimism, but that develop into an economically worse off Southern Italy as nothing is achieved. What the South require is infrastructure and industry not associated with agriculture thereby increasing employment and attracting a more skilled workforce, The South does not need to be financially supported through government programs; rather it needs to be integrated into the modern ways of the North. Only then will the divide that separates the two Italies be reduced. From a social perspective, discrimination of Southerners by those from the North still exists. Gradually, migration of Southerners to the North is reducing the threat as they become integrated in the North. The fact that many Northerners will now ‘vacanze’ in the South also shows a softening in their attitude towards Southern culture. Whilst these positives exist, many from the North will still not venture south because of the fear of criminal activity exhorted by the Mafioso. Therefore, despite few cultural improvements between the North and the South of Italy, the extent to which the ‘Questione Meridionale’ has been solved is little to none, and in the future there will be no hope for Italy to re-unify itself as a nation thriving economically and socially unless programs are implemented not to ‘fund’ the south, but instead to assimilate the South effectively into what Giuseppe Garibaldi initially envisioned in 1861. References. Books: Dunnage, J, Twentieth century Italy. In, Oxon, Routledge, 2002, pp. 148-230. Ginsborg, P, A history of contemporary Italy, 1980-2001. in, London, Penguin, 2003, pp. 298-349. Journal Articles: Carlo, A, E Capecelatro,
Globalization and Race Essay. Diaspora can be discussed as one of the most typical characterizations used in the modern world and society which develop according to the contemporary principles of globalization and multiculturalism. In spite of the fact the notion of diaspora is connected with the definite public’s associations and examined by many researchers, historians and sociologists are inclined to define diaspora in different ways, determining it as a process, a phenomenon, or a condition. Clarke and Thomas propose their variant of defining the concept of diaspora, basing on the idea of referring to both the process and condition. From this point, diaspora is “a process that generates subjects through negotiations arising from particular structural and historical conditions that change over time” (Clarke and Thomas 12). Thus, specific historical and social conditions are essential for forming diaspora, and this statement is also relevant for discussing the problem of the African Diasporic cultures which were formed under the influence of the Western imperialism, colonialism, and capitalism. Racial capitalism and colonialism affected not only the development of the African diaspora but also the transformation of the Western culture in which the social life and capitalistic relations began to depend on the racial discrimination and slavery when the African Diasporic identity formed, and Africanisms spread. The Western world changed with developing the principles of racial capitalism and colonialism because cultures can vary significantly under the impact of intensive intercultural relations. The concepts of colonialism and imperialism as the base of the progress of the racial capitalism traditionally depend on the racial discrimination toward the Africans moved to America as slaves and toward the developed Africans’ diaspora in the other countries as the discriminated minority. Thus, Clarke and Thomas concentrate on determining the problems of such diasporas as African Americans, Black Canadians, and Afro-Germans (Clarke and Thomas). The principles and ideas of colonialism and imperialism made Africans as the representatives of different diasporas consider themselves as racially unequal to ‘white’ people. From this point, the development of slavery in America, the accentuation of the Africans’ primitiveness and backwardness in comparison with the civilized Westerners in combination with the status of discriminated minority resulted in discussing the question of the African Diasporic cultures as the controversial issue. For instance, it is impossible to speak about colonialism and imperialism without referring to the problem of slavery as the fundamental aspect of the African American diaspora. Moreover, racial capitalism is also a negative factor for the development of the diaspora. Basing on racial identity, racial capitalism became the main discriminating factor in relation to the racial inequality. The question of the African Diasporic cultures should be discussed with the focus on relations of the representatives of diasporas and the dominated nation. Diaspora is often defined as the nation which is not limited by the official boundaries in spite of the fact it is located at the definite territory. The situation of separateness from the native lands make the representatives of diasporas feel oppressed by the dominated nation. It is important to note that colonialism and racial capitalism contributed much to the development of such associations. The representatives of the African Diasporic cultures have to emphasize their identities under the impact of the Westerners who are discussed as more civilized and educated than the Africans. Nevertheless, the development of the African Diasporic cultures is a result of the changes in the Western world because the Africans were not inclined to form diasporas in the Western countries before the progress of colonialism and imperialism (Clarke and Thomas). Being the product of the Western world, the African Diasporic cultures influenced the Western culture, and colonialism and racial capitalism played the leading roles in the process. If racial capitalism and colonialism influenced the development of the African Diasporic cultures as the phenomenon, is it possible to speak about the transformation of the Western culture under the impact of colonialism and racial capitalism? The transformations were observed due to the fact the development of racial capitalism and colonialism changed the whole social system in the countries where the African diasporas appeared as a result of the imperialistic policies and tendencies to use slaves as the base for the economic relations. The African Diasporic cultures began to develop in the Western world, which could not be the same as it was before the moves in colonization and imperialistic policies. Thus, Africanisms and Pan-Africanism should be associated with the African Diasporic cultures influenced by the effects of the racial capitalism. To understand the situation clearly, it is necessary to correlate it with the contemporary tendencies in the process of finding the compromise between stating the identity of the diaspora and establishing effective relations with the dominated nations. Clarke and Thomas state that “contemporary transformations in the production of blackness are as relevant to the globalization of late capitalism as deployments of “race-thinking” … were to earlier periods of imperialism, state formation, and nationalism” (Clarke and Thomas 9). Thus, the notion of globalization was added to the discussed concepts of race, equality, and identity as one of the most significant factors. If several centuries ago, the question of the African Diasporic cultures was connected with the results of imperialism, today the globalization processes in economy and social life are discussed as more influential factors. The notions of racial consciousness and cultural identity are often discussed in relation to the African diaspora with references to the questions of the racial inequality and discrimination. These associations and interpretations are effected by the development of the racial capitalism. However, it is also necessary to focus on the further progress of the situation when the Western culture was also transformed. Clarke and Thomas pay attention to the fact that “the idea of race and the hierarchical institutionalization of racial difference emerged dialectically in relation to sixteenth-century economic transformations that ultimately created that what we now know as “the modern West” (Clarke and Thomas 11). From this point, rigorous historical and social processes influenced the modern situation regarding the problem of diaspora and contributed to adding more points to the discussion of the issue of race. To conclude, it is essential to note that racial capitalism in its association with colonialism and imperialism influences the development of the situation when the representatives of the African Diasporic cultures are perceived as the former slaves. This fact explains the controversial discriminated position of the Africans in the Western world, which can be not accentuated, but it is a result of the historical development. Furthermore, the Western culture was also transformed because of its orientation to the discussion of race and racial equality as one of the significant factors for building economic and social relations. Works Cited Clarke, Kamari, and Deborah Thomas. Globalization and Race: Transformations in the Cultural Production of Blackness. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006. Print. Globalization and Race Essay
Arlena Davis Based on the clinical scenario is Mrs. X’s altered mental status due to a focal neurologic deficit or is it related to a more global etiology? Why? Mrs. X altered mental status is not due to focal neurologic deficit as she does not show focal neurologic signs. Some of the signs of focal neurologic deficit are impairment of the spinal cord, nerves and brain activities impairment of the nerves, spinal cord and brain affects certain areas of the body and causes weakness in the right leg and left arm. Mrs. X does not have impaired of the spinal cord, nerves and the brain according to the medical examination. Mrs. X does not have weakness in the left arm and right leg. The neurologic examination shows Mrs. X has no problem. Mrs. X has grip strength of 5/5 bilaterally. The Dorsi and plantar flexion is 5/5 bilaterally. Mrs. X has no focal spinal and costovertebral angle tenderness. Thus, the altered mental status is linked to a more comprehensive etiology. The altered mental status can be due to overdose of Percocet and use of narcotics. Mrs. X took 80 tablets of 10mg Percocet within 72 hours before she started experiencing the symptoms. In addition, Mrs. X has misused narcotics as evidenced by the family’s reaction. Overuse of narcotics and withdrawal can change the mental status of a patient. McCance, K. L.,

Effects of Climate Change on Human Health

Effects of Climate Change on Human Health. Climate change has become a hot issue lately. 21st century has to face a new crisis that could have long term effects on the world as well as on human health. Climate change becomes a hot topic now because of things that human have been doing for the last 100 years have been increasing and can change the Earth climate. If there is no preventions, climate change could happen very fast than any in the last 1000 years. Climate change in many ways. Climate changes dramatic and rapid, some the result of the impacts from comets or asteroids (New England Aquarium, 2012). But today, human activities have become the main force causing climate to change rapidly. Climate change is not only about change to the weather. It could affects the environment that people, plants, and animals depend on. This means that climate change is not affect human only but it is about plants, animal, and all the other living and non-living things such as soil, rocks, oceans, and lakes. The melting of polar ice caps shows that human being needs to be concerned about climate change. The rising of sea level could damage the land and if it is occurs without any attention to stop it, human could lose their homes. The effects of climate change that have occurred could wake the people up about the importance to preserve the Earth. Scientists believe that climate change could increase the spreading of disease. Dissemination of diseases could lead to heat-related illnesses and even death. Extreme weather such as storms, could increase the risk of high winds, dangerous flooding, and direct threats to human being and property (United State Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). The number of people facing health problems caused by climate change will rise. Climate change not only causes damage to the Earth, it could also affect human health. Climate change can lead to mental health problems and stress-related disorders, asthma, respiratory allergies and airway diseases, and foodborne diseases and malnutrition. Climate change could bring mental health problems and stress-related disorders. Mental health is a point of well-being in individual when he or she realizes his or her abilities, can work productively, can cope with the normal stresses of life, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. In certain cases, many mental health disorders can also lead to other chronic diseases and even death. Stress- related disorders comes from abnormal responses to acute or prolonged anxiety, and included diseases such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. It is been reported that 26.2 per cent of Americans over the age of 18 suffer from a diagnosable mental health disorder in a given year, 9.5 per cent suffer from mood disorders, and 6 per cent undergo serious mental illness (Environmental Health Perspectives and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2010). In 2008, a boy is depressed and is admitted to the psychiatric unit at the Royal Children’s Hospital in Melbourne as he refusing to drink water because worrying about millions of people would die if he drink the water (Anthes, 2009). This situation shows that even climate change could lead to mental health problems and stress-related disorders. Some children also having terrible nightmares about global-warming-related natural disasters. Responsible persons should know their roles to prevent mental health problem on children before it is too late as they are too young to face climate change. Family members loss is also one of the cause that lead to mental health problems and stress-related disorders. Tornadoes and wildfires, floods, and droughts have caused mental suffering to people since time eternal (Ferris, 2012). Extreme events cause damage or loss of property, death or injury of loved ones, and last but not least the recovery efforts could also lead to stress. Besides, climate change also could cause asthma, respiratory allergies, and airway diseases. A group of doctors said that climate change can lead to the variety of respiratory diseases (Koebler, 2012). Asthma is a chronic disease in which the airways of the lungs become inflamed or narrowed resulting in disruptions to normal breathing pattern. Asthma has become the second main cause of other chronic diseases affecting children. Asthma affects mostly five years old children. However, the frequency of asthma is highest among adults. This disease is dangerous as it could block the airways and end in death if action is not taken fast. Climate change threatens asthma in many ways. Higher temperatures caused by climate change increase certain greenhouse gases such as ozone, sulphur dioxide, and nitric oxide. Smog caused by minute particles from smoke stack emissions and diesel exhaust particles from vehicles create danger for people with respiratory illnesses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis, as well as asthmatics (Scott, 2012). Ground level ozone which is a toxic component of smog causes asthma attacks and makes existing asthma become worse. Dust, soot, fly ash, and exhaust particles can become lodged in the lungs and also could trigger asthma attacks. Research have been made and shown that the number of hospitalisations for asthma has increases as the level of particulate matter rise (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005). Air pollution also could lead to asthma, respiratory allergies, and airway diseases. Air pollution includes greenhouse gases that could cause global warming by trapping heat from the Sun in the Earth’s atmosphere. Climate change could cause foodborne diseases and malnutrition. Foodborne disease is a disease caused by consuming contaminated food or drink (, 2012). There are more than 250 known as foodborne diseases and most of them are caused by bacteria, parasites, and also viruses. Foodborne diseases spreading in many ways. First symptoms effect in gastrointestinal tract as all foodborne microbes and toxins enter the body (, 2012). High air temperature can boost cases of Salmonella and bacteria-related food poisoning as bacteria tends to grow rapidly in warm environments (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). These kind of diseases are dangerous as it could cause gastrointestinal distress and death. Heavy rainfall also can spread foodborne diseases by the overflows from sewage treatment plants into fresh water sources and finally effect certain food crops with pathogen-containing feces. Other diseases related with foodborne are Campylobacter, E. Coli, and Calcivirus. Malnutrition is the insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of nutrients (Medical News Today, 2010). Climate change causes insufficient in food all over the world. Depletion of nutritionals food causing many mineral deficiency among people and in certain cases it could lead to death. Poor diet could lead to a vitamin or mineral deficiency and sometimes causing in scurvy, a disease where an individual has a vitamin C deficiency (Medical News Today, 2012). Scurvy still occur although it is a very rare disease. It affects elderly people, alcoholics, or people who live on a diet devoid of fresh fruits and vegetables. Beriberi is caused by lack of vitamin B1. This disease affects the nervous system (Elizabeth Quinn, 2008). Pellagra is also a disease related to malnutrition. It is caused by a deficiency of Vitamin B3. Rickets are caused by the deficiency of vitamin D, phosphorus, or calcium in body. People who are infected with this disease suffer from fragile bones, delayed growth, pain in bones, and muscle weakness (Elizabeth Quinn, 2008). Climate change has many consequences and effects to the Earth and to humans. Climate change can lead to mental health problems and stress-related disorders. mental health problems not only effect adult but also among children. They tend to have nightmares about global-warming-related natural disasters. Family loss also one of the causes of mental health problems and stress-related disorders. Climate change leads to asthma, respiratory allergies, and airway diseases. Asthma is dangerous as it could block the airways and will lead to death if action is not taken fast. Dust, soot, fly ash, and exhaust particles are dangerous as they become lodged in the lungs and also could trigger asthma attacks. Asthma could attack anytime and anywhere. Precautions are needed for people who already suffer from asthma. Climate change decreases the production of foods on Earth. This situation could lead to foodborne diseases and malnutrition. Foodborne disease is a disease caused by consuming contaminated food or drink while malnutrition is the insufficient, excessive of imbalanced consumption of nutrients. Foodborne diseases mostly caused by bacteria, parasites, and viruses. Diseases related to malnutrition are scurvy, Pellagra, and rickets. There are many ways to prevent climate change. Prevention is needed to save the Earth and secure a better place for human being. Human should walk, bike, take mass transit, or carpooling to reduce gas consumption that could lead to asthma. Recycle can saved up to 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide each year if people recycle half of his or her household waste (, 2007). Replacing a compact fluorescent from a regular light bulb could saves 150 pounds of carbon dioxide each year. Turn off your television, computer, and other electronic devices when are not in use as it could save each household thousand of carbon dioxide every year. People can plant trees. Trees can absorb one tone of carbon dioxide over its lifetime. The most important way is by stay informed about the environmental issues (, 2007). Effects of Climate Change on Human Health

Writer’s Choice

best essay writers Writer’s Choice. Paper details Select two civil rights organizations that were active during the 1950s and 1960s and craft an essay in which you compare how successful each group was in achieving its goals during the Civil Rights Movement. As you write, be sure to analyze both groups’ backgrounds and tactics and assess whether those factors influenced their ability to attain their goals. Finally, provide specific, detailed examples to support your claims and offer a conclusion that contextualizes the topic in relation to broader themes or issues in American history.Writer’s Choice

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Using your current work organization (or an organization of interest) and a second organization in the same industry as the subject matter, research the elements of business, compare and contrast the two selected organizations, and prepare an APA formatted paper that:Analyzes the basic legal, social, and economic environment in which the organizations operateAnalyzes the managerial, operational, and financial issues impacting the organizations including:Company Culture and PerformancePromotion PoliciesStrategic Decisions MakingDecision-Making StyleManagement StyleLeadership StyleCommunication StyleUse of SWOT ToolOperations Strategy FrameworkAssesses how the overall management teams perform in terms of the four functions of management.Identifies and explains the strong points of the managers.Identifies and explains areas in which improvements are needed. Be sure to use a minimum of 5 external sources to support your analysis.Submitting your assignment in APA format means, at a minimum, you will need the following:Title page: Remember the running head and title in all capital letters.Abstract: This is a summary of your paper, not an introduction. Begin writing in third-person voice.Body: The body of your paper begins on the page following the title page and abstract page, and it must be double-spaced between paragraphs. The typeface should be 12-pt. Times Roman or 12-pt. Courier in regular black type. Do not use color, bold type, or italics except as required for APA level headings and references. The deliverable length of the body of your paper for this assignment is 3–4 pages. In-text academic citations to support your decisions and analysis are required. A variety of academic sources is encouraged.Reference page: References that align with your in-text academic sources are listed on the final page of your paper. The references must be in APA format using appropriate spacing, hang indention, italics, and upper- and lower-case usage as appropriate for the type of resource used. Remember, the reference page is not a bibliography, but it is a further listing of the abbreviated in-text citations used in the paper. Every referenced item must have a corresponding in-text citation.
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Greenfield Police Department Cushions for Change Case Study Assignment

Greenfield Police Department Cushions for Change Case Study Assignment.

Searching the Cushions for ChangeRead the following scenario and answer the five questions that follow using APA style formatting where appropriate. Provide sufficient detail in your responses to demonstrate a good understanding of the material in the textbook regarding the philosophy of and management approach to community policing.Case StudyCaptain Jones is responsible for preparing the budget for the Greenfield Police Department. The new chief has asked her to review the entire budget and find long-term and short-term cost reductions. He wants to shift some resources to community policing projects and would like to create an undercover drug unit. He encourages her to be creative and bold because he does not anticipate any increases in the budget during the next few years.The Greenfield Police Department is a medium-sized suburban department. Three neighboring cities have comparable departments performing similar functions. Each of the four departments has their own booking and short-term holding facility and their own dispatch center. The county sheriff’s department operates a detention center for felons and long-term prisoners. Arresting officers transport their prisoners to the county facility and are often out of service for several hours during this process. Each city has its own SWAT team. The teams’ equipment was purchased through a federal grant, but the personnel costs are each department’s responsibility. The teams train frequently, but the county sheriff’s department also has a SWAT team that responds when requested by local police departments. None of the departments has an undercover drug unit. Theyrefer drug cases to state and federal agencies, but those agencies are often too busy for a timely response. A review of the Greenfield Police Department activity logs reveals that officers spend considerable time standing by for vehicle tows, directing traffic at civic functions and delivering documents to city council members.QuestionWhat creative ideas could Captain Jones recommend for consideration in the upcoming budget?Assuming that the Greenfield officers are still relying on preventative patrol, how could a change in strategy benefit the budget?Suggest some long-term cost savings Captain Jones could consider regarding dispatch and booking services.Is the continued support of a seldom-used SWAT team a good use of Greenfield Police Department resources?What other sources of creative funding may be available to support a drug unit?
Greenfield Police Department Cushions for Change Case Study Assignment