Hi, I am using WEKA as a machine learning tool to process the NSL KDD dataset in order to produces rules that can distinguish the anomaly and the legitimate traffic. I need to translate the produced rules into SNORT rules. Just writing SNORT rules that can present the generated rules by WEKA. I am attaching a file that contains the WEKA rules (in red color) that were generated by using the J48 algorithm. It is not necessarily to have an interface to automate the process. Manually written SNORT rules (10 rules could be enough) is enough for me as long as they reflect the WEKA rules. So, you should make sure that the extracted NSL KDD features can be represented in SNORT.Thanks,
Converting WEKA rules into SNORT rules
Resource Based View in Business Management
Introduction The resource-based view is defined as a business management tool utilized to know the strategic resources available to firm. The basic principle of the resource based value is that the basis for a competitive advantage of a company lies primarily in the application of the group of valuable resources at the firm’s disposal. In order to change a short-run competitive advantage into a maintained competitive advantage requires that these resources are heterogeneous in nature and not perfectly mobile. In other words, this will change into valuable resources that either perfectly imitable or substitutable without great effort. If these conditions are remained, the company’s group of resources can help the firm sustaining above average returns. The recent dominant view of corporate strategy – resource-based theory or resource-based view (RBV) of company – is based on the theory of economic rent and the view of the company as a collection of capabilities. This view of strategy has a coherence and integrative role that puts it well ahead of other mechanisms of strategic decision making. The olden strategy models such as Michael Porter’s five forces model concentrates on the firm’s external competitive environment. Most of them do not try to look inside the firm. Instead, the resource-based perspective shows the need for a fit among the external market context in which a firm works and its internal capabilities. In contrast to the Input / Output Model (I/O model), the resource-based view is grounded in the perspective that a company’s internal environment, in terms of its resources and capabilities, is more crucial to the determination of strategic action compared to the external environment. The resource based view suggest that a company’s rare resources and capabilities give the basis for a strategy instead of concentrating on the accumulation of resources necessary to implement the strategy dictated by conditions and constraints in the external environment (I/O model). The business strategy chosen should enable the company to best use its core competencies relative to chances in the external environment.” The resource-based view of the firm might be useful to the field of strategic management. The big benefit of this theory was it motivated a dialogue between scholars from a lot of perspectives, which they described as “good conversation.” From then onwards, the strengths and weaknesses of the resource based view have been vigorously argued in strategic management and other management disciplines. There are lesser discussions regarding the resource based view done in the field of information systems. The resource based view is used in the information system field on a few occasions, yet there is no effort up to date to comprehensive evaluates their weaknesses and strengths. The resource-based view also stands that companies possess resources, a subset which allows them to reach competitive advantage and later on giving them long term superior performance. Many studies of performance from company using the resource based view have found differences within the industries. This recommends that the effects of individual, firm-specific resources on performance can be crucial. Valuable and rare resources and whose benefits can be sorted by the owning (or controlling) company giving it with a temporary competitive advantage. That strength can be maintained over longer time periods to the extent that the company can protect against resource imitation, transfer, or substitution. In other words, empirical studies using the theory have strongly supported the resource-based view. One of the key challenges of resource based view related is to understand the meaning of resource. Many people are interested in the resource based view and utilized a few different concepts to speak about a company’s resources. This includes assets, stocks, competencies and skills. Such proliferation of terms is a problem for research utilizing resource based view because it is usually not clear what the researchers mean by key terminology. To make things simple, it is better to clarify the terms in a relevant way. Together, assets and capabilities define the set of resources available to the firm. Assets mean anything intangible or tangible that the firm can utilize for producing and creating in its process to a market. Assets can be taken as a input or output of a process. It can also be tangible and intangible. In other words, capabilities change inputs into outputs of greater worth. Capabilities includes processes and skills. Since years ago, there are big collections of contributions in the areas of strategic management and economics which find to change the term of resource based view or utilize it as a framework to solve empirical questions. Meanwhile, the basic propositions of resource based view have increased explained. In summary, the initial contribution of the RBV of the company to date has been as a concept of competitive advantage. The start is with an assumption which the wanted outcome of managerial effort within the company is sustainable competitive advantage. Achieving such a level enables the company to earn economic rents instead. This also concentrates on how the company achieve and maintain advantages. The resource based view argues that the answer to such question stays in the possession of important resources which have certain characteristics like barriers to duplication and value. A SCA can be achieved if the company effectively uses the resources in its product markets. Resource based view focuses the strategic choice, charging the company’s management with the crucial tasks of developing, identifying and utilizing important resources to maximize returns. The resource based view will be discussed later in the following paragraphs and also followed by a conclusion. Article 1 Corporate Social Responsibility: A Resource-Based View of the Firm Mehdi Taghian, Deakin University This section reviews the application of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an intangible dynamic resource, its application in the formulation of marketing strategies and its association with business performance, using the theoretical framework of resource-based view of the firm (RBV). CSR focuses on what is termed the triple bottom line – people, planet, profit (Capaldi, 2005). Supporters of CSR believe that it is compatible with the traditional goals of a business and in fact can enhance a business. These supporters assert that CSR must become an integral part of the wealth creation process. Therefore, if CSR is managed properly, it should enhance business competitiveness and maximize wealth creation value to society. Also, when the economy is facing challenging times like now, there is greater not lesser need to practice CSR. The benefits of CSR will be discussed in detail in subsequent paragraphs. CSR initiatives can be in many forms, depending on the company. Some focus solely on environmental issues but there is a move towards community-based development projects (Tench et al, 2007). These projects perform a variety of functions for people in rural areas such as providing education for children and equipping adults with job skills. Other CSR initiatives occur in the form of providing healthcare and awareness of diseases such as AIDS and malaria. Based on these companies’ annual reports and other publications, such initiatives seem to be successful (Vernon and Mackenzie, 2008). Therefore, companies are encouraged to embrace CSR to fulfil their roles as good corporate citizens. Even though governments have not enacted legislature compelling businesses to embrace CSR, the accounting fraternity has taken the lead by instituting accounting standards and guidelines that compel MNCs to adopt some aspects of CSR. The guidelines are on environmental and sustainable reporting and demonstrate how acting ‘green’ can be incorporated into a company’s accounting system (O’Dwyer, 2003). Some of the more notable guidelines and standards promoting CSR are AccountAbility’s AA1000 standard, Social Accountability International’s SA8000 standard, ISO14000 Environmental Management Standard and Global Reporting Initiative’s Sustainable Reporting Guidelines. These standards and others have increased the awareness among accountants for the need for good CSR and sustainable reporting. Stakeholder Theory The stakeholder theory considers the impact of expectations of the different stakeholder groups to determine CSR. This is expressed by Drucker in his views on business ethics in that management is ultimately responsible to itself and society at large. These sentiments were re-echoed later by Freeman (1984, cited in Enquist et al, 2006) who said it was not just a matter of social responsibility or business ethics, but ultimately the very survival of the company hinges on it. Stakeholders are ‘groups from whom the organization has voluntarily accepted benefits, and to whom the organization has therefore incurred obligations of fairness’ (Galbreath, 2009). A firm’s traditional stakeholders are its shareholders, employees, creditors, customers and the government. However, the scope has been expanded in recent years to include non-governmental organizations and the community as a whole. CSR is utilized as a management tool for managing the information needs of the various powerful stakeholder groups and managers use CSR to manage or influence the most powerful stakeholders in order to gain their support which is vital for survival (Freeman et al, 200, cited in Gyves and O’Higgins, 2008). The key issue here is identifying the concerns of the various stakeholder groups which are often different, and how to satisfy them. Hence, the corporation is driven to act in a more ethical manner to avoid antagonizing powerful stakeholders. Scholars have cited five major strategic responses to institutional pressure for CSR, which range from the timid to the hostile. The first strategy is to acquiesce, which is to accept CSR values, norms and rules for the organization. The second approach is to compromise by partially conforming to CSR requirements while modifying it to suit organizational needs. The third strategy is to avoid or resist all CSR initiatives while the fourth method is a more active form of resistance to CSR initiatives through outright defiance. The final approach is by manipulation, which is by attempting to change global CSR standards. As can be expected, the last approach can only be employed by the largest and most powerful corporations. Furthermore, a CSR strategy can be considered as a core intangible dynamic resource within the resource-based view of the firm (RVB). It can provide a general framework for decisions regarding the design and adoption of other organisational resources that collectively characterise their marketing approach and direction. Article 2 The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after 1991.(Technical) Ten years ago, Jay Barney edited a special forum in this journal on the Resource-Based View of the Firm (Barney, 1991). In his article in the special issue, Barney argued that sustained competitive advantage derives from the resources and capabilities a firm controls that are valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and not substitutable. These resources and capabilities can be viewed as bundles of tangible and intangible assets, including a firm’s management skills, its organizational processes and routines, and the information and knowledge it controls. In the intervening decade, the diffusion of the resource-based view (RBV) in strategic management and related disciplines has been both dramatic and controversial and has involved considerable theoretical development and empirical testing. As such, it seemed timely to organize a new special issue that attempts to assess the past contributions of the RBV as well as presenting forward-looking extensions. Barney’s 1991 article was positioned relative to the structure-conduct-performance (SCP) paradigm in economics. Revisiting this article, Barney (2001a) discusses the implications of linking the RBV to the neoclassical microeconomics and evolutionary economics literatures. Situating the RBV in relation to neoclassical microeconomics would have helped address issues concerning whether or not equilibrium analysis can be applied in resource-based analyses, whether the RBV is tautological, and identification of attributes of resources and capabilities that lead them to be inelastic in supply. Positioning the RBV against evolutionary economics would have helped develop arguments concerning how routines and capabilities change over time. Barney points out that all three perspectives have been developed over the last decade and provide a body of related yet distinct resource-based theoretical tools that can be applied in different ways in different contexts. Mahoney (2001) revisits Conner’s (1991) paper to provide an alternative perspective on the similarities and distinctions between RBV and transaction cost economics (TCE), questioning Conner’s argument that the fundamental difference is that the former focuses on the deployment and combination of specific inputs while the latter focuses on the avoidance of opportunism. Mahoney argues that to continue to develop the RBV with the assumption of no opportunism ignores key issues. With opportunism, the presence of the firm facilitates superior knowledge transplantation relative to the market because of superior coding, better control of opportunistic behavior due to the authority relationship and superior information. RBV and TCE are viewed as complementary because the former is a theory of firm rents whereas the latter is a theory of the existence of the firm. The set of market frictions that explain sustainable firm-level rents would be sufficient market frictions to explain the existence of the firm. The problem of opportunism, however, has also been closely associated with recent literature on corporate restructuring, to which we return below. Revisiting their managerial rents model, Castanias and Helfat (2001) present an expanded classification of managerial resources and explain how it relates to (1) other classifications of managerial abilities such as those dealing with leadership qualities or functional area experience and (2) the fundamental resource-based characteristics of scarcity, immobility, and inimitability. The implications of this model for firm performance, appropriability of rents from managerial resources, and incentives for managers to generate rents are then analyzed. The authors argue that managerial resources, which cannot be imitated quickly or which may have imperfect substitutes, do not by definition generate rents, especially if effort and motivation are lacking or misdirected. They also suggest that the nature of managerial resources may need to change with the life-cycle of the firm and the industry for rents to be generated. Article 3 Out of the many theories of organizational behavior, one aligns itself well with the human capital view of people within an organization. This theory, called the Resource Based View (RBV), suggests that the method in which resources are applied within a firm can create a competitive advantage (Barney, 1991; Mata, Fuerst,
The South China Sea Dispute
i need help writing an essay On 26 May and 9 June 2011, just before and after the Shangri La Dialogue in Singapore, in which China emphasized its commitment of “maintaining peace and stability in South China Sea”, Chinese fishery patrol ships cut seismometer cables of Vietnam’s Binh Minh 02 and Viking 02 oil exploration vessels within Vietnam’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), triggering a series of public demonstrations in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city. Vietnamese accused China of “systematic action” that “is aimed at turning the undisputed area belonging to Vietnam into an area under dispute in order to materialize China’s nine-dotted line claim in the East Sea”  . China responded to the complaint and protests by warning that “any exploration in the vicinity of the disputed Spratly islands without its consent was a violation of its jurisdiction and sovereignty”.  The incident is just another evidence for the increasing tension in the Sino-Vietnamese relations over the South China Sea dispute which has become a hot spot. The complex dispute is not only about the potential natural resources or strategic locations of the area, but most importantly the territorial sovereignty. In this dispute, Vietnam faces a challenging dilemma: how to maintain and develop the strategic bilateral ties with China and settle the dispute in favor of its national interest at the same time? Tracing the concerns of Vietnam, an overview of the dispute will be provided in the first section before it comes to the policy discussion in the second section, in which six possible options are put forward: (1) Multilateralize the dispute through ASEAN forum; (2) Internationalize the dispute by involving outside major powers; (3) Resort to the international law of the sea and international arbitration; (4) Build up self-reliance; (5) Go for joint management of overlapped resources; (6) Cooperate and struggle bilaterally and multilaterally. The paper concludes with recommendation of a comprehension approach which is cooperating and struggling bilaterally and multilaterally (policy option 6). II. OVERVIEW OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA DISPUTE BETWEEN VIETNAM AND CHINA 1. The significance of the South China Sea The South China Sea is a part of the Pacific Ocean which encompasses a large area of about 3,500,000 square kilometers, spreading from Singapore and the Strait of Malacca to the Strait of Taiwan. It comprises more than 200 small islands, reefs, and cays, most of which are inhabited. The two largest archipelagoes are the Paracel islands which covers an area of about 15,000 square kilometers with about 30 islets and reefs, and the Spratly islands which stretches over an area of 180,000 square kilometers with more than 100 features.  It is widely acknowledged that the South China Sea, especially the two largest archipelagoes, has a great importance in terms of geo-politics as well as geo-economics because of its strategic location as a busy passageway for about one third of world’s ships and presumed rich natural resources, especially oil and gas, underneath.  2. The South China Sea Dispute Apart from Vietnam and China, the South China Sea dispute involves four other disputants, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei and Taiwan. All disputants except Brunei occupy certain area. “Vietnam occupies 21 islands, the Philippines, eight, China, seven, Malaysia, five and Taiwan, one.”  All claims are made based on different historical rights, colonial inheritance, territorial and legal grounds, including overlapping and competing claims over either maritime zone or sovereignty over islands. The Philippines refers to the principle of “discovery of unclaimed territories” and claims sovereignty over Kalayaan archipelago which comprises eight islands in the Spratly archipelago  . Brunei and Malaysia make advantage of legal bases given by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS or Convention) to assert their sovereignty rights over reefs for Brunei and islands in the southern Spratly for Malaysia. Taiwan, based on historical ground, claims its right over the Pratas island which used to be occupied by China. China claims are based on the so-called “nine-dotted U-shape line” which first appeared in a map published in 1948 in a private publication in China and encompasses about 80 percent of the South China Sea, including the Paracel and the Spartly islands. Despite China claims its sovereignty over this area, giving that it has “historical rights” to do so because the Han dynasty in the second century used it as the navigation route,  it has never officially declared and ignored calls to clarify if it also claims to the rights over maritime space enclosed which is far beyond 12 nautical miles from the disputed islands and includes EEZ and continental shelves that overlaps the continental shelves of other claimants as stipulated in the 1982 UNCLOS.  While the authenticity of China’s “historical rights” to sovereignty over the area as well as its claim over the maritime water remains unclear, China opposes any activities by other claimants within this U-shape line. Vietnam makes reference to historical data, effective occupation, colonial inheritance and legal ground to claim its sovereignty over the Paracel and the Spratly islands as well as more than 200 nautical miles of continental rights as stipulated in the 1982 UNCLOS. It has cited a number of credible documents and maps to prove its occupation and sovereignty exercise over the islands since at least the Le dynasty in the 15th century, throughout the French colonial time until 1974, when China used force to seize the Paracel, killing 53 Vietnamese soldiers  and 1988, when the two sides clashed again in the Spartly islands, Vietnam lost 7 islands to China and 64 Vietnamese soldiers were killed.  The Paracel and 7 lost islands in the Spratly islands were placed under the jurisdiction of Hainan Province. Below are some recent developments that provide a snapshot of the increasing tension between the two countries over the dispute: In May 2009, Vietnam and Malaysia submitted a joint report on territorial claims in the South China Sea to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. In response, China submitted its U-shape line map.  On 26 May and 9 June 2011, China ship cut the cables of two Vietnamese oil explorations vessels, ramping up the public protests in Vietnam. China detains and seizes hundreds of Vietnamese fishermen every year, accusing them of violating its unilateral fishing ban. On 22 February 2012, Vietnam accused China of shooting and damaging a Vietnamese fishing boat near the Paracel. On 3 March 2012, China detained 21 Vietnamese fishermen and their two boats in waters near the Paracel and demanded each boat $11,000. Vietnam strongly protested against the requests  . On 15 June 2012, Vietnam conducted a military air patrol over the Spratly islands and then announced regular air patrol practice. In response, on 28 June 2012, China also commenced regular air patrol to the Spratly islands.  China warns and threatens foreign companies for joint oil exploration activities with Vietnam in the overlapping area while offering oil blocks to its foreign partners. On 23 June 2012, China offered nine blocks located within Vietnam’s 200 nautical miles EEZ to foreign operators. Vietnam condemned China’s “illegal offer” and requested China to cease the bidding.  On 21 June 2012, Vietnam passed the Law of the Sea of Vietnam restating its claims over the Paracel and Spratlly islands. In a tit-for-tat response, China immediately announced the establishment of prefecture-level Sansha City (officially created on 24 July 2012) to administer the disputed islands and surrounding waters as well as the establishment of a military base (officially created on 19 July 2012) in the City. Vietnam condemned the establishment of Sansha City, stating that it “violated international law, seriously violating Vietnam sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly archipelagoes.”  The above developments indicate an “action-reaction cycle” with escalating strains in the South China Sea which makes it difficult to reach a solution acceptable by the both sides. The following section will discuss several policy options for Vietnam to settle the South China Sea dispute with China. III. POLICY OPTIONS 1. Multilateralize the dispute through ASEAN forum This option implies that Vietnam should continue to highlight the issue in ASEAN; emphasize the impacts of the dispute on the regional stability and peace in order to forge a united front “to persuade China to solve the issue peacefully and multilaterally.”  ASEAN comprises four out of six claimants, thus it is the most important platform for claimants to meet, discuss and seek for available solutions. The body achieved some success in building mutual trust and confidence between ASEAN claimants and China. Some evidences are the 1992 Declaration on the South China Sea, the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties (DOC) and the 2011 Guidelines to Implement the DOC in which stated that the dispute should be solved “by peaceful means, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned”. These documents, however, have no legal force. Therefore, ASEAN and China have also agreed in principle that a more binding Code of Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (COC) needs to be quickly completed and adopted. Yet the ASEAN’s effectiveness in solving the dispute is being questioned. As mentioned, the DOC was just a political statement with no legal binding requirement. China agreed to discuss the COC at an “appropriate timing” but has never stated when “an appropriate timing” is.  Most importantly, “divisions between member states, stemming from different perspectives on the South China Sea and differences in the value each member places on their relations with China, have prevented ASEAN from coming to a consensus on the issue.”  On one side, claimants might share the same stand towards China but none of them is willing to compromise with other claimants over the sovereignty issue. On the other side, non-claimants ASEAN members value the relations with China which are believed to be affected if they are pulled into any undesirable conflict with China. The recent failure of ASEAN in bringing forward a joint statement at the July 2012 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in Phnom Penh due to the divergence in attitudes towards the dispute is a clear evidence for this internal ASEAN clash. This also indicates China’s influence over other ASEAN members, Cambodia as ASEAN Chair in this case, to maintain its interests. Even if Vietnam, through its lobby efforts to pull ASEAN claimants and non-claimants together, it is still difficult to reach a solution since China insists on its bilateral negotiation strategy of “treat each case differently, and defeat each one separately.”  2. Internationalize the dispute by involving outside major powers This option suggests that Vietnam should deepen its multifaceted relations, including economic, diplomatic and military cooperation, with outside powers who have interests in the South China Sea; emphasize the importance of the peace and stability of South China Sea towards their interests in order to encourage a common effort of navigating China’s assertive claims and actions in the region. Over the past years, Vietnam has had some success in expanding and strengthening its relations with major powers through a wide range of cooperation, including regular military visits, military technology and weapons exchanges and joint energy exploration. For example, to deepen relations with the U.S who has the largest economic interests in the South China Sea with $1.2 trillion out of $5.3 trillion of total trade passes, Vietnam has facilitated joint rescue exercise with the U.S army, allowed U.S warship to access the military Carm Ranh Bay for the first time since the end of the Vietnam War  , offered gas and oil block in Vietnam’s EEZ to the U.S ExxonMobil oil company, etc. This results in a stronger stake of the U.S in the disputed area. At the 2010 Shangri La Dialogue in Singapore, the then U.S Defense Secretary Robert Gates expressed U.S interests in Vietnam’s offshore oil exploration and declared that the U.S opposes to “any effort to intimidate U.S corporations or those of any nation engaged in legitimate economic activity”  . At the 2010 ASEAN Regional Forum in Hanoi, U.S. Secretary Hillary Clinton declared that “the United States has a national interest in freedom of navigation, open access to Asia’s maritime commons and respect for international law in the South China Sea” and called for “a collaborative diplomatic process by all claimants for resolving the various territorial disputes”. Apart from the U.S, Vietnam has been trying to boost relations with other major powers. For instance, in September 2011, Vietnam was successful to reach an agreement on joint exploration with India. Vietnam has also supported activities of Russian energy company Gazprom in joint oil exploration projects in Vietnam’s maritime waters. Besides, during 2009 alone, Vietnam bought from Russia six Kilo-grass submarines and 12 Su-30MKK fighters, becoming one of top weapon importers of Russia  . The growing relationship with major powers as well as increasing involvement of these major powers in the disputed area does help to increase Vietnam’s leverage to China in the South China Sea dispute. “Now China made efforts to further engage Vietnam through party-to-party talks and keep their disagreements behind closed door”.  However, Vietnam should stay aware that strong alignments with major powers to balance too aggressively against China would irritate China and lead to subsequent negative economic and political consequences. Meanwhile, Vietnam cannot outright rely on any major powers because these countries have their own priorities and their consistent longstanding position in the South China Sea is neutrality. In other words, they might be willing to sacrifice the relation with Vietnam if it conflicts with their priority interests. Vietnam should never get too close to any powers but better to maintain limited alignments to just keep China in check. 3. Resort to the international law of the sea and international arbitration This option recommends that Vietnam should resort to the international frameworks to solve the dispute, that is, Vietnam should present evidences of its sovereignty rights over the Paracel and Spratly islands, which abides by the 1982 UNCLOS, to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in order to gain international support and acknowledgment of Vietnam’s “facts on the ground” while at the same time putting pressure on China to clarify its claims and evidences. The 1982 UNCLOS is aimed to manage potential conflicts/disputes among countries over the rights to the world’s ocean. “It holds valid legal title to sovereignty over their islands has exclusive right to exploit living and nonliving resources within 12 miles of their territorial sea and 200 miles beyond, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ).”  Vietnam has ratified and abided by the 1982 UNCLOS since 1994. Its 2012 Law of the Sea, in which clarifying its territorial seas, EEZ and continental shelf, was also built on the provisions of the 1982 UNCLOS. Vietnam has also been providing its historical data showing that it has been exercising effective occupation of the islands for a long time. Recently, it introduced a 1904 Chinese official map which showed that the Paracel and Spratly islands were not belong to China  and received attention from international experts and community. Therefore, it is very likely that Vietnam will win over China if the case is sent to the international tribunal. China is also a participant of the UNCLOS (since 1996) but its interpretation of the Convention is “controversial”. China has never clarified its vague claim of “historical rights” of the area inside the U-shape line which is not suitable and so unlikely to be supported by the provisions of the law. It “rejected the mechanism for international arbitration and adjudication provided by UNCLOS”  and prefers bilateral negotiations with other claimants in which China will have more advantageous position. 4. Build up self-reliance This option proposes Vietnam to build up its internal economic and military capabilities to deter China’s aggression by continuing reforming its economy and modernizing its military forces. Given that China used to use force to seize the Paracel and a part of the Spratly in the past as well as it has been developing its military strengths and being more assertive to claim its ownership over the islands, there could be a chance that China would use force again and/or use its overwhelming economic power to put pressure on Vietnam and other countries to give up on the issue. Being aware of China’s threat, Vietnamese government has been developing its internal strengths, both economic and military inclusive, especially military capability. Compared to 2003, Vietnam’s military spending has been increased by 83% in 2012  , in which mostly is invested in developing naval and air forces; a large amount of budget has been spent on weapons purchase. Vietnam is currently one of the top importers of Russia’s weapons  . It is also persuading the U.S to lift the ban on lethal weapons so that it could purchase more U.S weapons and modernize military.  Pessimists believe that despite economic and military strengthening efforts, Vietnam can never outweigh China in economy and military power but still under China’s influence. Economically, China is the largest economic partner of Vietnam with expected two-way trade of $60 billion in 2015; Chinese products currently account 60% imports of Vietnam  . Militarily, Vietnam’s 2012 military budget is $3.3 billion while China’s is $106.4 billion  . However, these economic and military strengthening efforts still deserve a try because if conflict is the case, it will impose certain costs on China and so deter China’s aggressive actions. 5. Go for joint management of overlapped resources This option implies Vietnam’s possible consideration of joint management of resources at areas where claims are overlapped with China. This means both sides have to reach a consensus over the measure of maritime space surrounding each island, regardless of ownership, and then agree to jointly administer the overlapped claimed area outside the maritime space. This differs from the early 1990s proposal of “shelving disputes and going for joint development” by the late Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in which China ignored the possibility of joint development in the Paracel while proposing a joint management with Vietnam in the West Vanguard Bank Basin locating in Vietnam’s maritime waters.  Obstacles to this attempt of joint management is that China claims much of the South China Sea, including most of the Vietnam’s islands and asserts its rights to unilaterally benefit from the resources while Vietnam is also strong in its position of sovereignty rights over these islands. Both sides have condemned each other of exploring and exploiting natural resources, mainly fish and gas-oil, within their maritime waters. China consistently challenged foreign oil companies having joint exploration activities with Vietnam and warned them of “unspecified consequences in their business dealings with China”. This uncompromising attitude by the both sides, especially by China, makes it impossible for a consensus to be reached on measuring the overlapped area which is not really belongs to any party. 6. Policy Recommendation: Cooperate and struggle bilaterally and multilaterally Vietnam should consider a comprehensive approach that provides it with flexibility and effectiveness in dealing with China. This option is, therefore, recommended because it develops a comprehensive approach by taking into account of both bilateral and multilateral cooperation and struggle, considering the special characteristics of the Sino-Vietnamese relationship: Deepen the multifaceted bilateral relationship with China through different networks of Party-to-Party, Government-to-Government, and People-to-People, especially Party-to-Party channel. History shows that the special relation between the two communist parties enables the two sides to repair their bilateral relations fast after serious incidents. For example, strains in the Vietnam-China relations after the May and June 2011 events was significantly reduced after the visit to China by Vietnam Communist Party General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong in October 2011 when the two sides agreed on the six basic principles in settlement of the dispute, emphasizing the importance of negotiations and friendly consultations.  Encourage ASEAN unity as a primary multilateral platform to counter China’s assertiveness. ASEAN has certain setbacks but it cannot be denied that through DOC and other cooperation mechanisms such as ARF, FTA, ASEAN has some significant success in building mutual confidence and developing mutual interests with China. Of course, as analyzed, it is tough to forge a united and effective stance among ASEAN members; however, common interests of peace, free navigation and other legal interests under the 1982 UNCLO could be driving forces to make this more likely to happen. Deepen ties with major powers. Direct interests of maintaining free navigation in the South China Sea are motivations for these powers to align with ASEAN and Vietnam to balance against China’s aggression. The depth and durability of commitment by these major powers, however, might be doubted because they also have their own priorities. Therefore, Vietnam should not outright rely on the outside powers to outright balance against China, but maintain a safety distance from either side and at the same time build up its capacity for self-reliance. Well prepare and announce sufficient historical and legal data to prove Vietnam’s sovereignty rights over the Paracel and Spartly islands; mobilize media, including social media, to effectively involve in the issue by providing transparent and correct information in order to make Chinese people and international community to understand correctly about the situation, urge the world to support Vietnam and impose pressure on China to clarify its claims. III. CONCLUSION The South China Sea dispute between Vietnam and China has become more and more sensitive and complicated because both countries are so strong in their own positions in the dispute that no one is willing to compromise their rights over the Paracel and Spratly islands – a convergence of geo-politics and geo-economics. Vietnam has more credible historical and legal data to prove its sovereignty rights over the islands but the strategic significance of China to Vietnam and China’s assertiveness put Vietnam in a policy dilemma between developing the strategic bilateral relationship and struggling to win over China in the dispute. To reduce tensions, Vietnam should have a comprehensive approach, that is, boosting bilateral ties while seeking ways to balance against China at the same time, internally or externally. In this connection, this paper recommends Vietnam to simultaneously (i) deepen its multifaceted relationship with China through Party-to-Party, Government-to-Government and People-to-People channels; (ii) continue to take advantage of ASEAN as a primary platform to counter China’s claims; (iii) develop ties with major powers while not forget to build up self-reliance; and (iv) make public all evidence to prove Vietnam’s sovereignty rights to the Paracel and Spratly island in order to gain support from international community and put pressure on China to clarify its claims and deter its aggressive actions. However, it should be acknowledged that since the core of the South China Sea dispute is the territorial sovereignty that involved claimants will never want to compromise, it might too sensitive and complex for a feasible solution to thoroughly settle the dispute in a foreseeable future.
Importance of Strength Training for People in Modern Society Essay
Table of Contents Introduction Benefits of Strength Training Importance of the Topic Works Cited Introduction Strength training is a vital feature of physical exercise that is deemed important for the human health. The exercise has numerous benefits that are cardinal for physical and mental health of an individual. Despite the mentioned advantages, most people tend to ignore the exercise due to the belief that it is meant for particular individuals such footballers, weight lifters, soccer players, athletes and other professionals in sports. Strength training is significant for everybody regardless of age, profession, or gender. Its success depends on proper planning and identification of goals and objectives to be achieved (Thomas 189). This study therefore looks at strength training as one of the essential elements of physical exercise. Benefits of Strength Training In addition to the general benefit of improving body performance, strength training has specific advantages which are imperative for the human body. These include increased level of energy in the body, healthy and efficient weight loss, enhanced performance of the digestive system due to improved metabolic processes, reduced level of stress and improved intellectual performance (Kraemer 278). The exercise is also important in managing the level of depression. Physical body exercise enables the brain to regulate the movement of endorphins which are essential in controlling depression during and after the exercise (Robert and Ross 67). Strength training plays a vital role in protecting the human body against diseases, for instance, heart disease which is associated with the level of body activity can be easily controlled by physical exercise. Particular functions of the heart such as cardiovascular activities are enhanced through regular involvement in physical exercises such as body training. Strength training is also important in increasing the performance of respiratory system of the body by improving the functions of the lungs and other respiratory organs. Moreover, exercise reduces the rate of bone infection by strengthening the bones and enhancing the level of bone mineral (Thomas 189). To realize the above benefits, it is very cardinal to properly organize and plan strength training activity. This should also include identification of the training aims which have to be achieved (Kraemer 278). A good training program should be pursued on a regular basis. It is also important to determine the training activity which is suitable for the body. When selecting the appropriate activity, it is important for one to seek guidance from a professional who can also help in identification of the training objectives (Robert and Ross 67). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Importance of the Topic As an individual who chose the topic I have learned some lessons that are important for personal life development, for example, I have learned that strength training enhances one’s self confidence, self-esteem and self-worth. Strength training improves the level of self confidence by enabling an individual to acquire a desired body shape and appearance which is important for evaluation of one’s physical abilities (Thomas 189). Moreover, I have also learnt that strength training is very important in reducing the rate of ageing. The topic discussed in this study will help me make some changes in my lifestyle in order to achieve good health. The changes include increasing the level of participation in physical exercises, seeking guidance from health professionals on the most appropriate physical activity and encourage friends and relatives to participate in strength training. These changes will play an important role improving body energy and health. Works Cited Kraemer, William. Science and Practice of Strength Training. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics Publishers, 2006. Print. Robert, Kennedy and Don, Ross. Muscle Blasting: Brief and Brutal Shock Training. Sterling Publishing, 2004. Print Thomas, Faye. Fit and Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness: McGraw Hill 10th Ed, 2008. Print.
Avenue Park Accountants Marketing Plan Report
Executive Summary Avenue Park Accountants is a small business based in Manhattan and Mott Haven division of the South Bronx. The company was founded in 1990. The company offers a wide range of tax and management accounting products and services for small and medium size businesses in a geographical area covering Manhattan and Mott Haven division of the South Bronx. The product/services offered include tax services, management/cost accounting services, QuickBooks services, and premium client service (outsourcing service). The company expects to attain higher annual revenue from the bookkeeping services in the next three years. The company is expected to achieve sales of $40000 in the next three years, and net earnings of $60000 in the same period. Also, the company is expected to maintain a 50 percent benchmark performance. Introduction Company Background Avenue Park Accountants is a small business situated in the suburbs of the Mott Haven division of the South Bronx. The company offers a wide range of accounting services for small and medium size businesses in a geographical area covering Manhattan and Mott Haven division of the South Bronx. The company fits the needs of businesses dealing with the increasing agony of hiring staff and expanding operations. The company will offer attractive prices; both compared to the market and the cost of hiring its own accounting staff. Also, the company will offer very flexible and scalable services to the existing and prospective clients. Avenue Park Accountants will make the bookkeeping services, the core of the company’s business and a source for referrals for other accounting services. Company’s Goals Avenue Park Accountant’s goals include individual goals, marketing objectives, business goals, and customer satisfaction goals. Individual satisfaction goal entails minimizing the time spent on the business by the proprietor (Isaac Greenwood) and attainment of professional accreditation. The core marketing objective is the generation of massive numbers of leads and media coverage. Avenue Park Accountant’s business objective is to increase sales substantially over the next three years. Last but not least, the company aims to attain a high level of client satisfaction. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environmental Analysis Generally, accounting and bookkeeping services fit very well with the existing and new businesses. The industry is fairly stable since there are numerous individuals starting their businesses and looking for assistance to manage their finances, records, and tax regime. The industry is also highly concentrated, with workplaces occupying nearly half of the market. Given a large number of small and medium-size businesses, accounting services are in high demand. Also, most companies offering these services are embracing the current electronic systems geared towards clients with accounting/bookkeeping needs (Smith, 2013, p. 1). The political state of affairs in the US can be described as stable at the moment. The main focus of the current government is the global financial crisis and the reinforcement of the global economy. According to the US legislation, payroll and bookkeeping service businesses must follow Generally Accepted Accounting Principal (GAAP), as well as the US revenue law. While payroll and booking services are offered throughout the year, income tax is charged every quarter. As a result, these obligations must be met regularly (Smith, 2013, p. 1). The US economy is at the moment relatively stable and has recovered from the global economic crisis witnessed in 2007/08. However, the country is still grappling with high unemployment and economic uncertainties. The economic situation in the US is a major cause of concern to the company because they are likely to affect other economic factors, for instance, demand for services and profit margins. Since the economic factors are way beyond the company’s control, they will adversely affect its performance and marketing mix (Behr, 2009, p. 63). The high level of unemployment has led to declining demand for accounting services over the past few years. In 2012, it was estimated that the industry’s revenue declined by nearly 48 billion dollars. The high level of unemployment caused by the recession led to a decrease in payrolls and business dissolutions. As a result, many businesses opted for other cost-cutting measures. We will write a custom Report on Avenue Park Accountants Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the fortunes of the industry have improved in the past two years, with the revenue expected to go up by 4 percent as the economy normalizes. Also, the US service sector has been witnessing an increase in the number of young and vibrant entrepreneurs. These infant businesses prefer to outsource accounting services to cut costs (Smith, 2013, p. 2). The target market The accounting service market in the United States is mainly comprised of small businesses. As these businesses grow, they always need assistance from the professionals, especially with the preparation of tax reports, bookkeeping, and accounting services. While a number of these businesses hire these experts directly, many of them outsource these services. The primary market for Avenue Park Accountants is small size businesses located within Manhattan and Mott Haven division of the South Bronx. The company’s target market can be categorized into three groups: non-employer companies, very small businesses, and other small businesses. Non-employer companies are medium-sized firms with less concern compared to larger companies. However, the proprietors are very cautious in safeguarding their tax liability and returns. Most of these firms normally outsource QuickBooks and tax preparation services. Very small businesses are businesses with less than ten employees. These businesses normally outsource payroll services, bookkeeping, and tax preparation services. They cannot afford to hire a full-time expert but can manage to secure part-time assistance. Last but not least, other small businesses include businesses with employees between 10 and 100. These businesses can afford in-house financial management but opt to outsource these services to concentrate on their core business. Branding Strategy The positioning of the Avenue Park Accountants brand can be classified into two: customer’s services and advertising (Cravens
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