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Hospital Management In Nepal Health And Social Care Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp There is no internationally accepted clear definition for hospital. There are several types of hospitals based on the facilities, equipments and services, i.e. district hospitals, provincial hospitals, speciality hospitals and referral hospitals, teaching University hospitals and other types of health care facilities. There is no international standard defining what should be the minimum services that each hospital should provide during a health crisis. Each country has to develop a national policy and technical guidelines to deal with a health crisis. Before defining the essential services, the ministry of health has to define the essential health services that the health sector will provide to the community to the community in order to identify what more specific services will be delivered by hospitals (WHO, 2009). Management is defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of defined objectives. Management is included as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money. Renowned guru of management Peter Drucker (19909-2005) has said that the basic task of management is two fold: marketing and innovation. Practice of modern management owes its origin to the 16th century enquiry into low efficiency and failures of certain enterprises, conducted by the English statesman Sir. Thomas Moore (1478-1535). As a discipline, management consists of the interlocking services of formulating corporate policy6 and organizing, planning, controlling and directing an organization’s resources to achieve the policies’ objectives (Walden University, 2011).Hospital managenmnet.net suggests that Hospital Management provides a direct link between healthcare facilities and those supplying the services they need ( Hospital management.net 2011) . WHO in 2009 suggests understanding by hospital management as the effective and combined management of, the following factors:- (a) Acute care for emergency patients; (b) Out Patient Department (OPD) activities; (c) Investigation (laboratory; X-ray; other diagnostic elements); (d) Referral for primary health care (PHC); specialized consultations or services; (e) Contribution to public health programmes; (f) Part of health information system (surveillance system, including a EWS Component); (g) Public information and education; and (h) Preparedness for health crisis management. . Nepal is a landlocked country which is mostly covered by hills and mountains and it has a population of 25.8 million as estimated in 2006. It is in the south Asian continent, north to India and south to China. Its area is 147,181 sq. km (WHO, 2007). It has been facing several challenges to establish a functional health management system (Thapa, 2010). This essay deals with the challenges which Nepali health system is facing at present and suggests the possible ways for its improvement. Statement of the problem Nepal’s health system is in transition. Nepal is an underdeveloped country where the health indicators are very poor. The health service facility is not adequate to Nepali people. So the hospitals are (Dixit, 2005). Nepal’s hospital bed per ten thousand populations is 4.26 (2001/02), physician per ten thousand populations is 2 and Nurses per ten thousand population is also 2 as per the data of 2004 Similarly, Total Expenditure on Health (THE) as % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 5.3% and Public Expenditure on Health (PHE) as % of Total Expenditure on Health (THE) is 28 while Private Expenditure on Health (PvtHE) as % of Total Expenditure on Health (THE) 72(WHO, 2007). If it is compared with the other developing countries in the same region i.e. south east Asian region, the level of the problem may be perceived. Maldives, a small tiny country with population 298 thousand has Total Expenditure on Health (THE) as % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 6.2. Maldives’ Public Expenditure on Health (PHE) as % of Total Expenditure on Health (THE) is 89 as compared with 28 of Nepal. Private Expenditure on Health (PvtHE) as % of Total Expenditure on Health (THE) in Maldives is 11. It shows that the state has better involvement in Maldives than in Nepal. More over, the population per hospital bed is 381, which are 26.2 hospital beds per 10000 populations. Similarly, number of populations per physician 959 and nurses per 10000 populations are 33 (WHO, 2007). It clearly shows the scenario of health development of Nepal. As part of health, curative health services have a major role in providing quality health service to the people. Until the health care provider organizations are strong, the curative health service can not be delivered to the beneficiaries properly (Edelman and Mandle 2006). Hospitals are the key component of health care delivery system and they needs to be reformed to ensure a quality health care system (McKay and Healy, 2000).Unfortunately the hospitals in Nepal have very poor in quality management and they are not able to deliver quality health services to the people (Dixit, 2005). To address the needs and requirement of the hospital, the government of Nepal ( GON), Ministry of Health and Population ( MOHP) has published ”The guideline on the establishment, Operation policy and standard and infrastructure for Private and Public Health Hospitals” in 2004 ( MOHP,2004). But it is still lacking in the formulation of the standard for the hospitals run by the government (Dixit, 2005). However, the policy published by the MOHP tries to clarify on the basic parameters of the infrastructures required for the hospitals which may be applied for the general hospitals as well. But the document does not speak about the application in the government run hospitals (MOHP, 2004). That is why; there is a lack of clear cut guideline for the management of hospital. Nepal’s health sector is facing a challenge regarding the management (Dixit, 2005). As part of whole system of health in the country, management of the hospitals is also a challenge. 1.2 Summary of the problem Nepal has set a target to achieve the millennium Development goals by 2015. It has to meet the target in all health indicators. Goal no 3 and 4 are c loosely related with health and as part of curative health, hospital and hospital management have crucial role in health promotion. In Nepalese context, hospital management skill and concept of hospital management is still beyond the priority of the government and the government still does not have any policy guidelines over the hospital management sector (Dixit, 2005). People skill is a key asset for the development of key management styles. Dealing the people is a professional skill in itself. Being able to see from the perspective of others is essential, and caring for their welfare is also of prime importance. There are many high-profile examples of how to develop a successful management style. Managers like Bill Gates and Warren Buffett have famously developed their own distinctive management style from which others can learn. However, the fact that the two examples are very different management styles shows that there is no single route to success (Bono and Heller’s, 2009). But unfortunately, there are no clear guidelines or policy found in the government documents. The recent document on the guideline on the requirement of a hospital, government does not speak about the hospital management, its skill development and transfer for the improvement of a hospital (MOHP, 2004). Lack of professional skill in the person responsible to manage the hospitals has created a problem in hospital management. The government run or supervised hospitals still do not have positions for the hospitals. MOHP in its policy document has not mentioned anything about the hospital managers (MOHP, 2004). However, the private hospitals have started hiring them which is still out of the government policy (Thapa, 2010). Nepal is a underdeveloped country where the literacy rate is only 62.7% for male and 34.9% for female as per the report of census 2001 (CBS, 2001). It means still 64.1% women are out of literacy coverage. Nepal has poor health facilities all over the country except in capital Kathmandu and other urban areas. Most of the doctors are not willing to go to the rural areas hospitals and they are often running without (qualified) doctors (Dixit, 2005). In conclusion, the poor socio-economic conditions, hard geographical conditions and lack of awareness of the people and traditional beliefs and superstitions, lack of will in the political parties and their leaders are the main burning issues for the improvement of health sector in Nepal (Chaulagain, 2004). These all are problems associated with the hospitals and ultimately with their management. The factors associated to hospital management are still not uncovered in Nepal (Thapa, 2010). So, it Purpose of the study As mentioned above, it has been obvious that Nepal is facing the problems to strengthen the management of the health sector. The documents are not found to have been lacking regarding the strategies and policies on the health management. So, the essay aims to identify the hindering factors affecting the hospital management in Nepal. It will study the existing policies and strategies of the government of Nepal on hospital management, international principles, theories and practices on hospital management and identify the factors which are affecting the betterment for hospital management sector of Nepal. So, the purpose of the study is to identify the current issues that hinder the hospital management in the case of Nepal and suggest the concerning authorities about improving the management system, formulating the policies and implementing them. It will analyse the strength and limitations of the hospital management system in Nepal and help all the concerned to mitigate and minimize them. Main research question The study can not answer all questions that come on surface while studying about the issue. So, to narrow down the study area and sharpen the focus, the study has defined the main study questions as follows:- What are the hindering factors that effect the hospital management in Nepal? Subsidiary Questions To supplement the main research question, these questions are defined as subsidiary questions as follows:- What are the existing strong aspects of the hospital management in Nepal? What are the limiting factors in hospital management in Nepal? How is the existing hospital management system in Nepal? What is the appropriate modality or best practices of hospital management that are applied in the world by other countries and What are the factors that are hindering the in the betterment in the hospital management in Nepal? Hypothesis Lindsen and Jong (2005) have defined hypothesis as an alternative explanation of residual switch trial costs or, more precisely, of the empirical finding that the repetition trial (RT) distribution for switch trials with a long preparation intervals can be modelled as a mixture of the RT distributions for repetition trials and for switch trials with a short preparation interval (Lindsen and Jong, 2010). In here, the hypothesis tries to establish an alternative factor that might be supposed to be the commonest hindering factor for the management of hospitals in Nepal. The hypothesis taken here is the lack of professionalization of hospital managers or the person who are involved in the management of either government run or private or community run hospitals in Nepal. It will be verified by the study afterwards in here. Significance of Study As mentioned above there are no special policies and practices established for hospital management in Nepal. The hospitals are managed by the medical doctors or surgeons so far (MOHP, 2004). The doctors are not entitled to diagnose the patients, treat them, run medical and surgical and public health cams campaigns in the hospitals or in the periphery of the hospitals. The Medical council is liable to assign the job responsibilities of the doctors in the case of Nepal. But it has not mentioned about the management part of the hospital and its regulation, Nepal Medical Council Act, 1964 (amended in 2001).It does not speak who is responsible for that (Nepal Medical Council, NMC, 2001). There is no one professionally responsible for the hospital management in the present context. In the country where the government policy about the medical sector does not speak about the role of hospital management, it becomes obvious that the hospital management sector is not running smoothly. No presence of the monitoring body to supervise and evaluate the hospital management is found in the present documents whether published by the government or private organizations. So, the studies’ significance is in establishing the fact what is the main barrier and other minor barriers in the hospital management of Nepal. That is why this study is has an important significance. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Volunteer experience have a lot of benefits especially in building your future career. Like it helps you to have a better relationship with the people you work with, you build your trust to them, build your confidence and self-esteem while working with them. You will also be sportmanship, have respect to others like their opinions and suggestions, team-building and others. You will also learn a lot and new skills that can help you in yout future work. It also helps you to know yourself more by knowing that you can do other things. It also helps you to develop and practice your skills and knowledge. It will also give you a memory and experience that are sometimes hard to forget. These are just some of the things that you can learn, use and apply it in you future career to make you a better employee.
Engineering homework help. This is a paper that focuses on the creation of a set of policy recommendations synthesis assignment. The paper also provides guidelines on how to write the assignment paper.,Creation of a set of policy recommendations synthesis assignment,Description:,Synthesis Assignment: Policy Recommendations Your task in our final assignment is to create a set of policy recommendations, with the goal of reducing CO2 emissions from the electric sector by the year 2030. The recommendations should be aimed at relevant decision makers in a specific country. We suggest you focus on the country you live in now, the country you grew up in, or one that you care the most about. You do not need to use full paragraphs in this essay. You may write in short simple sentences or bullet points if that works better for you.,Your submission should be at least 1000 words, and no more than 1500 words (2 points). Plan to spend no more than 3-4 hrs on this assignment, not counting the time to grade your fellow learners. You may want to write this assignment in a separate text editor and copy-paste it in here when you are done. Please include the following:,Background Description (2 points): Briefly summarize your country’s electricity sector, including total generation, the current mix of generators, prices, recent history, notable problems if any (like low reliability) and any important political or social factors. This should not take more than 300-500 words unless your country has very unusual circumstances that you need to explain in order to explain your policy.,Creation of a set of policy recommendations synthesis assignment,Recommendation (8 points): What is your goal? How much are you suggesting ,CO2 emissions from electricity, sector should decline by, and roughly how much will it cost? Describe both the technological side (what will be built, what will be dismantled) and the policy side. (what new taxes, laws, funding, or mandates you will create). The technical side should be more detailed, as we have not reviewed policies extensively in this course. You should connect the cost of achieving your goal to the CO2 reduction that you propose. We are NOT asking you to compute the actual exact cost of cutting emissions. That’s way too hard.,Instead, we want you to use what you know to make a few quantitative arguments about costs. You could, for example, provide upper and lower limits on the cost. If, for example, you’re proposing to replace half of electricity generation with solar, you could do an LCOE estimate that compares solar PV in your country with the cheapest fossil generator. Also, a rough estimate of transmission costs if you propose building the solar farms far from population centers. You should list the highest and lowest amount that you would expect this to cost.,If you assign a carbon tax, you might estimate the highest and lowest amounts of revenue that this tax might generate. Rationale (2 points): Why do you make these recommendations and not others? Describe one or two other solutions, with their benefits and drawbacks, and why you prefer your method. Potential Problems (2 points): How might your recommended policy fail to achieve your emissions reductions goals? What are some of the worst possible side effects?,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Engineering homework help

Geophys 6001 Missouri University of Science and Technology Calculate the convolution of the two time sequences Final Exam

Geophys 6001 Missouri University of Science and Technology Calculate the convolution of the two time sequences Final Exam.

10pts)Showthegraphicalrepresentationofthesignaly(n)=x(2n+5),wherex(n)isthesignal illustrated in the following figure.42. (5 pts) Convert the following binary numbers to decimal numbers. 11101010 11000010011013. (15pts)Calculatetheconvolutionofthetwotimesequences.Givetheprocedureindetail.at = {−6,5,1,0,−1,3} and bt = {0.5,0.5}4. (20pts)Atimeseriesissampledat200Hz.WhatarethesamplingintervalandNyquist frequency? The original signal, before digitizing, was contaminated with noise of about 350 Hz. At what frequency would this noise appear in the spectrum of the digitized sequence? Repeat the calculation for noise contamination at 475 Hz.5. (20 pts) Find the Discrete Fourier transform of the sequence [0, 0, 1, -1]. Plot the amplitude spectrum.6. (10pts)Isthesequence[2,32,5]minimumphase?Ifnot,findtheminimumphasesequence with the same amplitude spectrum.7. (10pts)AwaveletandareflectivityaregivenbyXt=[3,2],Yt=[4,1,5].Calculatethecross- correlation γ xy (τ ) and autocorrelation γ yy (τ ) . 18. (10pts)SketchtheFouriertransformsofthefollowingtimeseriesandexplainyourresults.
Geophys 6001 Missouri University of Science and Technology Calculate the convolution of the two time sequences Final Exam

Module 1: Community Educational Project Site Selection and Letter of Permission

order essay cheap Module 1: Community Educational Project Site Selection and Letter of Permission. Help me study for my Nursing class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Assignment:

Select your site for the community educational project.
Complete and submit the signed (not typed) Community Health Educational Project Permission Form. (if this cannot be completed in the first week, please speak directly with your professor about options). No typed signatures are permitted- the person in charge at the venue you choose to use for your presentation will need to sign the form.
Project Concert: Please document your hours for this module in Project Concert. Access Project Concert. You should have an estimated 2 – 3 hours for this module.

Please submit your site selection in an APA formatted essay of 250 to 300 words in length. In this course, in every module assignment or discussion, due to the nature of the assignments, you are permitted to use first person, such as I, We, Me, Us, etc. The essay should explain why you selected the site and when and where your educational presentation will take place. Please submit the essay and the permission form into the dropbox- these may be submitted in two files in the dropbox. Remember that all essay assignments are to be in strict APA format with the required title page (See the APA sample paper attached to your welcome to class email for details), an intro paragraph to tell the reader the purpose of the paper, your discussion of your assignments, a conclusion paragraph to sum up the paper, and references listed for each source that is sited with in the text of the paper. This course does not utilize an Abstract or an annotated bibliography.
Module 1: Community Educational Project Site Selection and Letter of Permission

Software Bugs Types, Causes and Consequences Essay

Computer bugs, or software bugs, are a common problem related to software, and a scourge for program developers. Bugs frequently cause numerous problems and inconveniences to software users, often rendering programs unusable, and demand much effort from the programmers to be managed. In this paper, we will discuss software bugs in more detail, examining their types, causes, consequences, and history, and provide some examples of bugs that led to major losses. A software bug is a term that is used to denote a fault, error, or failure in a piece of computer software, which yields an undesirable result such as a software crash, incorrect behavior of the program, etc. (“A Presentation” par. 1). There exist a number of types of software bugs. These include arithmetic, interfacing, teamworking, performance, resource, syntax, logic, multi-threading programming bugs, and access violations (Periyasamy par. 2). Software bugs are usually caused by an error made in the process of writing a program. The mistakes can be made at any stage of the software development, and can usually be found in the software’s design, source code, and operating systems in which the programs were run; in some cases, compilers are also capable of causing an error. The most frequently occurring bugs are logic bugs caused by typos when a programmer mistakenly inputs a wrong symbol that is then interpreted by the computer in a different way than the programmer intended. Apparently, bugs as a phenomenon existed since the development of the first pieces of software; any people, including the very first programmers, are prone to error, so the human factor is always present. The name, however, is said to originate from G. Hopper, a U.S. Navy Admiral and one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, who is reputed to have found a moth in a computer. On the other hand, it is stated that the term “bug” was used to denote mistakes and problems long before that. Therefore, the term has earlier roots, but since some point in time, it became firmly associated with programming errors (Computerworld n. pag.). Computer bugs can be rather harmful, rendering a piece of software unusable or making its use difficult. Often, bugs are encountered when one installs a piece of software and finds that it is not working properly. This leads to the need to look for patches or even buying alternative programs. In organizations, people may lose much time waiting until their programs can work properly. In rare cases, bugs can cause major losses or even extreme situations endangering people’s lives (for instance, if a bug appears in software designed for air industry, or when telecommunications stop working, and people are unable to call an ambulance). Software designers are forced to take numerous measures in order to avoid bugs, and invest additional resources into debugging (the process of finding errors and disposing of them) (Gupta, Ganeshan, and Singhal 60). Special programs (“debuggers,” bug tracking systems) are developed to find the errors in the code, after which the programmers fix it. In many cases, software testing and debugging take more effort than writing the program itself. To provide some examples of bugs that led to serious consequences, it is possible to name a bug that caused AT

Old Dominion University International Political Economy & Promotes Competition Essay

Old Dominion University International Political Economy & Promotes Competition Essay.

Respond to each question 1.Which of our three theories – Liberalism, Realism, and Radicalism- is most useful for the study of international political economy? Your response should demonstrate knowledge of all three theories.2.Under our current system of flexible exchange rates, the national currencies of most countries fluctuate in value. Why do currencies appreciate and depreciate in value.?3.Should countries engage in international trade? Why or why not?4.Does foreign direct investment have a positive or negative impact on host countries?5.Does legal migration have a positive or negative impact on the country of settlement?
Old Dominion University International Political Economy & Promotes Competition Essay