Get help from the best in academic writing.

Home Depot: Robert Nardelli Case Research Paper

In the case surrounding the former CEO of the Home Depot the stock prices fell up to 8% under his six year tenure and during the same years he received more than $240 million as his compensation package. However the Robert Nardelli resigned 1st January 2007 but not before taking an exit package that was worth approximately $210 million dollars. Such a huge exit package was however made possible thanks to his employment agreement policy with the Home Depot Company which Robert entered into when he was hired by the company in the year 2000. This form of employment contract with the company is a binding legal agreement that is very difficult if not impossible for the company to break or even revoke and it is very common in very many other corporations. On the other hand the employment agreements clearly spell out what a chief executive officer will eventually receive as his compensation package and it also at times guarantees payment regardless of the executive’s performance. James R. And Chris W. (2007). In the case of Robert Nardelli among his other benefits his employment contract called for his annual salary of approximately 41.5 million dollars, an annual bonus of approximately $3 million dollars, an annual stock option grant that is approximately 450,000 shares as well as a grant of his deferred stock units that was corresponding to 750,000 shares the stock and this was regardless of his performance in the company. On the other hand his employment contract also predetermined how much compensation he would eventually receive in any possible termination scenario before the end of his working tenure. In Nardalli’s case of his recent resignation a part of his employment agreement stated that he would receive $20 million dollars in cash severance and the agreement also called for an accelerated vesting of options and the differed stock awards which he received throughout his employment in the Home Depots Company. The 40% of his $210 million dollars in his exit package or even the $84 million was for the reason that there was an acceleration vesting in the options as well as the stock awards. A large part of this amount also consists of the annual compensation that was guaranteed by his contract. To make the matters worse he received a stock options grant during the brief market slide that was shortly after the 2001 terrorist attacks in America and this however broke the company’s regular pattern of the issuing options. By granting the stock options during a period of a temporary decline in the stock prices can further result into a windfall profit that is unrelated to the company’s performance. Figure 1. Home depot. Lowe’s ( source: Bloomberg Financial Markets) Figure 2. The Home depot inc. (source: Home Depot 8-K, 2007) The Home Depot Company further revealed that the American securities and exchanges commission initiated an informal which is related to the past stock option grants. The backdated stock options from the year 1981 to the year 2000 resulted in the $200 million in the overstated earnings. The backdating that ended in the year that Robert became the chief executive officer of the Home Depot company even though an internal review further concluded that there was no wrongdoing by the board of directors or even the current management but it does not clearly state who was responsible. Michael B. (2007). The ethical problem Ethical norms are the moral standards that help us judge good from bad or right from wrong and living morally. They involve articulating the good habits or character that we should have, the consequences of our behavior on us and others and the duties that we are supposed to follow. It is very unethical, for the Home Made Company to provide the former chief executive officer with the severance parachutes. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because he failed to maintain the growth that the company had previously experienced and this pointed to his huge salary as a sign that he was meant to bring in new innovation to the company so as to help maintain its historical growth. It is however unethical when an individual is paid a hefty salary or even a severely parachuted compensation package and they do not bring in any positive results to the company. This means that the former chief executive officer was paid for the work which he did not even perform since after his employment the company’s growth declined and it also failed to maintain the substantial historical growth. Robert Nardelli was also very unethical since he was a very blunt and critical manager who turned off his employees and his compensation package that earned the investors fury. In the year 2006 a lot of questions were mounting concerning his leadership and he then directed the company’s board of directors to skip the company annual meeting which was unethical. He also forbid the shareholders from speaking more than one minute by using very large digital timers. His unethical behavior in the meeting with the shareholders as well as the showdown over his compensation package further caused the board of directors to oust him in January 2007. Even though his compensation was based on his employment contract and it was compliant to the laws rules and regulations it was ethical that his compensation be based on his performance since he was employed by the company. It was also unethical for him not to answer the shareholders questions but rather evade them so that they can then become informed on issues which pertain the company’s operations. Therefore he concealed very crucial information that was needful to the shareholders and he also did not act in a transparent manner and therefore he lost confidence with the shareholders as well as the public. It is also unethical that the company paid its stock holders less in returns after seeing an increase in revenue and profit. This is because the corporation should not only use the stakeholders to basically maximize the company’s profits but the corporation should understand that the company’s relationship with the shareholders is highly based on the moral, normative as well as commitment. It is also very unethical that Nardelli went to the previous shareholders annual meeting as the only board member present and he did not even give a speech as he also refused to answer questions from the stakeholders. This highly frustrated the 50 or even more shareholders who had shown up for the meeting and this prompted the relational shareholders to urge the company to re-evaluate its strategy on the management team performance. It is also notable that Nardelli replaced several executives in the company with his former colleagues as he also implemented the top-down management. This move was very unethical since there were no proper rules or even procedures that were used by him in recruiting his former employees. We will write a custom Research Paper on Home Depot: Robert Nardelli Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly his recruitments meant that some of the employees in the Home Depots Corporation had to either lose their jobs or be transferred to other departments without their consent. The theoretical approach Edward Freeman’s Stakeholder theory The stakeholders theory by Edward freeman identifies and also models the groups which are the stakeholders of a company and it also describes and recommends the methods by which the company’s management can give due regard to the interests of such groups. Since the shareholders of the Home Depot are the owners of the company the corporation therefore has to put their needs first so as to increases the value for them. In the stated case the shareholders needs have not been put first and their opinions are not relevant in any way according to the former CEO of the company who did not give them any opportunity to ask him any questions. It is very important that the company converts the investors, employees and suppliers inputs into salable outputs that the consumers buy thereby returning some capital benefit to the company. According to this theory the Home Depot Corporation should address the needs of the investors, the suppliers, the consumers and also the employees. On the other hand according to this theory the company management should know that it has a fiduciary responsibility to its stakeholders and that the corporation is a very important tool for immortality that was not displayed in Robert Nardellis case. The corporation according to this theory in addressing the issue ought to instigate on the doctrine of the fair contracts whereby the principles of entry as well as exit are clearly defined according to the general acceptable ethical standards. Secondly the corporation should have the principle of governance whereby there are set rules of the game which have been set by the unanimous consent which did not happen in Roberts case. Donaldson, T.
Acaydia Fraud Dishonest Act That Benefits Employee But Impacts the Employer Reply.

Please respond to monica with 200 words Fraud is a dishonest act by an employee that has a benefit to the employee and at a cost to the employer. Internal control consists of methods and measures that are taken by an organization or company to help limit the amount of fraud that takes place. There are five main components that make up “internal control”. 1) Control environment, where management makes it clear that integrity is crucial and unethical activity is not tolerated. 2) Risk assessment where companies analyze the different risk factors and how to manage them and keep them minimal. 3) Control activities where management puts policies and procedures in place to reduce fraudulent activities from being done. 4) Information and communication ensuring information is captured and then communicated to the correct chain of command as well as to external parties. 5) Monitoring of the internal control systems to ensure adequacy, which will also allow for deficiencies to be noted and reported to upper management and/or board of directors.There are six activities in place with the internal control system, though not flawless, can help significantly reduce fraud from occurring. In actuality, the only way these control activities do not work, is when two or more employees are working together in the fraudulent activity. The activities in place are: 1. Establishment of responsibilities, 2. Segregation of duties, 3. Documentation procedures, 4. Physical controls 5. Independent internal verification, 6. Human resources controls. When it comes to the accounting part of internal controls, much of the same protocols are followed to lessen the risk of fraud. Using a bank is a type of control used, as they are an outside entity and not involved with the company. The bank keeps records for the customer, and those records do not necessarily reflect the same records as the company. The bank statement, issued each month from the bank to the customer allows for the customer to compare records and reconcile them, so that they can see what items have been paid, are awaiting payment, if there have been any entry errors, if there are any returned checks, or insufficient funds. Another control activity that is used in the accounting is the segregation of duties, by making sure the employee who does the reconciliation of the bank account does not have any other responsibilities pertaining to cash in the company. The bank statement is compared with the company balance ledger and the balances are shown to equal each other. Without the journalizing and posting the account will not show the correct balance. If there is a discrepancy, either an adjustment is added to the ledger due to an error, or the bank is contacted to have the error corrected on their end. Internal controls are necessary to manage a company and to minimize the amount of risk factors and fraud that take place within a company.
Acaydia Fraud Dishonest Act That Benefits Employee But Impacts the Employer Reply

SOCW6530 Walden University Termination in Education Experience Blog Post.

Due 10/12/2019 by 6 PM#8 Post a blog post that includes: (Please use clinical expertise in writing)1. An explanation of potential challenges for evaluation during your
field education experience2. An explanation of personal action plans you might take to address
evaluation in your field education experienceReferences
(you have references from previous assignment)Thyer, B. A.
(2013). Evidence-based practice or evidence-guided practice: A rose by any
other name would smell as sweet [Invited response to Gitterman & Knight’s
“evidence-guided practice”]. Families inSociety, 94(2), 79–84.Wharton,
T. C., & Bolland, K. A. (2012). Practitioner perspectives of evidence-based
practice. Families in Society, 93(3), 157–164.*******************************************************************************************************#9 Post a blog post that
includes:·An explanation of how you have addressed termination or how you
might address termination in your field education experienceReferencesBirkenmaier,
J., & Berg-Weger, M. (2018). The practicum companion for social work:
Integrating class and fieldwork (4th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.·Chapter 9, “Social Work Practice and the Legal System” (pp.
207-224)Laureate
Education (Producer). (2013g). Termination [Audio file]. Retrieved from
https://class.waldenu.edu
SOCW6530 Walden University Termination in Education Experience Blog Post

Strayer Univeristy Management Conflict Essay.

Assignment: Complementary Partners
Imagine you are working with a partner to plan and host a workshop on leadership. There will be 100 people attending. Within this assignment you will be creating a document that discusses the main components of leadership and corporate culture.
Write a three to five (3-5) page paper in which you:
1. Address a key leadership trait that can assist in managing conflict.
2. Discuss a tool or strategy a leader can adopt for improving communication within the organization.
3. Describe some methods for motivating employees and improving behaviors within the workplace.
Format your assignment according to the following formatting requirements:
• Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
• Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
• Describe the primary functions of management (planning, organizing, leading, controlling) and the associated skills, tools, and theoretical approaches that can be used to accomplish these functions.
• Explain the principal theories of leadership and motivation, and describe the fundamental considerations in managing and motivating individual and group behavior.
• Describe actions to improve communications, manage conflict, develop strong organizational culture, and improve the ethical behavior in organizations.
• Use technology and information resources to research issues in management concepts.
• Write clearly and concisely about management concepts using proper writing mechanics.
Note: Assignment will be check for plagiarism
• Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.
Points: 200 Assignment 2: Complementary Partners
Criteria
Unacceptable
Below 60% F Meets Minimum Expectations
60-69% D
Fair
70-79% C
Proficient
80-89% B
Exemplary
90-100% A
1. Address a key leadership trait that can assist in managing conflict.
Weight: 20% Did not submit or incompletely addressed a key leadership trait that can assist in managing conflict. Insufficiently addressed a key leadership trait that can assist in managing conflict. Partially addressed a key leadership trait that can assist in managing conflict. Satisfactorily addressed a key leadership trait that can assist in managing conflict. Thoroughly addressed a key leadership trait that can assist in managing conflict.
2. Discuss a tool or strategy a leader can adopt for improving communication within the organization.
Weight: 25% Did not submit or incompletely discussed a tool or strategy a leader can adopt for improving communication within the organization. Insufficiently discussed a tool or strategy a leader can adopt for improving communication within the organization. Partially discussed a tool or strategy a leader can adopt for improving communication within the organization. Satisfactorily discussed a tool or strategy a leader can adopt for improving communication within the organization. Thoroughly discussed a tool or strategy a leader can adopt for improving communication within the organization.
3. Describe some methods for motivating employees and improving behaviors within the workplace.
Weight: 25% Did not submit or incompletely described some methods for motivating employees and improving behaviors within the workplace. Insufficiently described some methods for motivating employees and improving behaviors within the workplace. Partially described some methods for motivating employees and improving behaviors within the workplace. Satisfactorily described some methods for motivating employees and improving behaviors within the workplace. Thoroughly described some methods for motivating employees and improving behaviors within the workplace.
4. Follow Strayer Writing Standards (SWS) requirements for format, in-text citation of quotes and paraphrases, and references page.
Weight: 10% Did not complete the assignment or had more than 9 errors in following SWS requirements. Had 8-9 errors in following SWS requirements. Had 6-7 different errors in following SWS requirements. Had 4-5 different errors in following SWS requirements. Had 0-3 different errors in following SWS requirements.
5. Follow guidelines for clear and organized writing: include an introductory and concluding paragraph; address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences.
Weight: 10% Did not submit or incompletely followed guidelines for clear and organized writing. Insufficiently followed guidelines for clear and organized writing: did not include an introductory and / or concluding paragraph; did not address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences. Partially followed guidelines for clear and organized writing: included a partially developed introductory and / or concluding paragraph; partially addressed main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences. Sufficiently followed guidelines for clear and organized writing: included an introductory and concluding paragraph; sufficiently addressed main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences. Fully followed guidelines for clear and organized writing: included an engaging introductory and thoughtful concluding paragraph; fully addressed main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and detailed supporting sentences.
6. Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling.
Weight: 10% Did not complete the assignment or had more than 9 errors in grammar, punctuation, mechanics, spelling. Had 8-9 errors in grammar, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, spelling. Had 6-7 different errors in grammar, punctuation, mechanics, spelling. Had 4-5 different errors in grammar, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, spelling. Had 0-3 different errors in grammar, punctuation, mechanics, spel
Strayer Univeristy Management Conflict Essay

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Human Intelligence

The Genetic and Environmental Effects on Human Intelligence The use of heritability in determining how genetics and environment affect intelligence, and to what extent. Introduction The extent to which intelligence is determined by one’s genes and environment is a rather debatable topic, as there are studies that prove that both factors play a significant role. Heritability, “the proportion of observed variation in a particular trait that can be attributed to inherited genetic factors in contrast to environmental ones” (Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary, 1999), can be used to determine the role that genetics and environment play in determining an individual’s intellectual aptitude. Phenotypic traits are expressed by genes, which are a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring. Environment is seperate from of one’s genes, as it is “the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival” (Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary, 1999). Environmental and genetic factors may go hand in hand as one’s intelligence may not be dependent not on one of them, but both. Intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills, and is often expressed as IQ (intellectual quotient). IQ heritability is the portion of a population’s IQ variability attributable to the effects of genes (Devlin). After investigating IQ heritability for almost a century, it has been discovered that covariance between relatives may be due not only to genes, but also to shared environments. Covariance is the measure of the joint variability of two random variables. Throughout this essay, I will be analyzing different studies in order to come to a conclusion on how much intelligence is determined by one’s genetics and environment, and how these two factors affect each other in the process. How Environmental Factors Affect the Extent to Which Genes Determine Intelligence (Evidence that extent that shared environmental influences vary based on what the environment is) Turkheimer et al. (2003) was a study conducted to test the genotype-environment interaction in the intelligence of young children. Using a sample of seven year old children from the National Perinatal Collaborative Project, it was concluded that genetic and shared environmental influences on IQ were altered by the socioeconomic status of the children (Harden, 273). For underprivileged children, shared environmental influences were responsible for nearly 60% of the variance, while genetic factors were responsible for minor variance. For privileged children, the results were the opposite, with genetic factors being responsible for a majority of the variance. In a replication of Turkheimer et al (2003) called Genotype by Environment Interaction in Adolescents’ Cognitive Aptitude, participants were sampled from 600,000 American adolescents who had taken the National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test in 1962 in order to investigate genotype-environment interaction in intelligence (Harden, 274) Of these 600,000 adolescents, almost the entirety of them were in juniors in high school as well as 17 years old. 839 of the participants were twins. The NMSQT is made up of five subtests including English Usage, Mathematics Usage, Social Science Reading, Natural Science Reading, and Word Usage/Vocabulary (Harden, 274). The test is claimed to be highly reliable as “The variance of NMSQT total scores is roughly constant across the range of total scores” (Harden, 274). The test is described as “… a measure of cognitive aptitude, students’ readiness for future and intellectual or educational pursuits” (Harden, 274). The test therefore contrasts with the IQ test used in Turkheimer et. al (2003). Nonetheless, it is suggested that both tests accurately display an individual’s general cognitive ability. “Therefore, we can reasonably expect genotype– environment interactions for NMSQT aptitude scores to be similar to those found for IQ, although differences between cognitive ability and cognitive aptitude may have some implications for replication” (Harden, 274). Mothers described their own and the father’s level of education as well as annual family income by completing a survey. “Parental education was classified on a 6-point ordinal scale, from less than an 8th grade education to a graduate or professional degree. Mid-parent education was calculated as the average of maternal and paternal education (median = 3.5; variance = 1.44). Income was classified on a 7-point ordinal scale (median = 3; variance = 2.37), from less than $5000 per year to over $25,000 per year (roughly equivalent to less than $31,250 to over $156,250 in 2004 dollars)” (Harden, 275). As predicted, the dispersal of parental income was not representative of the United States. 84% of the NMSQT families refused to report incomes less than $5000, as opposed to 58% of the 1960 United States Population. The education and income of parents paralleled with adolescents’ NMSQT scores. Twin pair average NMSQT score for twins pairs without parental income disclosure was substantially less than the average score of twin pairs with parents that agreed to disclose income (Harden, 275). On the other hand, twin pair average scores were not affected by failure to receive parental education disclosure. The first step towards finding the results was to perform an exploratory factor analysis using the twin’s subtest scores. The EFA randomly picked a twin from each pair in attempt to eliminate bias as a result of non-independent observations. For this reason, it was decided to consider genotype-environment interactions for overall cognitive aptitude, as a common factor of the NMSQT subtests (Harden, 275). Through the use of the cognitive aptitude factor, two series of interaction models were used for each measure of SES. Both interaction models broke down the variance of cognitive aptitude into four parts, “variance accounted for by the measured environment (income or education), variance due to other environmental influences shared by twins (C), variance due to additive genetic influences (A), and variance unique to each twin (E; due to environmental influences not shared by twins and measurement error)” (Harden, 275). The principle effect of nonshared environment was estimated due to the strong monozygotic twin correlations for NMSQT proposing that shared influences are insignificant. “Inclusion of the main effects of parental income and education is necessary both because it was hypothesized there are such main effects and because of the possibility of genotype–environment correlation (rGE)” (Harden, 276). Parent’s cognitive aptitude correspond with their levels of income and education which means that the genetic impacts on intellectual aptitude that teenagers inherit parallel with their socioeconomic status. Purcell (2000) was a study that that proved that including the most significant impact of the measured environment disallows bias when estimating genotype-environment correlation. However, in this study, genotype-environment correlation could not be examined because a within-twin pair variation would have been necessary to include in the analysis. Twin pairs were required to be monozygotic for the parental variables used in order to indicate socioeconomic status. Tables were used to record the common factor model of NMSQT subtest estimates for education and income models. There are slight differences between the two tables with the reason being that they are built upon two vaguely different subsets of the sample. It may also be feasible that that these slight differences between education and income in their accordance to NMSQT subtests are indicated in the measurement segment of the model. The results of the investigation supported the theory that the extent of genetic impacts on intellectual aptitude differs based on socioeconomic status. These results partly reproduce the results found by Turkheimer et al. (2003). Although, no shared environmental interaction impacts were confirmed in the present study. Genetic influences were responsible for close to 55% of the variance in adolescents’ cognitive aptitude while shared environmental influences were responsible for about 35% of the variance amid families of higher income (Holden 280). Amid families of lower income, the proportions were quite the opposite, with genetics influences being responsible for around 39% of the variance and shared environment being responsible for nearly 45% of the variance. This pattern is is similar to the one presented by Turkheimer et al. (2003), but is less pronounced. “We were unable to demonstrate directly that parental income and parental education differ in their interaction with genetic influences on cognitive aptitude; however, income and education models had different patterns of results, with a significant genetic interaction detected only for income” (Holden, 280). This statement suggest that not all aspects of socioeconomic status equally aid the expression of genetic potential. “Overall, these results mirror findings in other areas of behavior genetic research demonstrating that the magnitude of genetic variance is not a static characteristic of a trait but a population statistic that may be moderated by other predictors” (Holden, 280). Despite the credibility of this replication of Turkheimer et al., there are limitations present throughout the study. The first limitation involves the difficulty with interpreting interaction between genotype and socioeconomic status. The difficulty lies in the idea that socioeconomic status most likely reflects genetic difference between parents as well as differences in the the condition of the environment provided for the children. “The observed increase in heritability with parental income, therefore, may reflect an interaction with genetic differences between more and less affluent families, rather than an interaction with environmental quality. Income, however, is loaded with genetic variance to a lesser extent than parental education or occupational status and is less closely related to parental IQ” (Holden, 281). In addition, there were some issues with using an even distribution of types of participants used in the study. “The National Collaborative Perinatal Project sample over-represented children from extremely disadvantaged environments, with 33% of families on public assistance and 25% of mothers having less than a 9th grade education. In contrast, the adolescents composing the NMSQT sample are relatively advantaged in terms of intellectual ability” (Holden, 281).This uneven representation may have skewed the results of the study. It is then explained that the socioeconomic advantage of NMSQT adolescents may be due to factors including, (a) for this cohort, only adolescents with a certain level of academic achievement took the NMSQT; (b) of twins identified as potential participants, non-response may have been associated with environmental disadvantage” (Holden, 281). Overall, the results of the study are valid due to the extensive precision and accuracy of observed data within. While limitations are present, they do not affect the results of the data extensively. How Genes Directly Influence Intelligence (Evidence of Direct Genetic Effects on Intelligence making specific references to genetic defects) While the previous study’s results suggest that the extent of genetic impacts on cognitive aptitude differs based on socioeconomic status, the next studies that will be referenced will focus on direct genetic effects on mental ability. Genetic factors can directly impact mental ability just like how environmental factors can directly influence the extent to which genetics impact intelligence. The author of “Genes for Intelligence”: A Review of Recent Progress, Gerhard Meisenberg, states, “Some of the genetic effects on mental ability appear to be mediated by the speed of neural information processing (Luciano et al., 2004), and others by brain size (Posthuma et al., 2002) or brain structure (Toga and Thompson, 2005). Brain size and the speed of information processing are independently related to intelligence (Walhovd et al., 2005)” (Meisenberg, 139-140). General intelligence, usually determined by IQ tests, is a good applicant for molecular genetic studies because it is known that this trait has quite a high heritability. Meisenburg believes that while there is not much known about the heritability of episodic memory, social skills, common sense and several other cognitive abilities that are not normally included in mental tests, there is no reason to think that these abilities are free from genetic influences (Meisenburg, 140). Molecular genetic studies may uncover genetic variants that impact these abilities selectively and with the abilities incorporated into mental tests. Mental deficiency is a symptom of several uncommon genetic diseases that are the outcome of significant single-gene defects. “According to a recent search of the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database, at least 282 genes are known in which serious mutations can cause mental retardation (Inlow and Restifo, 2004)” (Meisenberg, 140). Meisenburg claims that these mental retardation syndromes are uncommon because the responsible mutations are often removed from the gene pool through natural selection. “We do not know to what extent subtle genetic variants in these mental retardation genes contribute to variations of intelligence in the ‘normal’ range” (Meisenberg, 140). Meisenburg goes on to explain that while mental retardation syndromes are caused by serious genetic defects, IQ variation in the normal range in believed to be contributed to genetic variants with smaller effects (Meisenburg, 140). These variations occur in genes called quantitative trait loci. “As pointed out in an earlier review (Meisenberg, 2003), we can expect two types of genetic variation in these quantitative trait loci. One type consists of damaging mutations that are not sufficiently severe to cause clinically recognized mental retardation syndromes. Most of these mutations are expected to be pleiotropic, having other unfavorable effects in addition to reduced intelligence” (Meisenberg, 140). These undesirable mutations are often eliminated by natural selection throughout the course of several generations and for this reason it is believed that they could never rise to high rates in the population. According to Meisenburg, this is called purifying selection. The majority of genetic forms of mental retardation are the product of mutations that started in the patient or emerged rather recently. “The hypothesis that new mutations are also an important cause of low intelligence in the “normal” population is hard to test directly, but it does make a testable prediction: IQ declines with advanced paternal age” (141-142). New mutations that lead to dominantly inherited diseases are known to be more frequent in kids with fathers on the older side of the age spectrum, and polygenic conditions have also been claimed to grow with paternal age (Meisenburg, 142) “For example, the risk of schizophrenia increases with increased paternal age, presumably as a result of new mutations (El-Saadi et al., 2004). Since low IQ predisposes to schizophrenia (Zammit et al., 2004), it is possible that some mutations have a dual effect, lowering the IQ while raising the schizophrenia risk” (Meisenberg, 142). Meisenburg is then lead to the idea that if new mutations are a cause of lower intelligence in the standard population, then the children of older fathers are predicted to have lower IQs than those of younger fathers. A recent study exhibited that a paternal age over 45 corresponds with lower IQ in the child. Although, particularly young fathers have children with below-average IQ as well. “The paternal age effect persisted when statistical controls for maternal age, parental education, social class, sex and birth order were included (Malaspina et al., 2005). The IQ decline with advanced paternal age is compatible with a role of new mutations, but it can also be explained by genomic imprinting or by psychosocial factors that were not controlled in Malaspina et al.’s study” (Meisenburg, 142). Though the evidence for a role of new mutations variability is weak, it still makes sense logically. Meisenburg claims that the hypothesis of genetic load, which is the presence of unfavorable genetic material in the genes of a population, is still very plausible despite the lack of evidence. He then goes on to discuss the direct association general intelligence with functional polymorphisms, where he claims that the human genome contains 20,000 to 30,000 protein-coding genes. A substantial portion of these are expressed in the brain, either during early development of later on in life. “One strategy for the identification of ‘IQ genes’ is to focus on genes that are known to play roles either in brain development or in the functioning of the mature brain. Plausible ‘candidate genes’ include, for example, genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors, enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, ion channels, intracellular signal transducers, nuclear transcription factors, growth factors, growth factor receptors, or cell adhesion proteins” (Meisenberg, 142-143). It had been found that at least seven candidate genes have corresponded with general intelligence so far. “A group led by David Comings of the City of Hope Medical Center in California reported the association of general intelligence with a polymorphism in the CHRM2 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic type 2) gene (Comings et al., 2003). The gene product is a brain-expressed receptor for acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is known to be involved in cognition” (Meisenberg, 143). In a sample of 828 white Americans, participants homozygous for one of the alleles outperformed participants homozygous for the alternative allele by around 4 IQ points on a composite of four WAIS-R subtests. Heterozygotes scored halfway between the two types of homozygotes and around 1% of the total variability in IQ scores was backed up by this polymorphism. The results of this study lead him to say, “The polymorphism in question is located in the 3′ untranslated region of the gene. Although this mutation does not change the structure of the encoded protein, it may well participate in the regulation of transcription or influence the stability of the messenger RNA, thereby changing the rate at which the encoded protein is synthesized. Alternatively, it may be genetically linked to an as yet unidentified polymorphism nearby, either in the same gene or a neighboring gene” (Meisenberger, 143). He then claims that linkage disequilibrium, which is the non-random co-occurrence of genetic variants should be anticipated whenever two polymorphic sites are near each other on the same chromosome. Conclusion Overall, the studies throughout this essay demonstrate that while environmental factors such as socioeconomic status can influence the extent to which genes affect intelligence, genes can also have a direct impact of intelligence, independent of environmental factors. In the replication of Turkheimer et al. called Genotype by Environment Interaction in Adolescents’ Cognitive Aptitude, the adolescent’s results on the National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test was evidence of correlation between socioeconomic status and how much genes affected the participant’s intelligence. The results of the study were valid due to the extensive precision and accuracy of observed data within. While limitations were present, they did not affect the results of the data extensively. Next, several references to molecular genetic studies were made in order to determine how general intelligence, as assessed by IQ tests, can be affected by defects in genes. It was discussed that while there is not yet sufficient evidence that genetic load is a cause of low intelligence, it is highly plausible. Lastly, it was discussed how polymorphisms have been found to explain variability in IQ scores. Both environmental and genetic factors are integral in the process of determining one’s intelligence, but genetics seem to have a more direct impact than environment. While the previous study focused on how socioeconomic status affects the shared genetic and environmental effects on IQ, the next study that will be discussed will focus on the varying IQs of monozygotic twins raised together as opposed to apart. This study, in addition to the first, supports the idea that genetics have a significant impact on one’s genetics as researchers discovered that monozygotic twins raised together had equal probabilities of having the same level of intelligence as monozygotic twins raised apart. Monozygotic twins are identical twins as opposed to dizygotic twins which are not identical. “Often, twins are a subject of interest to scientists because identical or monozygotic twins share all of their genes , which allows for the control of genetic differences that is otherwise difficult to achieve with non-identical individuals.” The researchers studied identical twins that were raised apart to create an opportunity to separate the environmental and genetic factors that may have an influence on human features such as intelligence. Author says, “According to the Genetic Science Learning Center of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah, the strength of twin studies arises from the fact that monozygotic twins share all of their genes, while dizygotic twins on average share about 50 percent of them.” It is this fact that leads to the idea that environmental factors should be entirely to blame for the behavioral differences between monozygotic twins who were separated at birth. “The occurrence of twins being reared apart is rare, but provides an effective way to compare the genetic and environmental influences on human characteristics.” These influences are investigated in what is known as the Minnesota Twin Study. The Minnesota Twin Study is discussed in the paper, “Sources of Human Psychological Differences: the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.” For this study, a hundred sets of twins were used from several countries around the globe, including the United States, United Kingdom, China, Germany and Canada. This wide range of origins allows for less cultural bias and results that are a more global representative. The study sample was made up of adult twins who were separated shortly after being born and then reunited as adults. Both monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins were gathered and their zygosities were determined by serological or body fluid comparisons, fingerprint ridge count, and anthropometric measurements. The twin pair proceeded to participate in 50 hours of medical and psychological testing including intellectual aptitude tests. Testing was also executed in order to determine the effect of infancy to adulthood environments on the mental development of the twins pairs. The Twins completed three different IQ tests including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Raven Mill Hill Composite Measurement and the first principle component measurement. These tests were executed in order to determine whether the twins had substantially different IQ scores or if they were about the same. Using heritability, it was found that the IQ scores of the monozygotic twins raised apart were very similar. It was also found that the variation of IQ between monozygotic twins was not only low between those raised apart, but also between those raised together. “Based on that comparison, Bouchard and his colleagues conclude that monozygotic twins reared apart were just as similar as monozygotic twins” These results led that authors of “” to two possible reasons that the IQs between monozygotic twins were raised apart were so similar. “First, the authors state that the genetic factors strongly influence the behavior and general intelligence of individuals and accounts for about 70 percent of the variation in IQ.” This means that although the twins were raised in two different environments, the genetics impacts outweighed the environmental impacts on their intelligence. “Finally, the authors state that genetic factors control the effects of environmental factors.” This means that no matter how large of an influence environmental factors may have, the genetic similarities between the twins may also cause them to receive the same influence from different environments. Works Cited Devlin, B., Daniels, M.,

7 economic questions

assignment helper 7 economic questions.

Due at the beginning of class February 27th. All work should be stapled. Your name and B number should also be provided. No late submissions will be accepted.1. “Medical interventions were not important in the historical declines in mortality rates, but that does not imply that medical research was unimportant.” Explain this viewpoint.2. Chapter 5 Exercise 1. In addition to showing how the curve changes when E is increased to 15 discuss this in words.3. Chapter 6 Exercises 1 and 24. Chapter 6 Exercise 45. Chapter 7 Exercise 36. Chapter 7 Exercises 4 and 5
7 economic questions

CYB 320 UPhoenix Wk 4 Global Cyber Ethics Ethical Decision Making PPT

CYB 320 UPhoenix Wk 4 Global Cyber Ethics Ethical Decision Making PPT.

I’m working on a cyber security question and need guidance to help me learn.

Assignment ContentYour team of international developers will be developing a publicly accessible cloud-based application that may potentially house user PII data, along with information about users’ behaviors and activities (e.g., physical locations, online sites they visit, searches, purchases, etc.), and user’s intellectual property (e.g., photos, artwork, videos, etc.).Based on your work in Wks 3 and 4, develop an ethical decision-making illustration or decision tree that shows ways to address each risk if an actual incident occurs. Develop an ethical policy statement of the actions your team would take, keeping a global perspective in mind.Using the Decision Tree Example provided as a guide, create a Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation containing 4 to 6 slides. Provide 1 file for the team. This example will help you develop your individual assignment in Wk 5.Note: You may use other applications like Adobe® Spark, Microsoft® Sway, or Mix instead of Microsoft®PowerPoint®.Submit your assignment.
CYB 320 UPhoenix Wk 4 Global Cyber Ethics Ethical Decision Making PPT

discussion 3 Essay

Unfortunately, most firms lack liquidity. To make sure there is sufficient cash flow to meet day-to-day financial needs, financial managers adopt short-term financing methods to raise needed capital to meet debt obligations in time while maximizing profitability through investment with cash surpluses. Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words: Discuss a management strategy used to retain or increase cash. Share an example of a time when you’ve used a similar strategy in your personal finances. How are the applications of these strategies similar or different for businesses and individuals?

Essay Writing at Online Custom Essay

5.0 rating based on 10,001 ratings

Rated 4.9/5
10001 review

Review This Service




Rating: