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Hofstedes Cultural Theory Business Essay

Multinational companies are faced with the challenge of developing their operations in a constantly changing environment. In this way they are placed in the necessity of expanding their businesses in foreign countries which brings several implications. In organizational terms this means that the companies, in order to be successful, will have to go through a deep analysis to determine what their capabilities and weak areas are. But not only this provide the outcome on whether to expand their business or not, this will be just the first stage of a very long journey of understanding the processes that create value and how the company integrates these processes in order to succeed in a foreign market. The main motive of multinational companies to expand in the foreign markets is to avoid the saturation point or to increase the product life cycle. Any company which tends to globalize or internationalize, has to move into a foreign market and make a set up in that country. Today when the world is getting smaller and all the nations are getting close to each other it is very important for every growing organization to eye the foreign markets and increase its exporting and importing capabilities. But problems occur when these multinational firms start operating in different countries and are surrounded by number of issues which create obstacles in their progress. Then let it be the government rules and regulations, the culture of that country or the working environment. Different countries have different approaches towards the business world and companies should study intensively about the infrastructure of a country before entering that market. Especially some nations like India or Pakistan are highly culturally influenced, so there has to be a wise policy before making a move. Different markets have different demand in terms of rules, culture and environment. When companies go global, the governing personals have to be very adaptable in order to cooperate well with the native people or the native market. Mostly multinational companies consider it to be the most crucial step which leads them to study the culture of the country so that they deploy suitable products and well trained personals. Companies set up research and development offices in these markets initially before entering those countries or markets to study the market and the demand and most important the culture of the culture of the people there. Example: Wal-Mart, the giant retailer wants to enter the emerging countries; India is one of the biggest consumer based emerging markets of the world, Wal-Mart has set up research and development offices in Bangalore, India. So they are studying the working environment and the culture of the market in India so as to make a perfect entry strategy. IKEA, a giant furniture retailer has a keen eye on entering the Indian market but has failed as the there is a restriction on the foreign direct investment in India, it only allows a 51% ownership but IKEA wants a 100% ownership, so there are hindrances for IKEA. Different markets and countries have different approaches. When companies intend to expand their operations into a broader scale many difficulties arise, not only because this can be caused by a badly planned entry strategy but also in terms of integration of their internal systems that the company has in order to function adequately and moreover to get well with all together a different culture, people and their taste and demands. The complexities of the issues faced by the companies need to be addressed so that the impact within the organisation is minimised. However the organisations need to be sensitive with their environment in a way that their strategic behaviour finds a harmonizing point between the local and the international environment and the organisation itself. The particular issues between the cross cultural management and personal administration is that is has been building up on its importance since multinational companies are bound to face different issues as they operate in foreign markets. LITERATURE REVIEW: Organizations function diversely in different countries. They prepare policies for every country in which they plan to expand their business. IHRM (international human resource management) should be strong enough in order to help organization in achieving success on alien land. IHRM have to gather and understand cultural information on broader perspective because foreign norm are different from one’s own. In terms of cultural analysis, there are two main studies that can be referred as relevant in knowing culture environment of other country. First is Hofstede (2001) tells about the cultural differences through a deep evaluation of social and cultural dimensions. The focus on the social aspects considers valuable information on various topics, such as Collectivism and Individualism considering the data collected from all countries. In the same way this study is also oriented in an international dimension to evaluate the cultural aspects that might have an impact on the organization and it’s well-functioning. On the other hand the study of Trompenaars et al (1997) focuses not only on a much descriptive analysis of what are the cultural elements in societies but also links these cultural aspects to the business environments providing awareness on how to deal with inter cultural communication in business relation. HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL THEORY: “Undoubtedly, the most significant cross-cultural study of work -related values is the one carried out by Hofstede’s”- Bhagat and Mcquaid (1982). 3 October 1928, Gerard Hendrik Hofstede was born. He was a student of national and organizational cultures. He was an author of many cultural books. Hofstede effort commenced in 1980 ,which was a great success because his research introduced when there was less internationalization among nations due to problem of understanding culture differences. His research had 116,000 questionnaires taken by 60,000 people around 50 nations. From his research he provided four dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism/Collectivism, Uncertainty Avoidance and Masculinity/Femininity) .Fifth dimension (Long/Short term orientation) was added after a strong study by Hofstede and Bond (Hofstede 1991b; Hofstede and Bond 1984; Hofstede and Bond 1988). HOFSTEDE’S FIVE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: a) POWER DISTANCE INDEX (PDI): PD can be defined as a difference between nations on the bases of hierarchy and relationships. Nations who are falling high on power distance scale follow hierarchy way in there organization. Staff has to wait for a green signal from their officials. Parity is not found in hierarchical countries. There is a large distance between the poor and the wealthy people. Inequality of power distribution leads to exploitation at times in these nations. Students give respect to teachers even after school hours. While, nations with low power distance believes in equality .Relationships and working in a team is significant for them. Powerful people try to be friendly with others .They don’t misuse there power. High Power Distance Low MAL ARA MEX IND FRA ITA JPN SPA ARG US GER UK DEN ISR AUT b) INDIVIDUALISM (IDV): In this dimension individualism is opposite to collectivism. Nations having individualistic traits look after their immediate family. They believe in “I have done this”. On the collectivist said people maintain relationship with extended family as well. “We have done this” is their trait. In collectivist people give importance to group achievements and group rights. Unlike collectivist, in individualistic countries people need privacy and time is precious to them. Collectivist love to work in a harmony. Individualism Collectivism AUL US UK CAN FRA GER SPA JPN MEX ITA KOR SIN c) MASCULINITY (MAS): Countries that are more masculine are task oriented and they look for result. While countries with low masculine are more affectionate and male/female is at par level .Discrimination is nil in these countries while in masculine, male dominates all over. MAS countries are more competitive in comparison to countries with low MAS. Unlike femininity (small and slow), masculine countries look for fast and big achievements. Masculine traits are success, individual achievement, competition, material love and power. Masculinity Femininity JPN MEX GER UK US ARA FRA KOR POR CHC DEN SWE d) UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI): In this dimensions countries differ on the basis of facing threat or avoidance of facing threats. Countries falling strongly on uncertainty avoidance are threatened to face unexpected situations, so they try to avoid it by applying certain rules and regulations. To them surprising situation is dangerous .They adopt formal rules and simple procedures. Countries falling in this dimension are countries with an old history .New innovative suggestion and principals are difficult to be applied in this group. Low uncertainty avoidance nations welcome different (ambiguous) situations because they love to take risky steps .Unwanted situations is exciting for them. Informal rules are adopted all over. Basically countries in these dimensions are young and ready to face risk and innovations are looked by them. High Uncertainty Avoidance Low GRE JPN FRA KOR ARA GER AUL CAN US UK IND DEN SIN e) LONG / SHORT TERM ORIENTATION (LTO): Nations with long orientation look for their future goal. Success of tomorrow is important to them.” You are never a loser until you quit trying”, is their trait. They believe in vigorous growth and hard work. A Respect for the status is duly given and they have a sense of shame. While, short term nations have a respect to traditions and national pride. Stabilization is their trait. They aim for quick outcome (result). Future is not kept in mind. Status doesn’t carry any value in their group. They keep their reputation good, avoid being disapproved. Long Term Orientation Short Term CHI HK JPN TAI VIE BRA IND US CAN UK E/W AFR TROMPENAAR’S AND HAMPDEN TURNER’S CULTURAL THEORY: History: Fons Trompenaar is an author of cross cultural communication and he is a Dutch. His writing includes many books on culture while Charles Hampden turner is a British philosopher in management field. Along with Trompenaar, Hampden created a dimension which shed light on people of different environments and how they behave and interact in their daily life. TROMPENAARS AND HAMPDEN SEVEN CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: a) UNIVERSALISM vs. PARTICULARISM: This dimension emphasize on rules and relationships. In universalism, rules given significance and they applied on everyone. Every individual follow rules and contracts. Rules are meant to tell the truth. While particularism is give importance to relationships .Deals are made on friendships .They believe in flexibility on agreements. And they closely examine the situation to know the truth. PARTICULARISTIC UNIVERSALISTIC PARTICULARISTIC 1. Singapore 2. Spain 3. Japan 4. France UNIVERSALISTIC 1. US 2. Germany 3. Sweden 4. UK Figure: Shows countries falling in universalistic and particularistic dimension Application: In universal society people follow rules and regulations like in US every personnel follow traffic lights to make them feel people are at par level while in particularistic, people break traffic signal as well due to brotherhood. b) INDIVIDUALISM vs. COLLECTIVISM: Individualistic nations love being recognised single. They believe in word “I”. Group doesn’t matter them .Privacy is what they need .They love to work independently .Self benefit is what they look for. Their relationship with others is negligible. While collectivism, believes in teamwork. They believe in “we”. They are attached to their colleagues, family members and friends. Interdependence is found in them. Benefit of group they practice. INDIVIDUALISM COLLECTIVISM COLLECTIVISM 1. Japan 2. Italy 3. Mexico 4. INDIVIDUALISM 1. US 2. UK 3. Australia 4. Canada Figure: Shows countries falling in individualism and collectivism dimensions. c) NEUTRAL vs. AFFECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS: Neutral groups keep their emotions inside and they don’t reveal what they thinking. Revelation of their emotions leads to tension on their face. They remain reserved and cool .Sometimes their emotions explode out. Affective people on the other hand are very much emotional. They reveal their emotions by verbal and non-verbal way. They remain transparent. Anger, happiness is clear visible. They react to the situation there only. AFFECTIVE NEUTRAL NEUTRAL 1. Japan 2. UK 3. Germany 4. Sweden AFFECTIVE 1. China 2. Italy 3. Spain 4. France Figure: Shows countries with neutral and affective cultures d) SPECIFIC vs. DIFFUSE RELATIONSHIPS: People falling in specific dimensions keep their personal and work life away .Their private life is private and when socials then they are open. They look for direct communication. In diffuse, people private lives have number of people in it. There is no difference between private and work life. Common person is needed In between stranger and manager for an introduction in order to do a business. SPECIFIC DIFFUSE SPECIFIC 1. France 2. US 3. UK 4. DIFFUSE 1. China 2. Russia 3. Spain 4. Japan Figure: Shows countries of specific and diffuse traits e) ACHIEVEMENT vs. ASCRIPTION: In achievement, accomplishments are made in order to gain status. Seniors head in office are given respect throughout due to the knowledge and experience they have. Status change according to time as person accomplish more and more. In a culture with ascribed status, people given title based on their gender, birth and wealth. They have not given according to their accomplishment. ASCRIPTION ACHIEVEMENT ASCRIPTION 1. China 2. Russia 3. Spain 4. Japan ACHIEVEMENT 1. US 2. Germany 3. Mexico 4. Figure: Shows countries having achievement and ascription culture. f) TIME ORIENTATION (PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE): In past culture nations, people give value to their traditions or history. They talk about their family tree, its origin, and talk about history. People of the nations are asked to recreate golden age .In present culture, people believe in present moment. Enjoyment and activities are planned for the moment. Present relationship is important. Contemporary impact and style is what they practice. Future culture nations look for future goal. People plan for future achievements and aspirations. They have an interest in youth and in future. PAST PRESENT FUTURE PAST FUTURE PRESENT Figure: Shows countries of past, present and future culture g) INNER DIRECTED vs. OUTER DIRECTED: In inner directed nations people believe that nature can be controlled by humans. If rightly worked and made an effort then humans can dominate nature. In contrast to inner directed, people in outer directed culture believes that nature is above everything and humans are one force of nature ,so they should live in harmony and adapt to the external environment. OUTER INNER OUTER INNER Figure: Shows countries falling in inner and outer cultural traits. PROS AND CONS OF THE THEORIES: HOFSTEDE: PROS: Hofstede’s model helped people in day to day life. Making them understand about different culture. Hofstede’s model helped organisation, to expand their business on an international level without facing any cultural hindrances. Example: examines difference in attitudes and behaviour (Alden, Hoyer, and Lee 1993), used in advertising (McCarty and hattwick 1992; Gregory and Munch 1997; Zandpour et al .1994), international brand strategies (Roth 1995).While for some Hofstede’s model is rigorous and relevant because the time it was made there was little approach in culture and businesses on international was very low (Sondergaard 1994, 448,449) .Hofstede’s model triggered people to globalise. CONS: In spite of being successful, Hofstede also faced numerous criticisms from all over. Some finger out over relevance of the model. Researchers said this it is not accurate. While most says that Hofstede’s model did not paid attention on community .According to Hofstede all domestic nations have homogenous society. But some countries are group of ethnic units (Nasif et al 1991, 82; Redpath 1997, 336).While as per McSweeney, 2000, says, “Analysing through nations is not proper because it is not necessary bounded by border “.Some says it is out dated while other says four dimensions did not give sufficient information. TROMPENAAR: PROS: Trompenaars and hampden-turner’s model gave a tool to staff who works on international assignments and projects .Easy to understand culture of the other country is made easy by them which led others to understand cross-cultures. Their research showed that way of doing business is different among all the countries. CONS: Their research failed to recognise the personal characteristics on behaviour and forget to provide recommendations. As per other authors, “the border is diminishing and world should be seen as a single unit “. HOFSTEDE AND TROMPENAAR-HAMPDEN TURNER’S THEORY: CORRELATION Hofstede’s and Trompenaars -Hampden’s individualism and collectivism are identical in orientation. In Trompenaars model, how and where status is given importance and where people look for team work shows link to Hofstede’s power distance dimension but not wholly because Hofstede’s power distance cover other issues as well .Trompenaars universalism /particularism can be taken as Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance and collectivist/individualistic dimension because in these dimension they discussed about how nations differ in giving preference to rules than relationships. Even researches done with the help of Hofstede’s and Trompenaars-Hampden’s model showed similarity in their result .Example: Japan and India is collectivist they lie low in individualism index while UK, US are entirely individualistic countries. CONTRARY Contrast between Hofstede’s and Trompenaars can be seen in there result of research. Example: Unlike in Hofstede’s model, Mexico and Spain are individualistic according to Trompenaars model. Germany has hierarchical culture according to Trompenaars dimension while Hofstede’s says it’s low in power distance. Hofstede’s has four dimensions to explain culture differences, while Trompenaars and Hampden have extra dimensions. Hofstede’s results becoming out of date.1960s -1970s results are not the same for today because culture change over time. According to James Cambridge, “Hofstede’s reach is more on analysis, but restricted as well while Trompenaars and Hampden Turner are broader in their approach. Hofstede’s measures on the variables of cultures, while Trompenaars involved in a method for cultural creation”. Trompenaars and Hampden Turner (1997),”all cultures face the similar problems but they are contrary in there solutions which led to excel the opposites”.
CT 10 critical thinking.

HSBC in China (100 points)Your assignment this week will focus on the case study HSBC in China (p. 563). We once again visit the country of China, this time to look at the financial and banking sectors. China acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, which was important to integrate China into the global economy. The WTO requirements guaranteed China entry into the important financial sector, setting it on a course to become a financial powerhouse.Reflecting on this week’s content focusing on ethical leadership, strategy, and alliances, develop an essay responding to the following questionsHow has HSBC adapted its global strategy to operate in China, both before and after China’s WTO accession?Discuss HSBC’s strategy for entering and operating in other emerging markets. Where has it found success, and where has it faced setbacks? Why?What are the pros and cons of HSBC’s “Managing for Growth” strategy?Your well-written paper should meet the following requirements:Be 5-6 pages in length, which does not include the title page or required reference page, which are never a part of the content minimum requirements.Use academic writing standards and APA style guidelines.Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least two scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.Review the grading rubric to see how you will be graded for this assignment.———————————————————————————————————————————————————-RequiredChapters 10 & 11 in International Management: Culture, Strategy, and BehaviorChapter 10 PowerPoint slides in International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior“In-Depth Integrative Case Study 3.1: Tata ‘Nano’: The People’s Car” (p. 421) in International Management: Culture, Strategy, and BehaviorAdams, D., Adams, K, Ullah, S., & Ullah, F. (2019). Globalisation, governance, accountability and the natural resource ‘curse’: Implications for socio-economic growth of oil-rich developing countries. Resources Policy, 61, 128-140.Vendrell-Herrero, F., Gomes, E., Bustinza, O., & Mellahi, K. (2018). Uncovering the role of cross-border strategic alliances and expertise decision centralization in enhancing product-service innovation in MMNEs. International Business Review, August 2018, 27(4), 814-825.RecommendedBătae, O. M. (2018). Ethics and the impact on corporate governance. Cross-Cultural Management Journal, XX(1), 59-64.——————————————————————————————————————————————-Course Materials Required: Luthans, F., & Doh, J. P. (2018) International management: Culture, strategy, and behavior (10th ed.) McGrawHill Education, New York, NY ISBN 13: 978-1259705076
CT 10 critical thinking

Grossmont College Week 4 So you want to Talk About Race Questions.

Optional Step 1: If you need to watch the following video to refresh yourself on how to annotate your chosen text, particularly concerning fiction. Step 2: Look at the reading schedule you turned in Week 4: Create & Submit a Reading Plan, and set aside time during the week to read and annotate the chapters or time you have listed under Week 8. Then, fill out an annotation worksheet for the reading as you work through your chapter(s). This Annotation Worksheet needs to include/cover the chapter(s) for Week 8 in your plan/schedule.
Grossmont College Week 4 So you want to Talk About Race Questions

Introduction In the grand scheme of marketing and advertising, celebrity endorsements are fairly new as the fascination with celebrities has increased in recent times (Keel and Nataraajan, 2012). As a result of this, non-profit organisations and celebrity endorsements have only just begun to show up in popular advertising. Therefore, there is restricted academic literature which brings the two topics together, which means that although this review focuses on celebrity endorsements within the non-profit sector a large majority of the literature is focused on the for-profit sector. To combat this issue, for-profit theories will be amended so ensure they are suitable for non-profit organisations and the very few theories which have been created for non-profit organisations will be reviewed and assessed. Non-Profit Organisations Non-profit organisations (NPOs) can be found in the non-profit sector, sometimes referred to as the third sector (Anheier, 2014). In recent decades, the increasing importance of the non-profit sector for society can be seen through its rapid growth in scope and scale (Salamon and Anheier, 1999). Non-profit organisations have started to incorporate business-like techniques (Goerke, 2003) used in the for-profit sector as they are increasingly encountering market pressures which are typical for for-profit organisations, such as competition for funding and the need to earn money to fulfil their mission (Andreasen and Kotler, 2003; Dolnicar et al, 2008). In addition to operating in a competitive environment (Blery et al, 2010), NPOs have to operate within limited constraints of finance and manpower resources (Yorke, 2007). As a result of their limitations, the marketing process for non-profit organisations is different to the traditional marketing used within for-profit organisations. Clarke and Mount (2000) pointed out that marketing’s ‘dominant exchange paradigm… is currently ill equipped for use in the non-profit sector’, this is due to the nature of the desired marketing outcomes for NPOs being non-monetary (MacMillian et al, 2005), which, as a result, is harder to communicate effectively. Therefore, non-profit organisations need to take this into consideration when they are planning their advertisements. NPOs are becoming more financially concerned with drawing in revenue (Macedo and Pinho, 2004), therefore to achieve higher revenues they are having to advertise in a way that is effective for their purpose. Most non-profit organisations are not selling products; they are selling their mission, their ideas, their programs and their services (Blery et al, 2010). To achieve this, multiple marketing strategies which target different markets need to be developed (Pope et al, 2009). In recent years, the development of celebrity endorsements has meant they have become a huge advertising tool, with 25% of all advertisements featuring a celebrity (Shimp, 2003). The non-profit sector has also found a way of including celebrity endorsements into their marketing mix. Celebrity Endorsements To endorse something means to show support or approval and nowadays celebrities are often used to endorse products. McCracken (1989) defined a celebrity endorser as a person who boasts public recognition and uses this trait on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement. As being a celebrity is now a commercial strategy for many types of media organisations, there has been a significant increase in celebrity content across all platforms (Turner, 2004). The non-profit sector is becoming an increasingly competitive and fast-growing advertising area (Wheeler, 2009), therefore many third sector organisations have unlocked the power of celebrity and recruited the support of famous personalities to raise their brand awareness and generate additional income (Kelly et al, 2014). Non-profit organisations rely on celebrities because they are efficient fundraisers; they have skills in mass communication, so they reach an extensive audience, captivate people’s attention, bring light to social issues and even access the upper echelons of political power (Samman et al. 2009; Wheeler 2009; Dominguez, 2010). Non-profits carry out celebrity endorsement strategies to make their brand or campaigns more engaging to certain demographics (Kelly et al, 2014). Van den Bulck et al (2010) observed that celebrity-based campaigns seemed more successful in creating support and as NPOs try to influence consumers through their emotions, using celebrities as endorses can be very effective due to their power of attraction, and their ability to generate feelings and emotional responses (Assael, 1984). Celebrities also have the power of reaching millions of possible consumers with one picture or comment, depending on their social media following, this is something that both non-profit and for-profit organisations have recently started to utilise. It is important for NPOs to find a celebrity who is a perfect fit for the advertisement as this will increase support from the public. Often celebrities seek to join an NPO to promote their own personal brand (Dominguez, 2010), with this collaboration it seems both celebrities and organisations win (Garcia de los Salmones et al, 2013). However, the alliance may cause resistance and scepticism from the consumers in regard to the real motives of the celebrity (Petty et al, 1983). Samman et al (2009) supported this theory but also found that most people consider celebrity involvement in charities to be beneficial. Celebrity Endorsements Motives What motivates celebrities to volunteer to endorse various charitable organisations is still unknown to most consumers, this section aims to analyse some of the current theories surrounding celebrity endorsement theories. NPOs potentially have more to benefit from the use of celebrity endorsers as their engagement can, in many ways, help promote awareness, enlist new supporters and obtain additional funds (Samman et al, 2009). Some celebrities choose to associate themselves with particular organisations that are ‘of the moment’ or of extreme appeal (Kelly et al, 2014). This often means that charities relating to taboo issues are under endorsed, such as domestic violence and mental health. Similarly, Anderson (2007) suggests that celebrities support charities based on their popularity because they want to be included in the goodwill that certain issues invoke. This shows that the motive behind the endorsement is egoistic and supports Moran’s (2011) theory that celebrities are ‘cynically trying to improve their own public image’ through endorsing organisations they know will allow them to gain media attention. West (2004) believes that many celebrities take part in charitable activities because they are ‘shallow and insecure and will go to any lengths to be noticed and loved’. Contrastingly, Poniewozik (2005) suggested that some of the motivating factors for celebrities include; guilt, faith, personal suffering, ratings and PR, these factors are a combination of egoistic and altruistic motivators. Harris (2003) elaborates on Anderson’s theme by suggesting that celebrities frequently ‘jump ship’, depending on what issue is generating public attention. Motive is also questioned when celebrities choose to publically support more than one charity. Thrall et al (2008) found that in a study of 247 celebrities each celebrity supports 4.16 organisations, on average. This can raise a major issue as research has shown that being a part of multiple endorsements can have adverse effects on consumer perceptions of the celebrity and the organisation which is being endorsed (Tripp, Jensen,

Early Medieval Successor State History Legacy of Roman Empires Essay

Early Medieval Successor State History Legacy of Roman Empires Essay.

Instructions: Using a computer, compose the equivalent of a 4-to-5 page essay, with double-spaced text, standard font and 1” margins, that summarizes what you see as the contents, philosophies expressed, and historical context of the excerpts of The Chronicle of St. Denis, Gregory of Tours’ History of the Franks, the Lex Salica, Procopius’ On the Wars – The Reconquest of Africa, and the excerpts from “An Anglo-Saxon Girl and Frankish Queen”, and “Debating the Power of Icons” found in the textbook, which addresses the various “study questions” distributed to you with the “Successor States” handout – paying particular attention to questions #5-8 while not ignoring the others. This assignment must be submitted in essay format – with an introduction, main body, and conclusion – not just simply a list of answers to the study questions, and is part of your participation grade. No additional research is required. Please cite the documents or textbook when you quote or paraphrase them. Do not plagiarize your papers – please note that all plagiarized papers earn a grade of 0.(I have attached all of the documents mentioned and needed below).Study Questions – “Successor State” Documents: Chronicle of St. Denis, Gregory of Tours, Sallic Law, and Procopius’ Reconquest of AfricaThe selections of primary source documents in this assignment are intended to give you some insight into the political, social, and philosophical ideals and structures of two of the immediate “successor states” to the Roman Empire: the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks and the Byzantine Empire. Not only will these documents, and those found in your textbook, help to establish ourselves in the post-Imperial Early Medieval World, they will also provide some of the groundwork for the story of the encounters between these societies.The first three documents describes the conversion and one of the conquests of the late 5th-early 6th century Frankish king Chlodovocar, aka. Clovis, as well as providing an excerpt from his Law Code, the Lex Salica. Note that the first two of these documents were written by religious figures, a definite change from Classical civilizations. In addition to these, you should also incorporate into your analysis the primary source excerpt “An Anglo-Saxon Girl and Frankish Queen” found on page 175 of the textbook in trying to create an analysis of Merovingian and Frankish society in the near-aftermath of the end of the Western Roman Empire.The next excerpts describe the society and conquest of the Byzantine Empire, the direct heir to the Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantine document was written by the court historian Procopius who was never afraid to criticize the Emperor of his time, Justinian. In addition to these, you should also incorporate the primary sources “Debating the Power of Icons” (page 162-163) found in the textbook in trying to create an analysis of Byzantine society in the near-aftermath of the end of the Western Roman Empire.As you read the documents, please consider the following topics and questions, which will help you in writing your paper.What do the documents say about each of these society’s social values and structures?What do the documents say about each of these society’s religious values and structures?What do the documents say about each of these society’s cultural values?What do the documents say about each of these society’s governmental and legal values and philosophies?How does each of these societies (Merovingian and Byzantine) define these ideas (society, religion, culture, and government/law) and which do you feel is the most effective structure for their society and why?What accounts for the similarities between Frankish and Byzantine societies, cultures, and governments and what accounts for the differences?What are the similarities and differences between the situations their societies faced and the historical context of each document?Based on the information found in these documents, how accurate is it to describe each of these societies as “successor states” to Rome/the Roman Empire – what marks them as heirs to the Roman “legacy” and how is each distinguished from the Roman “legacy”?Finally, who in our society – real, fantasy, or pop-culture – would you compare to Chlodovocar, to Belisarius & Justinian, to Empress Theodora, and to Balthid, and why?
Early Medieval Successor State History Legacy of Roman Empires Essay

PHI 210 University of Florida Ethics Case Analysis

help writing PHI 210 University of Florida Ethics Case Analysis.

I’m working on a humanities writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

For this module, you are required to complete a Written Case Analysis of approximately 200 words. Please read Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues, Case 5, pp. 167-168. Identify the moral issue(s) and the parties involved, and infer their interests; discuss the case in terms of finding common ground in the diversity of interests you identify. This week’s case discusses child labor. Here is this week’s Loom video:https://www.loom.com/share/c06bf955d3584e2f9da55bca139449c6From the book:5. A number of groups have urged restrictions on child labor. For example, they believe that no one under age 16 should be permitted to work in the manufacturing, mining, agricultural, and construction industries; that hours of work should be limited in all jobs for workers under the age of 18; and that no one under 21 should be allowed to have any contact with pesticides. Discuss the moral considerations attending this proposal.Ruggiero, Vincent; Ruggiero, Vincent. Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues (p. 166). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Kindle Edition. Ruggiero, Vincent; Ruggiero, Vincent. Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues (p. 167). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Kindle Edition.
PHI 210 University of Florida Ethics Case Analysis

NHS 8002 Capella University Personal Leadership Portrait Analysis Paper

NHS 8002 Capella University Personal Leadership Portrait Analysis Paper.

For this assignment, you will bring together all the aspects of leadership that you have examined and discussed in this course to evaluate your own leadership qualities and create a portrait of the health care professional and leader you aspire to be.Last week, you completed the Leadership Self-Assessment and e-mailed the results to yourself (attached). Write Your PaperWrite a 6- to 8-page personal leadership portrait in which you address the following:Evaluate your personal approach to health care leadership.Identify the leadership characteristics you already possess.Analyze your strengths and limitations (areas for development).Compare your leadership characteristics with a predominant leadership style and its application to professional practice.Assess other leadership styles you might integrate into your skills repertoire to enhance your effectiveness as a leader and manage change in health care.Explain how your personal approach to health care leadership facilitates interprofessional relationships, community engagement, and change management.Consider interprofessional relationships with staff, community agencies, organizations, and other stakeholders.Identify your strengths and weaknesses related to interprofessional relationships, community engagement, and change management.Evaluate best practices for interprofessional communications, and compare your communication skills and attributes to those best practices.Explain how ethical leadership principles can be applied to professional practice.Identify the relevant ethical leadership principles for your discipline (public health, health administration, or nursing).Evaluate best practices for developing an ethical culture in the workplace.Explain how health care leaders can address diversity and inclusion.What do diversity and inclusion mean to you within the context of population health?Explain the importance of diversity and inclusion to effective leadership.For example, cultivating good employee and community relations.How does an effective leader develop a diverse and inclusive workplace (strategies, best practices)?How do diversity and inclusion contribute to health care quality and service to the community?What best practices would you recommend to address issues of diversity and inclusion?Explain how scholar-practitioners contribute to leadership and professional development in the field of health care.Define scholar-practitioner, in your own words.Explain the importance of critical thinking to scholar-practitioners.Evaluate the influence of scholar-practitioners on health care leadership and professional development.Explain the importance of scholar-practitioners to professional practice. Consider their value in:Expanding the knowledge base.Applying new and existing knowledge, research, and scholarship to solve real-world problems.Improving health care quality and safety.Note: You may use the Week 9 Assignment Example [PDF] to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like. Writing in the third person is customary in academic writing; however, for this assignment, you should write in the first person.Academic RequirementsYour academic writing is expected to conform to the following requirements:Writing: Organize content so ideas flow logically with smooth transitions.Proofread your writing to avoid errors that could distract readers and make it more difficult for them to focus on the substance of your evaluation. Formatting: Apply APA style and formatting to scholarly writing. Use the APA Style Paper Template [DOCX].Apply correct APA formatting to your document, including headers, headings, spacing, and margins. (An abstract is not required.)Apply correct APA formatting to all source citations.An APA Style Paper Tutorial [DOCX] is also provided to help you in writing and formatting your leadership portrait.Length: Your leadership portrait should be 6–8 double-spaced pages in length, not including the title page and references page.References: Cite at least four credible sources from peer-reviewed journals, other scholarly sources, professional industry publications, and assigned readings to support your assessment and analysis.
NHS 8002 Capella University Personal Leadership Portrait Analysis Paper

Social Work homework help

Social Work homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the Lonely Desolation of the Soul assignment three. The paper also provides additional information to use in writing the assignment paper.,The Lonely Desolation of the Soul assignment three,HIST 315-01: War and Society, Assignment Three, The Lonely Desolation of the Soul: War and the Individual in Memoir and Popular Literature, As the West capitalized upon the advantages accrued through the gunpowder revolution, warfare began to undergo both subtle and drastic shifts.  As the social transformative effects of modernization – Nationalism, ,Libertarianism,, Industrialization, Urbanization. Affected the basic character of Western society, so too did warfare change.,On some levels these processes were slow. Tactics, for example, followed the basic parameters established in the 1600s well into the Nineteenth Century.  Yet other changes – including conscription, nationalist ideology, and technological change – exerted dramatic shifts in the pre-existing paradigm.  By 1914, however, the weight of these many transformative forces overwhelmed not only how war was waged and perceived by the general public; it overturned the very bedrock of Western perceptions of self and community.,The War and Society HIST 315-01 assignment paper,As this unit’s primary readings highlight, the nineteenth century saw the birth of the literate society.  With primary education becoming more prevalent across class boundaries, more and more individuals acquired basic skills in reading and writing, fueling in turn the growth of the literate middle class.  Literature in turn captured the sense of transformative changes that were being experienced across society.  This is particularly true of two of the assignment readings. Stephen Crane’s The Red Badge of Courage and Robert Graves’ Good-bye to All That.  And while the third – Audie Murphy’s memoir To Hell and Back – is a sanitized memoir of his personal experiences during the Second World War. It also stands out as an overlooked classic account of the intimate connections between war and sanity.,So this unit’s assignment is a little different in scope and purpose.  Since one of the main purposes of this week is to introduce you to the influence of history on literature (and vice versa). You will in essence be completing a contextualization literary exercise.  In short, you will be writing a comparative book review.  Thus, in a minimum of 2,500 words, you will compare how the three books address the issues posed above.  Your assignment should not be a mere encapsulation of the plot elements and character development in each book, completed in turn.  An ideal assignment should address the question of transformative change over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Also, consider how each account attempts to make each of its subjects more accessible to the reading public.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Social Work homework help

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