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HIV as a National Disaster Essay Sample cheap mba definition essay help Psychology assignment help

AIDS has caused huge human agony in the continent. The most obvious consequence of this crisis has been illness and decease. but the impact of the epidemic has surely non been confined to the wellness sector ; families. schools. workplaces and economic systems have besides been severely affected. Although entree to antiretroviral intervention is get downing to decrease the toll of AIDS. fewer than half of Africans who need intervention are having it. The impact of AIDS will stay terrible for many old ages to come. The impact on the wellness sector In all to a great extent affected states the AIDS epidemic is adding extra force per unit area on the wellness sector. As the epidemic matures. the demand for attention for those populating with HIV rises. as does the toll of AIDS on wellness workers. The consequence on infirmaries As the HIV prevalence of a state rises. the strain placed on its infirmaries is likely to increase. In sub-Saharan Africa. people with HIV-related diseases occupy more than half of all infirmary beds. Hospitals are fighting to get by. particularly in hapless African states where there are frequently excessively few beds available. This deficit consequences in people being admitted merely in the ulterior phases of unwellness. cut downing their opportunities of recovery.

Health attention workers While AIDS is doing an increased demand for wellness services. big Numberss of health care professionals are being straight affected by the epidemic. Excessive work loads. hapless wage and migration to richer states are among the factors lending to this deficit. Although the recent addition in the proviso of antiretroviral drugs ( which significantly delay the patterned advance from HIV to AIDS ) has brought hope to many in Africa. it has besides put increased strain on health care workers. Supplying antiretroviral intervention to everyone who needs it requires more clip and preparation than is presently available in most states.

The impact on families The toll of HIV and AIDS on families can be really terrible. Although no portion of the population is unaffected by HIV. it is frequently the poorest sectors of society that are most vulnerable to the epidemic and for whom the effects are most terrible. In many instances. the presence of AIDS causes the family to fade out. as parents die and kids are sent to relations for attention and upbringing. A survey in rural South Africa suggested that families in which an grownup had died from AIDS were four times more likely to fade out than those in which no deceases had occurred. Much happens before this disintegration takes topographic point: AIDS strips households of their assets and income earners. further impoverishing the hapless.

Household income Persons who would otherwise supply a family with income are prevented from working – either because they are sick with AIDS themselves or because they are caring for another ill household member. Such a state of affairs is likely to hold reverberations for every member of the household. Children may be forced to abandon their instruction and in some instances adult females may be forced to turn to arouse work. This can take to a higher hazard of HIV transmittal. which farther exacerbates the state of affairs. Basic necessities

A survey in South Africa found that hapless families get bying with members who are ill from HIV or AIDS were cut downing disbursement on necessities even further. The most likely disbursals to be cut were dressing ( 21 % ) . electricity ( 16 % ) and other services ( 9 % ) . Falling incomes forced about 6 % of families to cut down the sum they spent on nutrient and about half of families reported holding deficient nutrient at times. Food production

The AIDS epidemic adds to nutrient insecurity in many countries. as agricultural work is neglected or abandoned due to household unwellness. In Malawi. where nutrient deficits have had a annihilating consequence. it has been recognised that HIV and AIDS have diminished the country’s agricultural end product. A survey in Kenya demonstrated that nutrient production in families in which the caput of the household died of AIDS were affected in different ways depending on the sex of the asleep. As in other sub-Saharan African states. it was by and large found that the decease of a male reduced the production of ‘cash crops’ ( such as java. tea and sugar ) . while the decease of a female reduced the production of grain and other harvests necessary for family endurance. Healthcare disbursals and funeral costs

Taking attention of a individual ill with AIDS is non merely an emotional strain for family members. but besides a major strain on family resources. Loss of income. extra care-related disbursals. the decreased ability of health professionals to work. and mounting medical fees push affected families deeper into poorness. It is estimated that. on mean. HIV-related attention can absorb tierce of a household’s monthly income. The fiscal load of decease can besides be considerable. with some households in South Africa easy passing seven times their entire family monthly income on a funeral. Aside from the fiscal load. supplying place based attention can enforce demands on the physical. mental and general wellness of carers – normally household and friends of the ill individual. Such hazards are amplified if carers are untrained or unsupported by a home-based attention administration. The impact on kids

It is difficult to overemphasize the injury and adversity that kids affected by HIV and AIDS are forced to bear. The epidemic non merely causes kids to lose their parents or defenders. but sometimes their childhood every bit good. As parents and household members become ill. kids take on more duty to gain an income. bring forth nutrient. and attention for household members. It is harder for these kids to entree equal nutrition. basic wellness attention. lodging and vesture. Because AIDS claims the lives of people at an age when most already have immature kids. more kids have been orphaned by AIDS in Africa than anyplace else. Many kids are now raised by their drawn-out households and some are even left on their ain in child-headed families. As projections of the figure of AIDS orphans rise. some have called for an addition in institutional attention for kids.

However this solution is non merely expensive but besides damaging to the kids. Institutionalisation shops up jobs for society. which is sick equipped to get by with an inflow of immature grownups who have non been socialised in the community in which they have to populate. There are other options available. One illustration is the attack developed by church groups in Zimbabwe. in which community members are recruited to see orphans in their places. where they live either with surrogate parents. grandparents or other relations. or in child-headed families. The manner forward is bar. First. it is important to forestall kids from going infected with HIV at birth every bit good as later in life. Second. if attempts are made to forestall grownups going infected with HIV. and to care for those already infected. so fewer kids will be orphaned by AIDS in the hereafter. The impact on the instruction sector

The relationship between AIDS and the instruction sector is round – as the epidemic worsens. the instruction sector is damaged. which in bend is likely to increase the incidence of HIV transmittal. There are legion ways in which AIDS can impact instruction. but every bit there are many ways in which instruction can assist the battle against AIDS. The extent to which schools and other instruction establishments are able to go on working will act upon how good societies finally retrieve from the epidemic. Without instruction. AIDS will go on its rampant spread. With AIDS out of control. instruction will be out of range. The impact on instructors

HIV and AIDS are holding a annihilating consequence on the already unequal supply of instructors in African states ; for illustration. a survey in South Africa found that 21 % of instructors aged 25-34 were populating with HIV. Teachers who are affected by HIV and AIDS are likely to take periods of clip off work. Those with ill households may besides take clip off to go to funerals or to care for ill or deceasing relations. and farther absenteeism may ensue from the psychological effects of the epidemic. When a instructor falls ill. the category may be taken on by another instructor. may be combined with another category. or may be left unschooled. Even when there is a sufficient supply of instructors to replace losingss. there can be a important impact on the pupils. This is peculiarly refering given the of import function that instructors can play in the battle against AIDS. The unwellness or decease of instructors is particularly annihilating in rural countries where schools depend to a great extent on one or two instructors. Furthermore. skilled instructors are non easy replaced. The greatest proportion of staff that have been lost. harmonizing to the Tanzania Teacher’s Union. were experient staff between the ages of 41 and 50. The impact on endeavors and workplaces

HIV and AIDS dramatically affect labor. puting back economic and societal advancement. The huge bulk of people populating with HIV in Africa are between the ages of 15 and 49 – in the prime of their working lives. AIDS amendss concerns by squashing productiveness. adding costs. deviating productive resources. and consuming accomplishments. Company costs for health-care. funeral benefits and pension fund committednesss are likely to lift as the figure of people taking early retirement or death additions. Besides. as the impact of the epidemic on families grows more terrible. market demand for merchandises and services can fall. The epidemic hits productiveness through increased absenteeism. Comparative surveies of East African concerns have shown that absenteeism can account for every bit much as 25-54 % of company costs. A survey in several Southern African states has estimated that the combined impact of AIDS-related absenteeism. productiveness diminutions. health-care outgos. and enlisting and preparation disbursals could cut net incomes by at least 6-8 % . Another survey of a 1000 companies in Southern Africa found that 9 % had suffered a important negative impact due to AIDS.

In countries that have been hit hardest by the epidemic. it found that up to 40 % of companies reported that HIV and AIDS were holding a negative consequence on net incomes. Some companies. though. have implemented successful programmes to cover with the epidemic. An illustration is the gold-mining industry in South Africa. The gilded mines attract 1000s of workers. frequently from hapless and distant parts. Most unrecorded in inns. separated from their households. As a consequence a booming sex industry operates around many mines and HIV is common. In recent old ages. excavation companies have been working with a figure of administrations to implement bar programmes for the mineworkers. These have included mass distribution of rubbers. medical attention and intervention for sexually transmitted diseases. and awareness runs.

Some excavation companies have started to replace all-male inns with adjustment for households. in order to cut down the transmittal of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. In Swaziland. an employers’ anti-AIDS alliance has been set up to advance voluntary guidance and testing. The alliance non merely includes larger companies but besides little and average sized endeavors. In Botswana. the Debswana diamond company offers all employees HIV proving. and provides antiretroviral drugs to HIV positive workers and their partners. This policy was introduced in 1999 when the company found that many of their work force were HIV positive. With a skilled work force. it is financially deserving their while to protect the wellness and hence the productiveness of their workers. Nevertheless. workplace programmes for HIV intervention and bar remain scarce in Africa. The impact on life anticipation

The impact that AIDS has had on mean life anticipation is partially attributed to child mortality. as increasing Numberss of babes are born with HIV infections acquired from their female parents. The biggest addition in deceases. nevertheless. has been among grownups aged between 20 and 49 old ages. This group now accounts for 60 % of all deceases in sub-Saharan Africa. compared to 20 % between 1985 and 1990. when the epidemic was in its early phases By impacting this age group so to a great extent. AIDS is hitting grownups in their most economically productive old ages and taking the really people who could be reacting to the crisis. The economic impact

Through its impacts on the labour force. families and endeavors. AIDS has played a important function in the reversal of human development in Africa. One facet of this development reversal has been the harm that the epidemic has done to the economic system. which. in bend. has made it more hard for states to react to the crisis. One manner in which AIDS affects the economic system is by cut downing the labor supply through increased mortality and unwellness. Amongst those who are able to work. productiveness is likely to worsen as a consequence of HIV-related unwellness. Government income besides declines. as revenue enhancement grosss autumn and authoritiess are pressured to increase their disbursement to cover with the spread outing HIV epidemic. The abilities of African states to diversify their industrial base. spread out exports and pull foreign investing are built-in to economic advancement in the part.

By doing labour more expensive and cut downing net incomes. AIDS limits the ability of African states to pull industries that depend on low-priced labor and makes investings in African concerns less desirable. The impact that AIDS has had on the economic systems of African states is hard to mensurate. The economic systems of the worst affected states were already fighting with development challenges. debt and worsening trade before the epidemic started to impact the continent. AIDS has combined with these factors to farther worsen the state of affairs. It is thought that the impact of AIDS on the gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) of the worst affected states is a loss of around 1. 5 % per twelvemonth ; this means that after 25 old ages the economic system would be 31 % smaller than it would otherwise hold been. The future impact of HIV/AIDS

As entree to intervention is easy expanded throughout the continent. 1000000s of lives are being extended and hope is being given to people who antecedently had none. Unfortunately though. the bulk of people in demand of intervention are still non having it. and runs to forestall new infections ( which must stay the cardinal focal point of the battle against AIDS ) are missing in many countries. The impact of AIDS in Africa is linked to many other jobs. such as poorness and hapless public substructures. Attempts to contend the epidemic must take these worlds into history. and look at ways in which the general development of Africa can come on. As the grounds discussed in this page makes clear. nevertheless. AIDS is moving a serious barrier to Africa’s development. Much wider entree to HIV bar. intervention and attention services is desperately needed.

Practice Problems

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeComplete each part of Question 1 correctly. (3 pts. each)
15 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeComplete each part of Question 2 correctly. (5 pts. each)
35 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeComplete each part of Question 3 correctly. (10 pts. each for Parts A through C; 20 pts. for Part D)
40 pts
Total Points: 90