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History Of Saudi Arabia Sociology Essay

History Of Saudi Arabia Sociology Essay. Many, but not all, Islamic societies practice gender segregation in public locations such as, but not limited to, universities, mosques and the marketplace. For example, in some mosques, men are separated by women by a curtain or screen. Unmarried men generally do not mingle with unmarried women unless they are supervised by a chaperone or are at a family party. Seclusion, or the practice of holding women within the home so they have no contact with the public, is practiced as well. Although many Muslim societies practice gender seclusion and segregation, men and women in many other societies study and work together breaking the traditional norms of “gendered space”13 Modern day opinions vary greatly about whether the separation of sexes is necessary. On one hand, many hold that separation is unnecessary while, on the other hand, others hold that modesty can be upheld through dressing appropriately and the limitation of conversations between unrelated men and women to topics of education and work. “Women have been assigned second-class status in Islam based upon Quran 4:34, which says, ‘Men have responsibility for and priority over women, since God has given some of them advantages over others and because they should spend their wealth [for the support of women].'” There are Muslims who campaign for the literal interpretation of the Qur’an. These advocates believe that the gender inequalities recommended by the Qur’an apply as God’s social order. Biology is often used as a justification for the inequalities between men and women. Biology is so important because only women can produce children, the man must provide for the family and maintain it so that the woman can do what she is supposed to do (raise and bear children). This chapter will provide the reader with an opportunity to become familiar with the origins of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia as well as insight into how the kingdom governs over social issues such as gender equality and the rights of women. History of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is a very recently created nation. The roots of Saudi Arabia lay within the 18th century Wahhabi movement which rendered the commitment of the very powerful and influential Saud family of the Nejd region, in central Arabia. The Sauds, supported by a strong Bedouin following, brought most of the Saudi Arabian peninsula under the family’s control. However, between the years of 1811-18, the Wahhabi movement was brought to a halt by the sons of Muhammad Ali and the Egyptian expedition that they were leading. Although the Wahhabis once again gained control and influence in the mid-19th century, they were defeated in 1891 by the Rashid dynasty, which ended up gaining the most effective power and control in the central Arabian region. The foundation of the present nation we know as Saudi Arabia was laid by a descendant of the first Wahhabi rulers, Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud. Starting with Riyadh in 1902, he reconquered the region and was the chief of Nejd by 1906. Right before the First World War, Ibn Saud took over the Al-Hasa expanse from the Hejaz, which had been ruling the area since 1916. The Hejaz were soon crushed by Saud in the years of 1924 and 1925. It was not until 1932 that the Al-Hasa region was combined with the Nejd in order to form the Saudi Arabian kingdom which was ruled under Islamic law. In the coming years, many changes and developments were in store for Saudi Arabia. In 1936, oil was discovered by the Arabian Standard Oil Company and commercialized production was started in 1938. In 1945, the kingdom joined the Arab League and made an agreement with the United States in 1951 which allowed for an American air base in the city of Dhahran in the Eastern Province. In 1962, Ibn Saud died and was succeeded by his oldest son, Saud. At first, Saud supported the Nasser regime of Egypt, but in 1956, in an act of opposition to Nasser, he entered into close affairs with the Hashemite rulers of Jordan and Iraq (the enemies of the Saudis up until then). After much turmoil when Saud opposed the Egyptian and Syrian merger to become the United Arab Republic in 1958 and when he dispatched aid to the royalist troops in Yemen, the Saudi family had no choice but to oust Saud and replace him with his brother, Faisal, in November of 1964. Although relations with Egypt were disengaged, however, after Israel defeated Egypt in June of 1967, an agreement was made between King Faisal and Present Nasser. The agreement stated that the Egyptian army was to withdraw from Yemen and in return, Saudi Arabia was to stop helping the royalists in Yemen. By the year 1970, Saudi Arabia had to withdraw all its troops and it had agreed to give $140 million a year to both Egypt and Jordan. With regard to the withdrawal of Britain from the Persian Guld region, King Faisal entered into a friendship with Iran, and encouraged Arab “sheikhdoms” that were under British control to form the United Arab Emirates. In June of 1974, Saudi Arabia (after having required tighter hold on its oil industry in addition to participation in oil businesses of foreign companies) reached an arrangement with Aramco (combination of several American oil franchises). This arrangement was developed by the Saudi Arabian government as another option to nationalization and stated that the Saudi Arabians would have a 60% majority ownership of Aramco’s enterprises and properties. King Faisal played a prominent role in the Arab oil embargo of 1973 which was focused against the United States and any other country that supported Israel. Fortunately, in 1074, the cease-fire agreements between Israel and Egypt and Israel and Syria were signed and relations between Saudi Arabia and the United States were amended. Women in Saudi Arabia “Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that bans women – both Saudi and foreign – from driving. The prohibition forces families to hire live-in drivers, and those who cannot afford the $300 to $400 a month for a driver must rely on male relatives to drive them to work, school, shopping or the doctor.” [1] Recently, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, who is considered a reformer, pronounced that women would be allowed to vote and run as candidates in municipal council elections starting in 2015 and promised to appoint women to the Shura Council (an all-male counseling body with no legislative power) after two years. Although the king promised all these positive reforms, there is still much discrimination against women as well as much room to improve in regards to social development in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is regarded as one of the most conservative of the Arab states. In Saudi Arabia, differences between the sexes are taught to children at a very early age. [2] According to an al-Saud princess, who secretly and dangerously dictated her story for the book, Princess: A True Story of Life behind the Veil in Saudi Arabia written by Jean Sasson, “Convinced that women have no control over their own sexual desires, it then becomes essential that the dominant male carefully guard the sexuality of the female. This absolute control over the female has nothing to do with love, only with fear of the male’s tarnished honor. The authority of a Saudi male is unlimited; his wife and children survive only if he desires. In our home, he is the state. This complex situation begins with the rearing of our young boys. From an early age, the male child is taught that women are of little value: they exist only for his comfort and convenience. The child witnesses the disdain shown his mother and sisters by his father; this open contempt leads to his scorn of all females, and makes it impossible for him to enjoy friendship with anyone of the opposite sex. Taught only the role of master to slave, it is little wonder that by the time he is old enough to take a make, he considers her his chattel, not his partner.” The social limitations on Saudi Arabian women are vast, and the Saudi government defends these limitations by saying that they are a part of Islam’s doctrine; In Saudi Arabia, the Islamic religion acts as a major influence when defining the norms, structures, and patterns of society. [3] “Islam is not only a religious ideology, but a whole comprehensive social system embracing detailed prescriptions for the entire way of life.” [4] The Qur’an instills that women are inferior to men just as the Bible sanctions men to rule over women. The difference between the two, however, is that in Saudi Arabia, Islamic interdictions are followed to their literal interpretations. For example, strict sexual segregation is practiced which deprives women of many educational and professional opportunities. The following is a chart showing just some of the differences between the rights of men and women in Saudi Arabia: Act Men Women Driving ƒ¼ ƒ» Marriage to a non-Saudi ƒ¼ ƒ» Marriage to a non-Muslim ƒ¼ ƒ» Divorce Men can simply say, “I divorce you,” three times Women must assume a long legal process which is hardly ever successful Child Custody If he contests the case, the man always gets custody Women will not receive custody if their ex-husband contests the case Borrowing of money ƒ¼ Women cannot borrow money under their own names Opening a business ƒ¼ Women cannot open a business without the approval of their husband or father Loans ƒ¼ Women cannot get home loans or land grants from the government Employment Men can be employed wherever they please A woman must obtain her family’ approval for certain jobs Travel Abroad Men can travel wherever they please A woman must depend on her family’s permission in order to travel abroad and must be in the company of a male of her family In addition to the above discriminations, there is the issue of the dress code. The majority of women in Saudi Arabia are veiled. Although the veil was an invention o the Ottoman Turks and the Prophet Mohammed had said that a women only had to cover her hair, many Saudi Arabian women are either forced, or choose, to wear a full veil which covers their entire face. In addition to the veil, Saudi women wear black outer garments made of either nylon or silk known as abbayat. The failure to dress according to appropriateness in Saudi Arabia can result in a switch from the religious police in Saudi Arabia known as the mutawa. In 1987, an extreme case of punishment overseen by the mutawaeen was documented in which they caused a the wife of the Tunisian ambassador at the time, to have a miscarriage by pushing her because her hair was not covered. [5] Although it still deemed as one of the most controversial and conservative of the Arab Countries, Saudi Arabia is working towards fixing issues with gender segregation and inequalities. In modern-day Saudi Arabia, a women cannot be forced into a marriage, she has the right to property ownership and disposal before and after her marriage, she can inherit from the males in her family, she has the right to an education, and right to work in many different professions (as long as it doesn’t affect her responsibilities to her family). In continuation, women have made very narrow advances towards their equality in the last 40 years, especially in family life and education. In regards to education, the first school for women was created by King Saud in the 1950s. In 1960, a royal directive was introduced to enable the beginning of women’s education in Saudi Arabia. The number of schools for women in Saudi Arabia grew from zero to sixteen in the 1950s, and up to 155 schools ten years later. [6] Saudi women have been able to achieve much educationally-wise despite the social difficulties that have been placed in their path to equality. For many women to have been able to surpass the extreme segregation in Saudi Arabia is certainly a feat that is not to go unnoticed. The following is a list of the differences in the education made available to men and women: Many facilities that are open to men are not open to women Women have access to libraries once a week while men have access six days a week Women’s class sizes are larger than those of men Teachers for men are better trained and prepared than teachers for women The budget on women’s education is less than that of men Curriculum for women centers more on the Qur’an and Islamic studies rather than on academics Women are forbidden from learning architecture, pharmacy, and engineering Few women, despite the fact that they tend to score higher than men on standardized tests, are allowed to work within the private sector because of Islamic rules on segregation. These rules encourage businesses to hire men instead of women. In addition, many Saudi men refuse to marry an educated and employed woman. Saudi Arabia has always been considered controversial in matters of human rights. In Saudi Arabia, there exists a direct link between Islam and the workings of society. The Saudi social structure is related to an array of types of religious beliefs such as religious philosophy, ethnic rules, and local customs and principles. Islam, in Saudi Arabia, provides detailed conditions regarding the way of life under Islam, in addition to laying out the status, responsibilities, and rights of women. In my opinion, the proper way to fix the gender inequality issues in Saudi Arabia starts at home. It starts with educating the youth with a positive mindset that rivals the current one that women are inferior to men. The youth should be taught that the sexual segregation and gender inequality causes strictness which leads to intolerance of the female sex and this is detested by the true and pure meaning of Islam. In addition, the existence and creation of women’s groups in Saudi Arabia are important for the social development of gaining rights and equality for women. These groups are important for educating the public, especially men, of the inequalities between genders and how they cause hindrances to the development of women’s position in society. History Of Saudi Arabia Sociology Essay
Directions: 1. Explain a strategy you would use to enlist stakeholder support in creating and implementing your action plan. Essay. Directions: 1. Explain a strategy you would use to enlist stakeholder support in creating and implementing your action plan. 2. Include your thoughts about the potential role of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) in your action plan. 3. Share challenges that you might encounter during implementation of your action plan and how you would address these challenges. Sources to Use Bambrick-Santoyo, P. (2010) Driven by data: A practical guide to improve instruction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 6, “Leading Professional Development: How Do You Make It Stick?” (pp. 147-174) DuFour, R.,Directions: 1. Explain a strategy you would use to enlist stakeholder support in creating and implementing your action plan. Essay
Deductions Smallest Value Possibilities & Number Procedures Worksheet.

1.Suppose you have an unlimited amount of coins with the values 25, 10, 5, and 1. You need
to give x in change to someone, but you want to use the smallest number of coins possible. What is
the procedure to do that?2.John has three bags: one contains only white chocolates, the other only dark chocolates, and the third one is a mix of white and dark chocolates. Unfortunately, he has labelled all bags
incorrectly. On the outside, you can read: Bag 1: White chocolates Bag 2: Dark chocolates Bag 3: White & dark chocolatesIt is possible to figure out the correct labelling by only looking into one bag. How is this possible?3.At night, you are playing cards with a friend. Suddenly, because of a thunderstorm, lights
go off. It becomes pitch-black in the room, you can’t see anything. Your friend then decides to challenge
you. She takes 15 cards at random from the deck of 52 cards and makes them facing up (all the other
cards face down). Then she puts the 15 cards back and shuffles the deck.
She asks you to divide the deck into two piles both containing the same number of cards facing up.
The two piles can be uneven in total number of cards. How do you do you it? Remember, you can’t
see anything, but you know that your friend has reversed 15 cards at random. (Note that the answer
is very simple in terms of what to do, it doesn’t require complicate strategies).
Deductions Smallest Value Possibilities & Number Procedures Worksheet

Table of Contents Introduction Introducing the Sites Already Available in Saudi Arabia Overall evaluation of existing problems. E-government websites and online banking infrastructures Exploring Online Services Offered in Other Countries Gaps to be fulfilled in the sphere of online services Summary of Reviewed Literature Reference List Annotated Bibliography Introduction The Internet has introduced a wide range of opportunities for organizations, businesses, and citizens in terms of communication, cooperation, and social interaction. Being one of the greatest contributions, it has also presented new options and services that can substitute physical infrastructures with online presence of the above-mentioned systems. Certainly, such innovation has considerably improved social and cultural interaction, yet some countries are in extreme need of these introductions that significantly them from successfully communicating at the international level. Public and private organizations, government, and citizens in Saudi Arabia also realize the core benefits of using the virtual space for overcoming the problems with delivering services, selling products, and competing with other, more progressive international companies (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010). Unfortunately, the problem is that not all online services available for the Arab users are worth relying on, which creates the problems of confidentiality, security, and credibility of information delivered online (Aladwani, 2003, p. 18). Specifically, the Saudi websites are commonly created by the governmental organs and ministries, banking systems, and educational establishments that can offer high-quality online services. Other economic segments, such as e-customer services, attorney services, healthcare services, renewing passports services are not developed enough in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the identified gaps through the analysis of existing services in Saudi Arabia and those in other countries to evaluate the level of Internet adoption and define the area that should be more advanced in that matter. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introducing the Sites Already Available in Saudi Arabia The adoption of electronic services in Saudi Arabia is largely carried out by governmental and banking infrastructures as presented by Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (2011), Saudi Government (Online Services, 2011), Portal of Ministry of Health (Electronic Services, 2011), Ministry of Higher Education (2011), etc. All these websites are secured enough to provide valid information. As per the other sectors, insufficient attention is paid to the problems of insurance, confidentiality, and accessibility for commercial activities performed online. It should also be stressed that the contemporary community can offer a wide array of online services among which are those that are not available in Saudi Arabia. Specifically, the increasing rates of globalization process have had a potent impact on the commercial system in the country. According to Oxford Business Group (n. d.), a 2008 period was marked by significant rise of customers using phone handsets to purchase product and services. Increasing potential is observed within Business-to-Consumers (B2C) e-commerce environment that creates greater opportunities for global integration and for penetrating to the international market (Oxford Business Group, n. d.). Overall evaluation of existing problems. The studies presented by Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) shed light on existing problems in the sphere of online services whose accessibility is not of the highest level. Particularly, the researchers identify the major problems of Internet adoption. One of such problem consists in presence of a considerable gap between the increasing number of internet users and development of security systems for online databases. Similar challenges are considered by Aladwani (2003) who believes that the purchasing power of the Arab world currently depends on the quality and availability of online services. However, specific political, cultural, and religious ideology negatively contributes to improving the situation. More importantly, the research suggests that improper analysis of language, traditions, history, and values established in the Arab countries makes it impossible to define the main what improvement should be made to reach greater accessibility and security. We will write a custom Research Paper on The Level of Internet Adoption in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another problem is that Saudi Arabia does not have enough resources for creating a well-secured online system ensuring great potential and options of Internet users. In this respect, both Aladwani (2003) and Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) are more concerned with shortcomings of online system which is more oriented on governmental and political needs. E-government websites and online banking infrastructures In the studies provided by Abanumy, Al-Badi, and Mayhew, P. (2005), the problem of e-government accessibility is evaluated in terms of guidelines provided, tools applied, and underpinnings of human factors introduced. While evaluating these key areas, the researchers try to outline the problems connected with the integration of Information and Communication Technology aimed at improving the agencies service and enhancing the internal development of the organization. The introduction of more advanced communication technologies will contribute greatly to transforming e-government websites and making them more citizen-oriented. Impetuous diffusion of the Internet has dramatically changed the distribution channels utilized by the financial systems. Many banking infrastructures are currently referring to online technologies much more frequently in order to provide customers with wider opportunities to participate in retail banking operations (Aladwani, 2003; Al-Somali, Gholami, and Clegg, 2009). According to Al-Somali, Gholami, and Clegg (2009) “round-the-clock availability and ease of transactions and avoidance of queues and restrictive branch operating hours” are the basic reasons for preferring online presence to the physical ones while carrying specific banking procedures (p. 1). Importantly, the studies also prove the idea that social influences and reluctance to change significantly prevent the banking website from normal functioning. With regard to this, extreme necessity for the introduction of online services to all spheres of life is predetermined by the rigid competition on the e-market arena. According to the Oxford Business Group (n. d.), online “[a]ccession has led to the creation of new laws for all sectors from banking and insurance to telecoms and distributions, enabling the creation of a plethora of new companies” (p. 39). Interpreting this, the country will be able to stand a competition only when effective online services are introduced. Exploring Online Services Offered in Other Countries Though Saudi Arabia gradually enters online infrastructure, the Internet adoption considerably lags behind other developed countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European countries. The explicit gaps exist in the sphere of passport renewal, e-commerce, legal considerations, and healthcare system. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Level of Internet Adoption in Saudi Arabia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The broadband in Saudi Arabia is not developed enough to introduce renewing passport and driving license services, which is heavily practiced in the United States (Travel.State.Gov, n. d; Australian Government, n. d.). Hence, the service enables the users to renew their passports via e-mail by fulfilling a number of simple procedures. This introduction would greatly contribute to the online communication systems developed in Saudi Arabia and provide more opportunities for the Arab women who can freely participate in certain procedures without male’s consent. With regard to the above, Gibbs, Kraemer and Dedrick (2003) present a comparative analysis of political environment impacting the formation of global e-marketing to reveal that Business-to-Business commerce is usually caused by external, or global forces whereas Business-to-Customers marketing is more determined by local influences. Despite global orientation, international companies still pay closer attention to the individual demands and local diversity issues to work out more effective strategies of online marketing (Oxford Business Group, n. p.). Therefore, the primary focus should be made on considering consumer values and preferences, national culture and peculiarities and distribution system that differ considerably across countries and these differences identify the global perspectives of development. In addition, Gibbs, Kraemer and Dedrick (2003) insist on the idea that telecommunication optimization seems to have the most tangible impact on e-marketing by providing more affordable Internet access both to consumers and firms. As a result, the necessity for introducing consistent system of e-commerce legislation is indispensible to favorable development of online services in Saudi Arabia. In general, a cross-country examination of the e-commerce websites as well as quality and security of information delivered online provides a clearer picture of existing gaps in Saudi online services systems in terms of options and demands. Specific emphasis should be placed on considering customer’s needs and preferences, cultural peculiarities, and security and reliability of online network in Saudi Arabia. Gaps to be fulfilled in the sphere of online services Due to the fact that the Internet usage is dramatically increasing in Saudi Arabia, many government ministries and leading companies have an Internet presence and, therefore, new e-commerce strategies should be adapted to meet social and cultural challenges, specifically those caused by Western influences. First of all, direct cost, extensive investments, and introduction of active business models will be the best contribution to advancement of online services quality in Saudi Arabia (Aichholzer G., Schmutzer R., 2000, p. 380). In addition, e-marketing strategies should also be oriented on creating effective advertising campaigns that would attract more consumers who are the core indicators of marketing success. Without consumers’ demand, e-commerce will be nothing, but a bulk of hardware and software platforms. Second, online website should involve more people to participate in online forums and discussions where each question asked by a consumer should be immediately answered by online operators. With regard to this, human resource management should be adopted to provide a sufficient support to customers and create a more reliable ground for seller-buyer interaction within the virtual space. Third, the above-presented review of sources provides more reasons for integrating more effective e-commerce law as established in countries having more experience in online marketing. Summary of Reviewed Literature In literature review section, such aspects as analysis of existing online services, assessment of e-government and online banking infrastructures in Saudi Arabia have been examined to relate them to the global trends of Internet adoption. A cross-country analysis contributes to presenting the most sophisticate problems and challenges that Saudi Arabia online services currently face. While assessing the current options, the review has also provided a number of gaps to be fulfilled in online systems in terms of accessibility, quality and credibility of information delivered, and options offered. The results of literature review and surveys have shown that significant emphasis should be put on creating e-commerce infrastructures regulated by e-commerce legislature, websites offering the attorney services, and sites providing other specific services, such as passport renewing and drive licensing. Saudi government should be aware of the benefits offered by the virtual space and in order to introduce technological advancement in the identified spheres, it is imperative to re-consider political, social, and cultural issues that have a potent impact on the formation of a more globalized online services system. Reference List Abanumy, A., Al-Badi, A., and Mayhew, P. (2005). E-Government Website Accessibility: In-Depth Evaluation of Saudi Arabia and Oman. The Electronic Journal of e-Government. 3(3), pp. 96-106. Aichholzer G., Schmutzer R., (2000). Organizational Challenges to the Development of Electronic Government, IEEE Press, pp. 379-383. Aladwani, A. M. (2003). Key Internet Characteristics and e-commerce issues in Arab Countries. Information Technology

Governments Role In Conservation Of The Environment Environmental Sciences Essay

Wide spread on climate change and global warming has been immensely forced the nations to the sustainable development. Environmental challenges in various bio diversity in balances has been wide spread more over the world. Improper Land Use Planning and Bio diversity in balances to the Conservation of Micro ecosystems is challenging to whole nations. Sri Lankan challenges however have been land degradation due to Soil Erosion, depletion of Coastal Resources, Waste Disposal, Loss of Biodiversity and Inland water Pollution, from where Sri Lanka is poor on waste disposal as a matter of priority. Some LA’s, NGOs, the private sector have initiated waste treatment practices such as composting of waste at household level, recycling of waste materials, incineration and landfills. International conventions protocols

The (Mis)measurement of Crime

order essay cheap The (Mis)measurement of Crime. I’m studying for my Law class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

In Chapter 1 of The Mismeasure of Crime, you read about the importance of reliability and validity of data in social research in the criminal justice context. Often, in an effort to measure crime and delinquency, for example, the result is a mismeasurement. To avoid this mismeasurement, it is important to consider constraints in research: what they are and why they are important for valid findings.
Whether measurement of social phenomena is accurate can depend on the time and context of the data being measured. As societal views change, the meaning of the data can change with it. Therefore, it is important to select precise indicators when measuring abstract concepts, such as when trying to operationalize social phenomena. Before completing the discussion, view Riverbend City: Crime Analyst in Action (attached) to meet a crime analyst who shares her career challenges and strategies and introduces the research process she uses in a recent assignment.
In your main post:

Explain the necessary factors to consider before public opinion survey results can be trusted as a reputable criminal justice resource, based on the principles of survey research.
Discuss how you could use public opinion research in your current or future career path based on its reliability as a resource.
Examine the benefits public opinion research would bring to your sector of interest in the criminal justice field versus other more or less reputable research resources.

Use scholarly resources
The (Mis)measurement of Crime

MHAFP 5006 Capella Role of AI in Clinical Oncology Cost Benefit Analysis Discussion

MHAFP 5006 Capella Role of AI in Clinical Oncology Cost Benefit Analysis Discussion.

Conduct a cost-benefit analysis using a template, and explain the concept of opportunity cost and how a cost-benefit analysis aligns with organizational needs. Recommend a plan of action based on the cost-benefit analysis.Note: The assessments in this course build upon each other, so you are strongly encouraged to complete them in sequence.Required ResourcesThe following resources are required to complete the assessment.This resource includes information on writing a cost-benefit analysis.Plowman, N. (n.d.). Writing a cost-benefit analysis. Retrieved from…Use this template to complete the assessment.Cost-Benefit Assessment Template [XLSX].This tool provides a step-by-step guide with a real-world example.Mind Tools: Essential Tools for an Excellent Career. (n.d.). Cost-benefit analysis: Deciding, quantitatively, whether to move ahead. Retrieved from….Assessment InstructionsPreparationUse the Cost-Benefit Analysis Template linked in the Resources to complete Part 1 of this assessment. Use the following scenario that continues the scenario from Assessment 2 as the foundation for this assessment:One of the physician’s groups in the clinic would like to purchase an MRI machine. Currently, clients who need an MRI must schedule an appointment at another facility, adding time and cost to any treatment they may need. The machine will be available for all the physicians in the clinic and will require additional staff to operate the equipment and the office area where it will be housed.You must prepare a cost-benefit analysis to present to the physicians so they may decide whether to move forward with the purchase. Be sure to consider the non-monetary costs, such as productivity, as well as the non-monetary benefits, such as improved customer satisfaction. Although these may be difficult to quantify, they are important costs and benefits that must be considered.RequirementsPrepare a two-part cost-benefit analysis.Part 1Complete the cost-benefit analysis template for the purchase of an MRI machine for the clinic with estimated costs and benefits values.Part 2Based on the cost-benefit analysis, write a 2–3-page summary:Explain the concept of opportunity cost.Explain how the cost-benefit analysis aligns with organizational needs and future growth.Recommend a plan of action that is supported by the cost-benefit analysis. (Should the clinic purchase the MRI machine, or not?) Reference specific areas of the analysis in your recommendation.Submit both parts of the assessment at the same time. Please note that you will need to attach each part separately since they are different types of documents.Additional RequirementsInclude a title page and reference page for Part 2.Number of pages: 3–4, not including the title page and reference page (Part 2 only).At least two current scholarly or professional resources (Part 2 only).APA format for citations and references used in Part 2.Times New Roman font, 12 point (Part 2).Double-spaced (Part 2)
MHAFP 5006 Capella Role of AI in Clinical Oncology Cost Benefit Analysis Discussion

International Strategies to Protect Children from Child Labour

The World’s Children Must Be Protected From Labour The issue of child labour has been one that has been ongoing for hundreds of years and is still very much present today. The lack of social education and awareness on this cause is lacking therefore, justice is not being served to those vulnerable children whom suffered and will continue to suffer through this cruel form of work if not stopped. The global community’s continuing failure to end the cruel human rights violation of child labour urgently requires the creation and enforcement of a stricter international law that promotes education and wellness for all children around the world. The elimination of this cause can start by it being dealt with every nation individually for it to completely, for once and for all be eliminated globally. Child labour is a concern for international law because child labourers are deprived of their right to education. They are not being given the freedom to pursue education, or live their lives as normal children would, and instead they are forced into the work lifestyle without the power to fight it alone. A major issue in the lives of the families whose children work labour is the poverty factor. These harsh working conditions are not suitable for children especially those working for little to no money. If children were given the opportunity to be in school instead of working labour they would have the chance of pursuing careers that pay well, instead of working in difficult and dangerous jobs that put their lives at stake. Moreover, they are forced into this poverty lifestyle because they are from developing countries and do not get a say in what they have to do in order to earn money to help support their families. Children need to mature quickly to adapt to work in order to survive, due to “the loss of the parents’ jobs, the departure of the head of the family, a poor harvest, a natural disaster, the occurrence of illness or any other unexpected event.”[1] Children are used as objects to pay off their family’s debts, resulting in them working extensive hours, which harms them physically, emotionally and psychologically. As a result, families troubled by “financial issues cannot handle the growing demands of their children and sometimes even fail to provide them with adequate nutrition”[2]. Studies show “depression, hopelessness, shame, guilt, loss of confidence and anxiety are some of the horrible emotional effects of child labour, leading to a high risk of mental illness and antisocial behavior.”[3] These ruthless work conditions and factors cause children to become unhealthy and undernourished; which is highly preventable if they were given the resources and facilities to go to school. Child labour is frequently occurring in more underdeveloped or developing countries which are not urbanized and do not have education as a major priority, rather the need to survive, no matter the given work conditions. They are not being given the freedom to pursue education, or live their lives as normal children would, and instead they are forced into the work lifestyle without the power to fight it alone. Children suffering through labour “are as young as six or seven years old. Often their hours of labour are 12 to 16 hours a day. Often their place of work is the sweatshop, the mine, the refuse heap, or the street. Often the work itself is dull, day-long, repetitive, low-paid or unpaid. Sometimes the child works under the threat of violence and intimidation, or is subject to sexual exploitation.”[4] If they were given an education and the opportunity to pursue a career, money would not be an issue. Children are facing this cruel treatment due to the poverty in which they grew up in, and the debts of their parents, causing them to face physical and mental health issues. Overall, the deprivation of education is a major factor which contributes to the numbers of children working dangerous labour jobs to continue to increase significantly. Many countries and organizations have raised the concern and attempted to bring awareness to the issue of child labour, however international law has not been effective because it is evident that child labour is still present in today’s day. The UN convention on the rights of the child (CRC) has been protecting children rights since 1990 but has not been ratified in all countries specifically the US and Somalia so it is not fully in effect as of yet. The CRC is a human rights treaty that “comprehensively establishes the rights of children. Under the CRC, a child is anyone under the age of 18, unless otherwise noted in national legislation.”[5] Due to the US and Somalia not ratifying this, there leaves thousands of children in their countries unprotected from the cruelty of child labour. The effect of this is that child labour rates in those countries are significantly high and that “half of Somali children have to work in order to provide for themselves and their families. About 40% of children suffer from malnutrition in Somalia; 33% only eat once a day.”[6] If this convention was ratified this would be highly prevented from ever occurring again. Another organization that has attempted to prevent child labour is the International Labour Organization. It is a United Nations specialized agency that’s objective is to prevent child labour and other bad working conditions for men, women and children across the world. However, has not been found effective since the number of children in child labour statistically has not been found to decrease significantly at all throughout the years. Unicef rates show currently worldwide there are “218 million children between 5 and 17 years are in employment. Among them, 152 million are victims of child labour; almost half of them, 73 million, work in hazardous child labour.”[7] These solutions are not showing evidence of positive outcome or effectiveness. Moreover, there was a Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention created which “requires ratifying countries to take immediate action to prohibit and eliminate the worst forms of child labor defined as: all forms of slavery, commercial sexual exploitation of children, and any work that by its nature is harmful to the health, safety, or morals of children.”[8] However, the number of children harmed and killed from work are still significantly high today. Worldwide, “the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.”[9] This number is not completely accurate with the probability of thousands of more children and is still to be determined due to the thousands of unknown cases of child labouring illegally occurring worldwide. All of these attempts to stop child labour have not yet come to effect due to limiting factors. Initially, further actions against child labour must been seen in order to provide justice to those children suffering and in order to create a significant decrease in the amount of child labourers worldwide; to put this issue to a stop once and for all. Child labour having an effect on children’s wellbeing, along laws not being enforced enough, means new solutions must be motioned into place in order to end this issue. Promoting legal reform is a first step in preventing child labour. This can be possible by “providing clear legislative guidance on the types and conditions of activities that should be considered child labour is essential for effective action. Legal reform also provides government with a mandate to ensure other contributing issues (e.g. poverty, violence, migration) are properly addressed.”[10] If this becomes effective then it prevents thousands of children globally to be protected against child labour along with stops any long term implications that it could have had on their lives. Next, putting children in school so they can pursue careers instead of making them work labour jobs for the minimum pay in order to end child labour globally. Studies conducted by UNICEF show “an estimated 57 million children of primary school age were out of school in 2011.”[11] Also, “almost half of all children currently out of school may never enrol, and the other half may either enter late or drop out early. There is a high probability that children who are out of school will be exposed to violence and exploitation in workplaces. Some of the 600 million children who are in school also work in violent and exploitative workplaces, increasing their risk of dropping out.”[12] Children being occupied with school betters their futures, prevents any abuse they could face in work places and will also educate them on their human rights. Lastly, we need to start protecting children socially and not allowing factors such as deprivation and poverty be an excuse for them to be forced to work labour jobs. This can be done through social initiatives, Unicef defines social protection as: the set of public and private policies and programmes aimed at preventing, reducing and eliminating economic and social vulnerabilities to poverty and deprivation. This includes programmes such as social transfers, social health insurance, social support services, family leave policy and accessible child care. Well-functioning social protection systems can contribute to addressing some of the underlying causes of violence, abuse, exploitation and neglect of children.[13] Initially, global communities can come together and put an end to this gruesome act of child labour and uphold the rights children are obligated to in order to ensure safety of all children globally. Children to be placed in harm’s way to do labour work for another organizations gain is cruel and should have never occurred and should never continue to occur. Childhood is precious and should not be wasted and limited to such dangerous work conditions. This is a continuing global issue this must be stopped immediately in order to retain the justice of vulnerable children across the world. This must be done through the creation and enforcement of a stricter international law that promotes education and wellness for all children around the world. Attention must be given to those suffering children and bring awareness to their mistreatment in order to see change occur. All nations must come together to once and for all banish child labour and child labour must be abolished. Bibliography Agarwal Sinto. “Impact of Child Labour on the Nutritional Level and Developmental 9-12 Years”. OMICS International. last modified June 05, 2017. Beigbeder Yves . “The Creation of UNICEF” .New Challenges for UNICEF. last accessed December 18 2018. Mehra Amol. “Child Labor Laws