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History homework help

History homework help. This is an assignment that focuses on the achievements and challenges of human services organization in human services problem. The paper also describes the theoretical frameworks.,The achievements and challenges of human services organization,In this final capstone project, you will demonstrate your proficiency in your specialization area which is child abuse and child neglect by completing an analysis of a human services problem in a chosen organization or system. The goal of this assignment is to incorporate prior feedback and recommendations to improve the final version of your Capstone Integrative Project, including: Analysis of a chosen human services problem and an organizational context. Summary of achievements and challenges. Consideration of ethical, cultural, and diversity issues. ,Theoretical frameworks, underpinning the project focus, proposed solutions, and recommendations for collaboration and advocacy.,Assignment Instructions,Present your revised analysis of your chosen human services problem for your selected organization or system. Address the following for this last assignment of the Capstone Integrative Project:,Explain, using peer-reviewed literature, the achievements and challenges of your selected human services organization in addressing your chosen human services problem. Support your explanation with references to at least three peer-reviewed articles. Incorporate recommendations for improvement provided by the instructor in your earlier submission of this section. Explain the theoretical frameworks that are relevant to your chosen human services problem.,The achievements and challenges of human services organization,Describe a theoretical framework or model that underpins your study of this organization’s effectiveness in addressing the chosen human services problem. Explain why this framework or model is relevant for your study. Support your discussion with at least three scholarly references. Incorporate recommendations for improvement provided by the instructor in your earlier submission of this section. Explain cultural, diversity, and ethical considerations for your chosen human services problem. Describe the cultural competencies required of the human services professionals in the identified human services organization or system for effective intervention and collaboration with partners. Identify the cultural and diversity impacts that should be taken into consideration when solving organizational i‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍ssues in a for-profit, nonprofit, or government setting.,Determine the diversity of stakeholders and partners in your community, and explain how this information is useful for building collaborative relationships to better service the clients. Support your discussion with at least three scholarly references. Incorporate recommendations for improvement provided by the instructor in your earlier submission of this section. Develop specific recommendations for improvement of your chosen human services problem in your selected organization.,Describe practical solutions to the challenges identified for your organization or system, based on the theoretical framework or model you selected for the study. Incorporate feedback provided by the instructor in your earlier submission of this section. Propose recommendations for advocacy and collaboration with other organizations on your chosen human services issue. Discuss the value of interorganizational collaboration for delivery of high-quality service to the clients. Also, advocacy on this issue in society. Provide specific recommendations for organizational collaboration to address your particular human services problem in your community. Support your discussion with at least three scholarly references.History homework help
CMU Theories of Mindfulness and How the Relation to Wellness Discussion.

Compare and contrast two theories or modalities tied to mindfulness and the relationship to wellness across the lifespan. Cover the following:Identify the two theories/modalities and what makes them unique to lifespan wellness.Articulate how these unique approaches could impact your own personal wellness plan.Identify whether or not these would be something you could integrate into your own life and how you would do it.Make sure you properly cite all references per APA Guidelines.(Example: As these both relate to wellness across the lifespan, compare and contrast the benefit of animal therapy to teenagers and the impact of a positive living environment for a teenager. If you had teenagers living with you, would you and how would you integrate either for the benefit of these teenagers and for what benefit)I will provide the access for the book.Your paper should be a minimum of two double-spaced pages.
CMU Theories of Mindfulness and How the Relation to Wellness Discussion

ITCC 200 American Military University Wk 8 Workbook Access Database & PPT Project.

I need help with this assignment. Creating a table from a workbook data, import data in access database and create a power point presentation. Thank youThe Scenario:Tony Spacken, Sales Manager, has an Excel workbook listing properties for sale. If a property is sold, Select National Properties Group will finance the property loan for 30 years at 7.5% interest. If the monthly payment of a property is greater than $300,000, the company will give the buyer a 1% discount of the selling price. Lavern Gallen is interested in purchasing the Pleasant Properties Warehouse, one of the company’s properties. She lives at 4231 Center Drive, Tempe, TX 76501.For this project, you will need the following files:New blank Access databaseNew blank PowerPoint presentationGallen_LetterSale_PropertiesYou will save your files as:Lastname_Firstname_Sale_PropertiesLastname_Firstname_SNPG_PropertiesLastname_Firstname_Gallen_LetterLastname_Firstname_Sales_PresentationOpen the file Sale_Properties, and then save the workbook as LastnameFirstname_Sale_PropertiesCopy the Properties worksheet to a new worksheet,Rename the worksheet as PaymentsIn the Payments worksheet, convert the data to a table.In column G, insert a calculated column using the PMT function to calculate the monthly payment for each of the properties.In column H, insert a calculated column using the IF function to determine the amount of the if discountproperty qualifies for it.Determine the totals for columns F:H.Apply conditional formatting to cells with a selling price between $40,000,000 and $70,000,000.Copy the Payments worksheet to a new worksheet,Rename the new worksheet as Pleasant PropertiesFilter the table to display only the data for the Pleasant. Insert your name in the footer so that it displays on all worksheets.Create a blank Access database, and then save it as Lastname_Firstname_SNPG_PropertiesImport the data from the Properties worksheet.Create a query that displays all fields, except the ID field, for properties located in Florida and Georgia.Save the query as Lastname_Firstname_FL_GA QueryExport the query result as an RTF fileCreate another query that displays all fields, except the ID field, for all properties with selling prices less than $1,000,000.Save the query as Lastname Firstname Price QueryFor each query, create and format a report.Save each report with the name as the query, substituting the word Report for Query.Create a PowerPoint presentation using a template of your choice; the presentation will be shown to prospective buyers attending a sales conference.Save the presentation as Lastname_Firstname_Sales_PresentationInsert the file name in the footer to display on all pages of the notes and handouts.Modify the slides to help persuade buyers to purchase property from Select National Properties Group:On one slide, inform the audience that the company sells many properties.On the same slide, link the cell from the Excel Payments worksheet that displays the total selling price.On a new slide, insert a SmartArt graphic that lists some of the different types of properties that the company develops and manages.At the end of the presentation, insert a slide that contains the contact information for Mr. Spacken.Insert additional text, pictures, and clip art to enhance the presentation.Format any text or other objects to create a professional appearance.Open the file Gallen_Letter, and then save as Lastname_Firstname_Gallen_LetterInsert the file name in the footer.Format the letterhead for Mr. Tony Spacken.Insert the current date, and then insert Lavern Gallen’s name and address and a proper salutation.Following the first paragraph, copy the SmartArt graphic from your presentation to the letter, changing text wrapping and resizing as necessary.Following the second paragraph, from Excel, on the Pleasant Properties worksheet, link cells F1:G38 (first and second row) to the Word document.Under the third paragraph, insert the RTF file listing the Florida and Georgia properties.Format the document to create a professional appearance.
ITCC 200 American Military University Wk 8 Workbook Access Database & PPT Project

Asselt’s Article This paper aims to build upon the article by Asselt (xxxx) by re-examining this example of fragmentation from an updated perspective. Asselt’s article principally discusses the Kyoto protocol, however this is to be replaced by the recently adopted Paris agreement which is expected to come into force in 2020 (Wilder, 2016) and is not considered in Asselt’s article. This dissertation will therefore consider the impact of the modified provisions on the conflicts between the UNFCCC and CBD and will then go on to consider possible methods to address these. Differences in how the conflict would traditionally be addressed legally i.e. via the Vienna Convention and via scientific means will be considered in an attempt to inform possible solutions to the problem of fragmentation. Introduction In order to explore this specific topic it is first necessary to discuss the topic of fragmentation more generally, to do this certain questions need to be answered, namely: how did the phenomenon of ‘fragmentation’ come about? What is fragmentation? What effects does it have? And how does it display itself in Environmental law? Each of these questions will be answered in turn. The Emergence of Fragmentation in International Law Wilfred Jenks was one of the first to highlight the issue of the ‘fragmentation’ of international law as early 1953, stating that “In the absence of a world legislature with a general mandate, law making treaties are tending to develop in a number of historical, functional and regional groups which are separate from each other and whose mutual relationships are in some respects analogous to those of separate systems of municipal law”. Fragmentation is synonymous to the development of the international legal system, which has developed considerably in the post-war era with the formulation of the United Nations, of which nearly 200 nations are now members. Furthermore post-Cold War has seen an enormous expansion and transformation of the international judicial system, with the number of judicial bodies almost doubling, coupled with an equally remarkable expansion and transformation of the nature and competence of these international judicial organs. This means that it is meeting increased concern over recent years, including by bodies such as the International Law Commission. Recently the ILC has focused on this subject through its ‘Comission on the Fragmentation of International Law[A1]’ considering the issue to have attained significance through its proliferation. At its fifty-second session in 2000, the International Law Commission decided to include the topic “Risks ensuing from the fragmentation of international law” into its long-term programme of work. In the following year, the General Assembly requested the Commission to give further consideration to the topics in that long-term programme. At its fifty-fourth session in 2002 the Commission decided to include the topic, renamed “Fragmentation of international law: difficulties arising from the diversification and expansion of international law”, in its current work programme and to establish a Study Group. The Study Group adopted a number of recommendations on topics to be dealt with and requested its then Chairman, Mr. Bruno Simma to prepare a study on the “Function and scope of the lex specialis rule and the question of ‘self-contained regimes'”. At its fifty-fifth session in 2003, the Commission appointed Mr. Martti Koskenniemi as Chairman of the Study Group. The Group also set a tentative schedule for its work, distributed the studies decided in the previous year among its members and decided upon a methodology to be adopted for that work. [A2] Fragmentation as a Phenomenon According to some, Fragmentation is a term used to describe the inadequacy of certain corrective procedures in addressing an ever more congested body of international law. This is partly due to the emergence of a large number of international regulations over such a short period of time. These regulations now relate to an increasing number of interrelated subject areas and specialisations. According to Koskenniemi (2006) ‘what once appeared to be governed by “general international law” has now become the field of operation for such specialist systems as “trade law”, “human rights law” and “environmental law”‘. Most international treaties exist parallel to one another and are further developed without the benefit of consideration being given to potential conflicts with other agreements either during their negotiation or at a later stage of their existence, this has had the effect of, in some circumstances, creating a somewhat disharmonious medley of instruments, rife with overlapping and conflicting legal mandates (Hafner, 2004; Scott, 2011). Essentially he is saying that the lack of a general legislative body has resulted in a decentralised system, with the possibility of conflict between treaty regimes. Much of the literature dealing with fragmentation of general international law focuses primarily on the effect of fragmentation on international judicial institutions and dispute settlement bodies, and the contribution, as a result of multiplication of these institutions, to fragmentation. However in this subject area the term conflict can be interpreted differently by different authors, with some arguing for a ‘narrow’ definition and others for a ‘wider’ definition. This means that there are different types of conflict that can occur, Jenks and a number of other legal scholars endorsed the narrow definition, stating that “conflict in the strict sense of direct incompatibility arises only where a party to the two treaties cannot simultaneously comply with its obligations under both treaties” although Jenks also acknowledged that the narrow definition might not cover all divergences and inconsistencies between treaties. The narrow position is evermore being challenged by critics who argue that this position is limited in that it does not include (among others) incompatibilities between obligations or permissions for example. Erich Vranes argues for a wider definition stating that if one of the norms is “necessarily or potentially violated” this should also be included, however some critics further assert that these ‘wider definitions’ do not sufficiently cover all of the various incompatibilities that can occur between fragmented regimes. This has led some authors to consider fragmentation to also include elements of ‘policy conflict’, the International Law Commission’s (ILC) definition of which is given ‘as a situation where two rules or principles suggest different ways of dealing with a problem’ and may be considered more appropriate, Asselt states further that this is provided that these ‘different ways of dealing with a problem’ are contradictory rather than complimentary as will be discussed an overlap in regime coverage may not necessarily produce negative outcomes. The Impacts of Fragmentation Hafner (2004) states that fragmentation may lead to the ‘erosion’ of general international law and its institutions, involving the loss of its ‘credibility’ and ultimately its ‘authority’. Others make similar points, that such closed jurisdictions and institutions may contribute to a loss of ‘perspective’ on international law, lead to its ‘uncertain’ development and create a ‘lack of synergy’, with one author stating that with congestion comes ‘collision’, and often ‘friction’. To others, fragmentation challenges international law’s ‘stability’, ‘consistency’ and ‘comprehensiveness’. It has been described as leading to ‘inefficiencies’ for example through the doubling of efforts, which can diminish the ‘effectiveness’ of international law because scarce financial, administrative or technical resources may be wasted. The effectiveness of international agreements can also be significantly hampered if conflicts between the agreements lead to uncertainties over their interpretation and, consequently, their implementation and overall application. To draw a few of these criticisms down into an example, The MOX Plant case could be said to demonstrate ‘inefficiencies’ and ‘friction’ where the regime under the United Nations Convention on the law of the Sea of 1982 conflicted with the system under EC law. From a substantive perspective it requires complex arguments about which regulation to apply, which may lead to more conflicts. This demonstrates the difficulties in providing an answer, the problems of coherence raised by the MOX plant case, for example, have not already been resolved in some juristic heaven so that the only task would be to try to find that pre-existing solution. However the impacts of fragmentation may be more prominent from a secondary law perspective. Major problems arise when a state could resort to different mechanisms of enforcement in resolving one problem. Answers to legal questions become dependent on whom you ask, what rule-system is your focus on. States may resort to the mechanism that best suits their interests (though this can be views as good or bad). Furthermore the settlements are only reached in one system. This could undermine the tendency towards homogenous international law and engender additional uncertainty of standards to be applied to a given case. While some see the large problems mentioned such as an overarching loss of legal security others see a mere technical problem. Fragmentation is also viewn in a positive light, as an inevitable symptom of the international community’s rapid response to a host of emerging and ever more complicated pressures. To this end its greater degree of specialisation may present more opportunities to accommodate the unique needs of certain situations, through for example dispute settlement mechanisms, and this may in turn enhance a state’s likelihood of compliance. Overlaps also gives rise to the potential for improving synergy between obligations, making them more mutually supportive and enhancing their implementation (Scott, 2011). Though, according to others, fragmentation is not inherently negative and there are both positives and negative consequences that can be drawn from the phenomenon. Fragmentation in Environmental Law International environmental law is one of the fastest developing sub disciplines of international law, it serves to address all of the emerging global environmental challenges that are now being revealed according to modern science. Despite being less than 50 years old in 2017 (its basic framework being established in 1972 with the adoption of the United Nations Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment) it has now proliferated into over 200 multilateral treaties associated with a host of emerging environmental issues. In fact to date the greatest number of environmental agreements/protocols/amendments have emerged between the years of 1990 and 1999, making them less than 27 years old (Kolari, 2002; Mitchell, 2016). Given its relative infancy and the remarkable speed of its development, the IEL sub-discipline is particularly prone to examples of fragmentation. IEL may be distinguishable, or even unique in its interaction with fragmentation compared to other sub-sects of international law for certain reasons. For example as a ‘sub-species’ and as a result of inter-disciplinary fragmentation IEL displays more examples of intra-disciplinary (or inter-sectoral) fragmentation. Intra-disciplinary fragmentation entails that each of the broader sub-disciplines of international law consist of various sectors. This manifestation of fragmentation is disciplinary-specific and essentially relates to fragmentation between the various sectors which form part of the IEL sub-discipline. IEL is further outstanding in that its nature has led to the proliferation of a number of soft law instruments and protocols, the more primary normative mechanisms of which include (among others): conventions, protocols, subsequent treaty institutions, competent authorities, rules, procedures and governance instruments. This means that it may better exhibit examples of fragmentation that fit into the ‘wider’ definitions discussed earlier, when compared to other forms of international law. However in the terms of these primary normative rules the more cumbersome, duplicative, conflict-ridden, and confusing the international environmental governance effort is. Collectively however these weaknesses may also be referred to as ‘governance inefficiencies’, which, in the environmental context, may not be conducive to sustainability. A key concern in this regard may be associated with IEL’s credibility, which fragmentation is likely to threaten. This is particularly concerning in the case of environmental law, because as Bailey (1999) states: [at the governmental level] environmental agreements are often already plagued with a number of credibility issues, including those related to its authority, such as those associated with a lack of enforceability. Thus any additional flaws in the credibility of environmental instruments created by fragmentation will only act to exacerbate this problem. Managing fragmentation Generally, both the doubling of efforts and conflicts between environmental agreements require a systematic approach to harmonization and coordination in order to provide for greater coherence and, accordingly, enhanced efficiency of international law. Ultimately, regardless of the position taken, fragmentation needs to be examined and managed, such that any negative effects can be minimised, and any positive maximised. But if fragmentation is in this regard a “natural” development (indeed, international law was always relatively “fragmented” due to the diversity of national legal systems that participated in it) then it is not obvious why the Commission should deal with it. There are good reasons for concerns. As the international legal system has developed so far, it has had little experience with fragmentation, and its rules have not evolved to deal with fragmentation in a satisfying way. [A3] http://www.glogov.org/images/doc/WP30.pdf It can be said that fragmentation “reflects the high political salience of environmental issues and their particular problem structure”, and should be regarded as “a strength rather than a weakness of environmental co-operation”(Oberthür and Gehring 2004: 369). However, the multiplicity of institutional arrangements, and consequently the overlapping of regimes, could also pose a threat to the coherence of international environmental governance. In dealing with interactions, it is therefore important to aim at strengthening the overall coherence of international cooperation, by exploiting the synergies between different agreements, and minimising potential or actual conflicts.

“To Kill a Mockingbird”: Book and Movie Differences Essay

To kill a Mockingbird is an interesting novel amongst the most famous books in American literal cycles. It is a typical novel that has attracted the interest of film makers, in terms of adaptation. The novel prompted the creation of a movie, under the same title, and it is evident that certain similarities and differences are present. Apparently, the differences between the book and the movie remain conspicuous and unique due to several implications. It is evident that some issues in the film are presented in a better way than it is done in the book. The novel may also have some strong points and attributes as opposed to the film. Narration stands out as a major difference between the movie and the novel. To Kill a Mockingbird is a story based on Scout’s narration of major events, but this aspect is seemingly avoided in the film. The director focuses on the actions of Jem in a bid to forego Scout’s first-person narration in the movie. In other words, the role played by Jem is broadened in the movie as opposed to the narration provided by his brother. Here, the viewer is able to witness all the events visually. For instance, Scout’s narration of Boo’s mysterious activities is replaced with Jem’s actions on the same. Jem locates all the letters at the tree, accompanies his father to Helen Robinson’s house, after her husband’s death, as well as stays home to watch over his sister. These events were previously narrated by Scout in the novel. The film also introduces additional characters and this stands out as a big difference. For instance, the novel only dedicates one paragraph to Jem’s mother as the two brothers engage in a conversation about her. However, the film introduces Jem’s mother for the audience to see. Additionally, viewers are able to see more characters like Robinson’s father and children since they are not greatly featured in the book. The issue of time also greatly features in the differences portrayed in the book and the novel. It is important to note that the film, To Kill a Mockingbird entails most of the aspects depicted in the novel. However, several omissions are evident. In the film, the contact between Mrs. Dubois and the children is omitted. In simpler terms, viewers of the film are not able to witness the events that transpired inside the classroom. Episodes that characterize other minor characters like Miss Gates are also omitted from the film due to time factors. The film’s setting takes slightly more than two years as opposed to the novel’s story line which took three years. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The director certainly avoided the first-person narration provided by Scout because films basically base on visual properties. It is, therefore, difficult to present narrations in a film. The director also introduced more characters in a bid to fully develop the story line as presented in the novel. Viewers are able to see the characters and they become more conversant with the story line. Additional characters also introduce more communication cues and the story becomes interesting and relevant. Lastly, the director omitted other parts in the film because films are generally shorter and more precise than books. It is not possible to cover all the events covered in a book when making a film as exemplified in To Kill a Mockingbird. The film is definitely better than the novel due to additional characters, important communication cues, and precision.

Designing the Environment to Promote Play and Wellbeing Essay

professional essay writers Table of Contents Introduction The Importance of Play Characteristics of Play The relationship that Exist Between Play and Wellbeing Conclusion Introduction Play refers to any form of activity, which children engage in at free will in order to have fun. In most instances the type of play that children undertake results from intrinsic motivation without the expectation of an external reward. Similarly, children manage the plays by determining how to conduct the play activity. Therefore, play is a non-programmed activity without clearly specified outcomes, which in most cases is out of touch with the ordinary life. Various types of plays that children undertake contribute immensely to their development. Playing enables children to fully experience and discover their world. Adults should provide adequate support, play space, as well as, different types of play materials in order to promote the present and the future wellbeing of children. Therefore, this paper examines the importance and characteristics of play in the first two years of a child development, as well as, the link between play and wellbeing. The Importance of Play Playing is crucial to the healthy development of children and their wellbeing. Play is beneficial to children in a number of ways. For instance, play helps in the cognitive development of a child thereby enabling the child to understand and make sense of his or her world. Play facilitates the process of brain development, which occurs majorly during the early years of a child’s development. Play helps in the development of new neural connections that are crucial to effective learning in the later years of a child’s development. Through play, a child is able to interpret new experiences by building on the already acquired knowledge. Play enables a child to develop his or her thinking capabilities, which is crucial in problem solving and construction of new knowledge. When babies are given a chance to engage in free unstructured plays they are able to develop the ability to think creatively and to exploit their imagination capabilities. Therefore, an opportunity to play enables a child to stand a better chance of handling new experiences and challenges Play also enables a child to develop a sense of emotional intelligence. Play helps a child to perceive the emotional state of others, which enhances how a child relates to those around him or her. Play also promotes the development of positive emotions such as joy among children because play enables a child to develop the skill of entertaining themselves. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, from an early age a child will develop the ability to be self-reliant. Involvement in various forms of play enables a child to experience less negative emotions of fear, anxiety, stress, as well as, irritability while promoting calmness and the ability of a child to handle surprises and changes that he or she may encounter on a day to day basis. Hence, play greatly contributes to the emotional development and wellbeing of a child. Play also helps in language development among children. Acquisition of language is very important in the developmental process of a child because language is the major means of communication. Therefore, developing a proficient oral language will enhance communication between the child and those around him or her. Play enables children to learn and use language for various purposes, with different people, and in different scenarios. For instance, exposure to pretend plays at early years of a child development will enable a child to discover the meaning of various words that make up a language. Therefore, a child will always try to think on how to communicate appropriately, thereby enhancing language fluency. Group play also enables a child to develop purposeful verbal communication. For instance, children often use language to ask for materials or information while playing with others. Children in early years of development often use few words in order to express themselves. Play enables children to listen to their peers as they talk and act. As a result, they also mimic similar sounds in order to learn various words. Additionally, a number of children find pleasure in playing with language in order to understand word sounds, syllables, as well as, grammatical structure. For instance, children are able to develop a good mastery of their language by listening to jokes, riddles, and songs with rhyming words that often have elements of language play. Therefore, play greatly contributes in language development among children. Play also promotes social, as well as, physical development of a child. Play enables children to interact with others, thereby developing their ability to relate with others effectively. Playing provides a child with an opportunity to develop values such as empathy, compassion, and sharing from an early age. Similarly, a child also gets the opportunity to master a number of nonverbal communication skills. For instance, at an early age a child can be able to understand and master various facial expressions. Play also enables a child to develop attachment to others and build trust. On the other hand, children also benefit physically through various plays. Plays promote proper development of coordination and balance among children. As a result, play helps to eliminate stress, as well as, fatigue among children. We will write a custom Essay on Designing the Environment to Promote Play and Wellbeing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Characteristics of Play The plays in which children undertake during the first and second year of their development exhibit a number of characteristics. For instance, a number of children engage in sensory motor play during their first year of development. Whereby, children will repeatedly perform a motor or sensory activity previously learnt. A number of children in their first year of development derive pleasure from engaging in repeated sensory motor activities. Most children develop interest in playing with unsophisticated objects at around five months. However, in most instances the infants are usually more interested in their own actions upon the objects rather than the play objects. During the age of nine to ten months, a number of children develop the ability to differentiate various play objects. Majority of children often prefer new objects to older ones. Similarly, a number of children at the age of nine to ten months develop the ability to handle various objects in different ways in order to generate information from the objects. Therefore, most children aged one year old usually engage in discovery play. The major aim is to explore their environment in order to determine the texture, shape, size, and how various objects are made. During the second year of development, most children develop the appropriate use of objects and engage more in symbolic play. At this stage, children begin to shift attention from self to the external environment. Similarly, they also develop the ability to substitute and in corporate more objects into their plays. For instance, a child may use a box as a car. Some may also begin engaging in imaginative play at the age of two years whereby they imitate various animal sounds and behavior. Additionally, children aged two years old also participate in social play whereby they play together in groups. During social play, children are able to initiate their own games and design rules on how to play. Social play enables children to develop socialization skills such as cooperation, sharing, as well as, honesty. These skills are important, as they will enable the child to develop into a more responsible adult in future. However, adults also play a crucial role in the play of children because they act as directors and can encourage children to develop desired social behavior during social play. The relationship that Exist Between Play and Wellbeing One major reason for play is to have fun. Therefore, enjoyment is one of the key reasons why a number of children play. Play evokes positive emotions in children, which are crucial to the attainment of the wellbeing and health of children. Play enables children to experience feelings of joy, which contributes immensely to the development of a high self-esteem. Additionally, play enables children to have a healthy lifestyle. For instance, play enables children to burn calories that may be stored as fat if they lead inactive lifestyles. Therefore, play may help in the reduction of health problems such as obesity among children, as well as, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most cases of ADHD among children are linked to diminished play opportunities. Not sure if you can write a paper on Designing the Environment to Promote Play and Wellbeing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, an active play lifestyle has the potential to boost the physical, social, and emotional wellbeing of a child. Through play, children are able to develop a number of skills and competencies such as decision making skills, problem-solving skills, as well as, developing emotional intelligence. However, inadequate play may inhibit optimal learning and development in children, which may interfere with a child’s ability to socialize appropriately with other people. Inadequate play may result into an impaired brain development because play is crucial in the process of brain development. Additionally, play deprivation may also lead to deviant social behavior among children. Therefore, insufficient play among children has the possibility of negatively affecting the wellbeing of a child’s developmental process. Conclusion Play forms an integral part of a child developmental process. The types of plays that children engage in differ depending on the child’s age. For instance, at the age of one year most children engage in repeated sensory motor play activities, which are mostly solitary. At the age of nine months, most children develop the ability to engage in discovery play in order to explore their environment. In the second year of their development, most children are able to participate in social play. Plays have a number of benefits to children. For instance, play helps in the cognitive and language development among children. Similarly, play helps to promote the emotional and physical wellbeing in children. Therefore, children who engage in a number of plays are able to experience a healthy lifestyle. On the other hand, inadequate play has the potential of having adverse effect on children such as deviant behaviors and health problems such as obesity among children. Therefore, children should have ample playtime in order to realize optimal development and functioning.

Twitter/Face Book revolution in Egypt Essay

With improvement in technology in the 21st century, social networks and digital media has overtaken any other form of communication in the world. Technology has speeded up globalization process and in turn witnessed cultural sharing around the globe (Castells 67). The digital media has become one of the most important tools in influencing political and economic affairs. People around the world have become more enlightened about world affairs and their rights. Social networks are free, easy and convenient for people of all lifestyles to open and own an account as long as internet is available. Face Book and Twitter are innovations of the 21st century, which have heavily affected the system of governance. In Egypt, through the social networks, people started staging mass demonstrations in protest against Hosni Mubarak regime pressurizing him to resign in what could be termed as Internet/Twitter Revolution. Overwhelmed by the uprisings, the Egyptian Government resulted in banning Twitter and other social networks, though not directly the government was using Chomsky’s propaganda model to justify themselves. The government argued that the social networks were only interested in tapping the large Egyptian population as a resource and not in providing the crucial information. The government further refuted its image as portrayed on Twitter arguing that the information was biased and not objective. The information, to the regime, was structured in a way it put the masses against their own government (Herman

Nepotism in the Workplace

Introduction Nepotism can be defined as the practice of making employment decisions on the basis of relationship. It can also be defined as hiring or promoting a relative or friend, even if there are other qualified candidates for the position. Nepotism in the workplace is not uncommon, since this is a practice that does not have any universal law attached to it. However, in recent times, states have passed laws to reduce this practice, since it has many ethical issues involved in it. This paper will seek to define nepotism and it would to the international, regional and local organizations where we have seen suspicions of nepotism. It will be difficult to prove that nepotism does in fact occur in any organization; however, based on the link between persons hired and their relations, we have suspicions of the occurrences of nepotism. Nepotism is both seen in the private and public sector. However, based on research, it is more prevalent in the public sector. This paper will also show how nepotism can be detrimental the company on a whole, because there are many consequences which result in nepotism. Some consequences that will be examined include, family conflict in the work place, low staff morale, loss of competent employees, use of the job to carry out unethical acts, use of position to serve their own interest and to the detriment of the company and breach of confidentiality. Nepotism is evident in family owned businesses for the obvious reasons. Families would want to pass the business from generation to generation and this means that the profit will stay within the family and will be inherited by family members. Consequences of Nepotism Although there are consequences of nepotism a pro of this act can create stability and continuity in the organization and this will refer to more family owned businesses. Continuity because if it family owned, the business will continue by passing from generation to generation. Stability because, there will be succession planning which can result in the company being successful. On the flip side of the coin, the consequences out weigh the pros of nepotism. It creates dissatisfaction among employees. When employees are dissatisfied they may have a feeling that their hard work and dedication are not accepted or recognized by the organization. Nepotism can also result in the company losing proficient employees. This can in turn affect the organizations goods and services. Nepotism can also cause fraud in the organization. In addition, family members may bring their conflict into the workplace. Employees may not be able to separate home and work life. This is most seen in cases where husbands and wives work together and may find it difficult to work together. This may cause a decrease in the morale among staff members. A total breakdown in communication can result because of this, which will trickle down to other employees within the company. Inequity of employees is another issue resulting from Nepotism. Because of this factor, employees tend to show their dissatisfaction by low production of work which has attributed to issues in the work place in terms of upholding discipline among employees. Discipline is an issue because employees believe that since there is no justice in the organization there is no need to follow any policy or procedure. Breach of confidentiality is another consequence of nepotism. This will occur because of the lack of loyalty among employees. Employees may see this as an opportune time for them to practice unethical acts, because they believe because they were hired by a close or relative any practice is appreciated in the organization and they may use this to their advantage to get involved in any kind of unethical behaviour. Where nepotism is prevalent For obvious reasons nepotism is common in family owned businesses and this can be viewed in the more positive terms. Nepotism in family owned businesses can result in continuity in that the business will be passed on from generation to generation. There may be no ethical issues involved in the hiring family members within a family owned business. Nepotism is prevalent in the government offices. For example in the United States of America, Vice President Cheney’s wife and his son-in-law Phillip Cheney were hired by President George Bush and were given high level position with the government. The positions given were Assistant Secretary of State and Chief Counsel for the Office of Management and budget respectfully (Congress, USA Today, 2007). President Bush was highly criticized for this, because many believe that were more qualified individuals who fit the job. In Cuba Fidel Castro was President of Cuba for over forty years. His brother Raul Castro is now President and has been in the position from since 2008 to present. Raul was given the position of President without any elections by the people of Cuba. Because of the autocratic leadership style displayed by Fidel and his brother Raul. Many see this as an act of nepotism. In relation to Grenada, we have seen evidence nepotism in the government sectors, in that persons have been employed because of their affiliation and relation to government officials. Research was conducted on some private owned companies in which we saw, a father, wife, daughter and son-in-law were employed within the same organization. Staff members are of the opinion that these individuals were hired because of the family relation. Test Violation The regulations test This test deals with the reaction of your colleagues, if someone made a decision in the presence of an employee, for example to employ your sister-in-law to take up the position of manager of sales. There will be no suspicion or concern, if the business is a small family run business. Since the decision would work and be perfectly understandable considering family owned businesses are normally passed from generation to generation and the continuity relies on the emotional ties within the family. However within any government organization, if the same decision was made some colleagues may start feeling insulted. They may start thinking if there is a fraud plot in the making, and will surely voice their opinion and this will create dissatisfaction. Front page test: What would it look like if we read about it in a newspaper, blog, and twitter? What if the headlines read “President of Wal-Mart promotes his nephew as C.E.O.” This will no doubt create suspicion in the minds of stakeholders. Also if there is some level of shame or awkwardness about the news, one can assume there is some level of nepotism involved. Exception test: This test seeks to answer two questions. 1. What if everyone did it? If every business owner decided to employ persons that are related to them or persons that are friends, that would cause many implications, for example the skills or qualifications that may be needed at a particular time, a friend or a family may not possess them, which will result in inefficiency. Also that would mean that the main requirement to obtain a job would be on economic terms “who you knew”, as opposed to being judged on ability or merit. 2. What if they did it to us? There is no doubt that if someone was denied a job because he is not a friend of the employer’s son, but had all the qualifications and skills necessary to carry out the job would be considered to be nothing short of ludicrous. And this would be impossible for anyone to sit and make sense of. Ethical Approach The utilitarian approach This approach deals with proving the greatest good with the least possible harm. As it relates to nepotism this approach is greatly violated, since nepotism is specifically linked to benefiting only the family members or to close friends of a particular individual and normally causes dissatisfaction to the majority of stakeholders. For example, in a firm where the present Vice President may be contradicting the decision made by the president of that organization, the President may seek to get the Vice President fired so that his friend may become the new Vice President so that the decisions now made by the President can get the go ahead quite easily. (this only benefits the President and the new Vice President) Justice and fairness approach This approach deals with the question, “Are we recognizing the rights of those affect?” There is no doubt that each employee should be treated equally; there should be no sign of favoritism in the work place. Therefore it would not be ethical for an employer to grant a job to a fishing buddy instead of promoting an employee that is skilled, competent and filled with experience that can confidently fill the vacant position. It is important to note in this case, there will be a chain reaction involved because another employee may be looking forward for the person above him to be promoted, so he will then fill the new vacant position. Therefore when someone on the outside is used to fill the position, there will be a chain reaction of disappointment within the organization. Types of Nepotism Credentials nepotism: This form of nepotism is sometimes concealed but could be very dangerous to both an individual and an organization. In this situation people are given more credit for attending a class and passing but cannot apply what they have learnt. In short credential nepotism means giving someone more credit because they are certified (Young, 2008). “They were with us through thick and thin” nepotism: This form of nepotism is for the most part perverse and could create a lot of chaos. New performers in an organization tend to realize that old performers (those who have been with organization from inception) are given preferential treatment by management. This clearly shows that old employees are not held to the same employee accountability standards as the new ones (Young, 2008). Referral nepotism: Referral is an employment which is said to be natural. In this case, management asks high performers within the organization to recommend someone for a job opening that needs to be filled. Management hiring someone who turns out to be a poor performer but is tied to a high performer through friendship could lead to chaos in that trying to terminate that poor performer without upsetting the high performer is almost inevitable (Young, 2008). Contribution nepotism: This is a situation where persons within an organization receives preferential treatment because of a one-time contribution that made the organization more successful even though their subsequent performance has been poor or unsatisfactory (Young, 2008). Connection nepotism: is a connection which comes about by virtue of a shared experience such as attending the same school, attend the same church, from the same community, are members of the same sports club or were in the same fraternity. Connection nepotism is inclined to turn a blind eye to low employee performance and poor job fit (Young, 2008). Favoritism: The different types of nepotism mentioned above results in favoritism which is considered to be a killer of the morals o employees (Young, 2008). Ethical Issues Involved Illegal employment discriminations/ inequality Employment discrimination transpires when an employee or applicant is singled out by an employer or their representatives based on factors such as gender, race, age, sexual orientation, religion, disability and several other reasons. For example, an employer who hires only relatives of a particular gender and race oppose to hiring persons who are not relatives and are of a different races and gender (Employeeissues.com, 2010). Wrongful termination Illegal discharge Constructive discharge Wrongful termination is the termination of employment because an employee is a certain age, religion, nationality, gender or sexual orientation. For example, an employer dismisses an employee to hire his or her relative because they share the same religious belief and are of the same race. In this instance, the employer has engaged in illegally discharging employees based on the issue of religious beliefs and race (Employeeissues.com, 2010). Constructive discharge is a form of wrongful discharge which occurs when an employee relinquishes his or her job because of nepotism in the workplace which makes working conditions unbearable (Employeeissues.com, 2010). Stakeholders A person, organization that has a direct or indirect interest or involvement in an organization is known as a stakeholder. A stakeholder can affect or be affected by the actions objectives and policies taken by the organization. Different stakeholders are entitled to different considerations since they are not all equal (Gitman, 2009). The key stakeholders who are affected by nepotism are employees, families, management, companies and institutions, shareholders, society and customers. Research has shown that nepotism has a negative effect on job satisfaction, job turnover and Human Resource Management. Any undesirable decision made by any organization impacts heavily on management. Nepotism paralyzes and exposes a company or institution as it undermines their competence, intentions and level of fairness. This could lead to reduce revenue, production, quality of goods and services and company ratings (Arasli, Bavik,