History and Modern Day Reasons Research Paper. Introduction Haiti is poor. In fact, the country is rated as one of the poorest and “one of the most overcrowded countries in the world” (Diamond 354). Despite the countless questions and answers that have been provided about the poverty in Haiti, the situation remains the same. In other words, the causes of poverty in Haiti are well known. However, all the solutions that have been tried so far have not worked. If anything, the country is sinking deeper into poverty. A look into the country’s history reveals that on gaining independence from the French colonizers in 1821, Haiti was a relatively wealthy country (Diamond 355). This paper will try to demystify poverty as a problematic issue in the contemporary Haitian society. The paper argues that the absence of goodwill from the political leadership, the absence of inspiration by the citizens, and a collective unbelief by the citizenry that Haiti can rise up from its poor state are all factors that have perpetuated poverty in the small but populous country. A Historical Perspective into Haiti’s Poverty French Colonial Rule During the French colonial rule, the French colonizers were allowed to keep slaves. Under slavery, production in Haiti was high because the laborers worked under unforgiving slave drivers (Corbett n.pag.). Unfortunately, even after Haiti attained its independence, the colonial mentality persisted. On one hand, some wealthy elite employed people and worked them under conditions similar to slavery. On the other hand, a majority of Haiti’s laborers associated work with slavery. Given a choice, therefore, most Haitians chose not to engage in laborious work. Consequently, the country’s production reduced drastically (Corbett n.pag.). Without enough production, Haiti’s ability to support itself was compromised, to the extent that even today, the country relies heavily on food imports. The 1804 Boycott of Haiti by the International Community After emancipation from the French colonizers, Buck-Morss (845) observes that the eighteenth century Europeans recognized the significance that Haitian freedom had on the political discourse of the world. Haiti was an important case because the revolution by the Black slaves questioned the inequality perceptions that had been created by the French colonizers. The free rulers who would have wanted slavery to continue were not happy about the sociopolitical developments in Haiti. They thus decided that Haiti had set a dangerous precedent for the world (Corbett n.pag). Consequently, most of the developed countries with which Haiti was trading, boycotted its products. As a result, the Haitian economy suffered, the production went down, and people lost the will to produce goods for the export market. The 1838 French Debt In an effort to gain recognition from France, Haiti agreed to conditions that the European country had set for it. The conditions included compensating land and slave owners who had lost out during the revolution that ended in 1804 (Corbett n.pag.). In 1938, therefore, Haiti started paying 150 million franc to its former colonizers as compensation for the lost land and properties. The country ended up paying much more money in accumulated interest for its debt with France. It took the country more than 80 years to finally pay off the foregoing debt (Corbett n.pag.). As would be expected, the debt and the interest that had accumulated had a significant effect on Haitian economy since the money that would have been used in development-related activities was channeled to settling the debt. US Occupation Long after its independence, Haiti had one more unwelcome visitor; the US marines. The marines occupied the impoverished country in 1915. According to Corbett (n.pag.), the US marines’ occupation of the country was arguably the “most serious blow Haiti ever had to her independence and self-image.” Even more damaging to the Haitian’s sense of independence was the fact that the marines forced some changes in the constitution, effectively repealing a clause that had barred foreigners from owning land in the country. Additionally, the US citizens took control of the banks and other avenues of revenue collection hence limiting the funds that local Haiti nationals could access (Corbett n.pag.). Although the occupation by the US marines came to an end in 1934, the presence of the US had been well established during the occupational years. To date, the US still plays a large role in Haiti, mainly because the former is a major source for financial and in-kind donations to the latter. Based on the aid it extends to the impoverished country, the US also plays a central role in Haiti’s internal politics. Specifically, Corbett (n.pag.) notes that the US has played a role in Haiti’s poverty by giving “comfortable aid packages” to oppressive governments, which served the economic interests of the US, and which allowed the US military to prolong their stay in the impoverished country. Arguably, the US might not have intended for its actions to entrench poverty in Haiti, but its actions arguably allowed Haitian governments to underperform the development mandate given to them by the citizenry. Factors That Perpetuate Poverty in Modern Day Haiti Haiti’s bulging population Haiti’s population is a factor that has been cited as a major reason for the increasing poverty in the country. As a small country, Haiti just like other countries has limited resources that can only support a given number of people. Unfortunately, Haiti’s population still grows at three percent each year thus making a bad situation worse (Diamond 354). Even more critical is the deficiency of natural resources in the country. According to Corbett (n.pag.), Haiti is plagued by several issues that undermine its use of the few natural resources it has. For example, wanton deforestation has led to soil erosion, which in turns makes the arable terrain less viable for agriculture. Additionally, Haiti has failed to utilize its human resources potential because all its governing regimes have failed to invest enough resources in the development of a good education system (Corbett n.pag.). Consequently, illiteracy and ignorance are widespread in the country. Without a good education, Haitians are unable to get employment either in their country or elsewhere. With high rates of unemployment or underemployment, a significant percentage of the country’s citizenry cannot earn enough income to uplift their economic situations. The result is a large population of people who live in a web of unending poverty and economic deprivation. Government priorities Government’s lack of investment in social infrastructure, most especially schools, sewerage systems, water systems, medical services and roads has also been cited as a cause for continuous poverty in Haiti (Corbett n.pag.). Arguably, governments sometimes need to make tough choices, which are often inspired by political goodwill. Evidently, such goodwill has lacked in Haiti for a long time. Different government regimes have been unable to make tough choices that would steer the country in the right direction. The country’s fiscal and monetary policies are a reflection of the absence of political goodwill by those who govern the country. Political leadership has also failed to question or challenge what Mintz (279) calls “quasi-capitalism.” Rural cultivators are especially notorious for their quasi-capitalistic practices whereby, they limit their commercial activities to fit pre-existing traditions. In other words, the would-be business people limit their activities, and this arguably limits their potential to prosper, create wealth and create employment for other people in the society. Unfortunately, the government does not question such quasi-capitalistic traditions. Resultantly, the potential to develop is capped, and people who would have benefited from a more open capitalistic approach remain poor. Another failure by government is its inability to unite and provide national coherence to the general population. As Mintz (301) observes, Haiti lacks “the unifying institutional forms through which class and other conflicts could be mediated, settled or fought out.” Without unifying institutions, the country arguably cannot agree on a unified approach to addressing the problematic issue that poverty is. Incidentally, Crane et al. (73) notes that 54 percent of Haitians live on less than a dollar a day while an additional 18 percent live on less than two dollars a day. Urban concentration Mintz (272) also cites urban concentration as another reason Haiti continues sinking deeper into poverty. The extreme urban concentration in Haiti’s capital city Port-au-Prince is partially caused by the rural urban-migration, which has led to spatially populated areas in rural Haiti. Another town that has experienced large population increases is Cap Haïtien. Mintz (272) observes that most rural towns, Cap Haïtien included, have been losing economically to Port-au-Prince. In other words, the greatest concentration of wealth in the country is found in its capital city, yet, even this wealth is not evenly distributed among the population. Consequently, Port-au-Prince is a city of extremes, where the rich are relatively very wealthy, and the poor live in deplorable conditions. Incidentally, and even after years of rural-urban migration, 77 percent of all Haitians are approximated to live in rural areas (Sletten and Egset 10). Sletten and Egset (10) suggest that poverty is to a great extent a rural phenomenon in Haiti. Arguably, the poverty incidence in the countryside is a result of combined lack of investment by government and private sector players in such areas. For example, the absence of infrastructural services such as good road networks, electricity or even water makes it hard for citizens to engage in economically viable activities. To worsen matters, private investors shun rural areas due to the poor infrastructural connectivity between such areas and Port-au-Prince (Sletten and Egset 10). Agriculture The agriculture sector in Haiti also contributes to poverty (Mintz 273). Notably, Haiti’s land mass is not adequate to support its ever-increasing population. Additionally, Haitians use what Corbett (n.pag.) defines as “backward agricultural technology”, if any. In other words, the country is not able to utilize the little land mass it has to the optimum. As a highly mountainous country, Haiti’s agriculture potential has also been highly offset by soil erosion. A combination of illiteracy, self-interest and wanton destruction of forests has increased the soil erosion rates. Corbett (n.pag.) notes that at first, Haiti residents used trees as the only source of fuel. Later, they realized that they could eke a living from selling wood. Resultantly, deforestation increased. Efforts to convince people to stop the wanton destruction of forests have been fruitless, because as Corbett (n.pag.) observes, the illiteracy among Haitians makes it hard for them to comprehend the link between deforestation, soil erosion and poor agricultural outcomes. Discussion The problematic issue that poverty is in Haiti seemingly has a historical perspective. As indicated in the first part of this paper, Haiti suffered the effects of colonialism, boycott by its trading partners, the French debt, and occupation by the US marines. Combined, the aforementioned factors may have impoverished the country not only in the short-term, but in the long-term too. To worsen issues in Haiti, is the fact that modern day issues like sub-optimal agricultural practices, the country’s bulging population, its urban concentration and misplaced government priorities are not providing a solution to the problem that the country faces. The population is especially a major issue in the country because, as Diamond (351) notes, the country’s resources are unable to support the people that need to be supported. Seemingly, Haiti’s resources are similar to a pie that is shared among too many people. Obviously, such a pie would not satisfactory feed all its partakers. If Haiti is to overcome the poverty problem, the people (and this includes the government and the private institutions and citizens) have to be willing to overcome the past and build a more resilient and effective country. Unfortunately, Crane et al. (157) notes that the collective psyche of the Haitians seems to have accepted poverty as a way of life. To worsen matters, different Haitian government regimes have not offered the country direction in relation to fighting and overcoming poverty. As Corbett (n.pag.) further argues, there is a collective unbelief by the citizenry, coupled by an absence of an aspiration for better times for their country. Combined with the absence of political goodwill from the ruling class, the aforementioned factors have entrenched poverty in Haiti. Conclusion Identifying the real reasons why poverty is such a problematic issue for Haiti requires deep analysis of all the factors that contribute to the country’s prosperity or the lack thereof. Arguably and as has been illustrated in this paper, poverty is multifaceted and may be occasioned by one or a combination of factors. In Haiti’s case, a combination of historical injustices, as well as a lack of direction by different government regimes, and opportunistic behavior by countries such as France and later the US, has all contributed to the impoverished state of the country. Other social issues including a fast growing population, high illiteracy levels, high underemployment and high unemployment also contribute to the poverty situation in Haiti. Overall, and as indicated in the foregoing section, the absence of political goodwill to alleviate poverty in Haiti should be a major concern for all stakeholders interested in the country’s future. Ideally, the political leadership should chart the way forward for the citizenry, and rekindle their hope for better times in the future. In Haiti, that does not appear to be the case; consequently, the population is growing, the country has a greater social burden, and its resources are being overstretched. The resulting situation is one where the country and its people are sinking deeper into poverty. Works Cited Buck-Morss, Susan. “Hegel and Haiti.” Critical Inquiry 26.4 (2000):821-865. Print. Corbett, Bob. Why is Haiti so Poor? 2010. Web. Crane, Keith, James Dobbins, Laurel Miller, Charles Ries, Christopher Chivvis, Marla Haims, Marco Overhaus, Heather Schwartz and Elizabeth Wilke. “Building a more resilient Haitian State.” RAND Corporation (2010) 1-178. Print. Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Penguin, 2005. Print. Mintz, Sidney W. Caribbean Transformations. Baltimore: John Hopkins Uni. Press, 1974. Print. Sletten, Pal and Willy Egset 2004, Poverty in Haiti. Web. History and Modern Day Reasons Research Paper
Executive Summary In current world with economic globalization, each business must respond to increasing complexity and competition (Mendenhall, 2008, 14). As a member of the glamorous, but financially not so glorious airline industry( Hitt et al, 2010, 233), the pivotal company Lufthansa now faces many sustainable challenges and new uncertainties. This report aims to illustrate these strategic issues facing this company. With Porter’s Five Forces considered in this paper, the existing important issues and problems facing Lufthansa will be identified firstly, followed by the exploration of the causes and some appropriate solutions to these issues and problems. Finally some recommendations arising from a critical evaluation for Lufthansa to implement will be made. Identification and Analysis about both the General and Key Issues and Problems Just as Porter said, if the firm is intense, as they are in such industry as airline, almost no company earns attractive returns on investments( Porter, 2008, 3). To achieve financial success, Lufthansa urgently need to understand the industry it place and its competition. Porter(1980) has taught us an instrument that assists in analyzing the enormous value of competitive advantages( Majaro, 1997, 3 ). The nagging issues that Lufthansa has to cope with are as follows: Porter’s Five Forces Model (Porter, 1980) The competition that Lufthansa suffered is more and more violent. Undoubtedly, in the existing market for commercial aircraft, companies now are mostly privatized and they have to fight for survival on their own. Due to the globalization of airline industry, the economies of scale were created and no-frills low-cost airlines quickly spread over the world. However, it is not only incumbent rivals that pose a threat to Lufthansa, those new firms may enter this industry also affects Lufthansa greatly. On account of the deregulation and the erosion of the IATA, the airline appears a ‘high-growth’ industry now( Hitt et al, 2010, 235). These new entrants must have the desire to gain a foothold in this market that has already been divided, which probably cause the fierce competition with the existing business( Fritz, 2008, 18 ). It is this disadvantageous situation that may result in lower level of earnings of Lufthansa, what is worse, probably endanger the existence of it. The volume of its passenger surge even slide sharply. To our knowledge, buyers may have a special power on Lufthansa. The service of air transportation has become a bulk commodity( Albers, 2008, 33 ). At present the product(service) each airline company provide is basically standardized(Robock et al, 1989, 447), so it can go approximately well if customers purchase the product(service) from any one that meet their demand. This produced a trend that the customers of Lufthansa will divert to other counterparts. Moreover, the economic and political turbulence also contributed to the decrease of its customers. The operating costs are too high. Any industry requires raw materials and resources, to Lufthansa, it may be fuel, components and so on( University of Michigan, 1918, 998 ); these are factors that determine the whole costs. Since 2005, the oil prices has escalated dramatically and now the fuel costs are the second-highest cost category for Lufthansa; at the same time the fixed costs such as the depreciation for airlines were quite high for this cyclical business; both of which make the operating costs significant. The threat that other alternatives lead to can not be neglected too. With more substitutes become available, the demand becomes more elastic since customers have more alternatives( Morris, 1990, 42 ). Today high-speed trains are an attractive alternative for air journeys. Just because of the invasion of such substitute, the pressure laid on Lufthansa is heavy and its profits are restricted unprecedentedly. However, since the competition derived from the airline industry itself along with other substitutes both belong to external macroscopic environment, which is hard to predict, manage and control. This report just addresses some major problems that Lufthansa can or must solve. Firstly, financial operating issues are dominant for Lufthansa and it must concertrate its cost-cutting on the cash flow impact to ensure a rapid capital recovery. Secondly, it must pay attention to its passenger sales at the same time, which is a decisive factor that influences its profits and earnings. Generation and Evaluation of Alternative Solutions To ensure its costs are considerate, there are some cost-cutting initiatives has been accelerated since Lufthansa’s turnaround and so has some particular management that focused on cash flow. For example, by hiring foreign crew members, transforming the fixed costs into variable costs, slightly lowing staff wages and abolishing some discounts etc. In addition, since 1996 Lufthansa has been decentralized and each dissolved division is fully responsible for its own financial results under the control of its management board. What has been indicated is that Lufthansa staff are now carrying on a 4-day strike, which was exactly because they felt tense when Lufthansa cut down expenses through lowering their salaries(UPDATE 3-Lufthansa Strike Leaves Thousands Stranded, 2010). So to judge whether these methods can be effective, the visible decline of costs it generated is just one part to measure, more important is without losing consensus with its passengers and employees. Next in order to solve the constant point to win more customers, Lufthansa needs to understand passengers’ expectations and requirements and also establish a good public image. Now customers are all global and they differ by culture. One viable approach for Lufthansa is to know more about passengers through its alliance who has served them, and another is to participate more social and economic activities. An apparent evaluation of this method is the turnovers of its passengers which correspond to the public’s accept degree to it. Recommendations Because transforming the fixed costs into variable costs is comparatively flexible, so it is advised that Lufthansa may invest to keep relationships with its suppliers. According to Albers(2008), Airbus and Boeing who have the bargaining power are both Lufthansa’s key suppliers. So Lufthansa must build a long-time relationship with them to obtain right foundation at reasonable price, then Lufthansa would make sure an excellent maintenance thus keep its costs in a steady level. Furthermore, it is recommended that Lufthansa continue to give its divisions more duties and missions on the basis that they are under control. As this launch that decentralized Lufthansa attempt to remove intermediaries and avoid duplication of functions, which not only cut costs but also streamlining its business model(Lufthansa Official Website, 2009). Beside of this, Lufthansa should understand the expectation of its employees and customers, and then it will have a better chance to satisfy them. In the period when economic often experiences ups-and-downs, it may bring an unexpected surprise if Lufthansa add employee’s welfare adequately as them feel they are still sufficiently appreciated by the company and thus feel satisfied. What should be remembered is only those who are satisfied can create satisfying service( Verma, 2008). Last but not the least, being an undertaker of its alliances and social obligations are the ways for Lufthansa to operate in global network without increasing its own investments. Nevertheless, too many involvements may create the perspective that Lufthansa is seeking to be shareholder or to be ruler, so the involvement degree should be strategic and wise. What is delight, Lufthansa do rather well in this respect. Implementation and Conclusion Above all, it is practical for Lufthansa to build up a stable cooperation relation with suppliers. Letting the suppliers take part in its product development is one best path. By means of this strategy, not only can Lufthansa availably decline low cost and raise product (service)quality, it can also improve competition ability in airline market. While support suppliers is an important foundation for maintaining relations. Meanwhile, consciously introducing a competition mechanism between suppliers will promote them to continuously optimize its product quality and price level therefore cut down expense. The management board must try a ‘smart’ leadership, allowing its divisions to be the master of itself aligned with company’s core value. Continuous education and training about self-management including self-monitoring and program planning etc. for supervisors of such divisions is essential. It helps them develop skills and improve confidence in handling with various affairs(Corbin et al, 2007, 315). Obviously, successful treatment of business will lower Lufthansa’s operating costs. Thirdly, Lufthansa could show concerns by asking frequently its employees and passengers about their feeling and find out whether they were satisfied and where can be improved. Lufthansa should also train and educated its attendants as they act as its representatives to contact passengers. While, on one hand, it should be more engaged in a wide range of charities such as supporting children in need or protecting endangered animals; on the other hand, it must try best to rescue other members of alliance who are suffering from crisis. It is believed that Lufthansa will surely win more customers when it has provided really good service and set up really positive image. Having achieved these, Lufthansa would witness its profits pick up steadily, therefore gradually become the leader in international air traffic. Reference Albers, M. (2008). Lufthansa in its Competitive Environment(2nd). Norderstedt: Drunk und Bindung Corbin, C.B. and Lindsey, R. (2007). Fitness for Life(1st). Champaign: Human Kinetics. P.O. Fritz, N. (2008). Internet Protocal Television German-Analyzing Business Model for Market Success(1st). Norderstedt: Drunk und Bindung Hitt, M.A and Ireland, R.D and Hoskisson, R.E. (2010). The Management of Strategy-Concepts and Cases(9th). South-Western College PU. Lufthansa Official Website: Company Portrait-Organization(2009). Retrieved from: http://konzern.lufthansa.com/en/history.html. Date Accessed: [Feb.22th, 2010]. Majaro, S. (1997). Marketing(1st). Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall. Mendenhall, M.E. (2008). Global Leadership: Research Practices and Development(1st). Oxon: Routledge. Morris, M.H. and Morris, G. (1990). Market-Oriented Pricing: Strategies for Management(1st). New York: Quorum Books. University of Michigan. (1918). Automotive Industries, vol, 39. Chilton: Chilton Company Inc. Porter, M.E. (1980). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors(1st). Washington: Free Press Porter, M.E. (2008). On Competition-Updated and Expanded Edition(11th). Harvard: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. Robock, S.H. and Simmonds, K. (1989). International Business and Multinational Enterprises(1st). Bel Air: Irwin. UPDATE 3-Lufthansa Strike Leaves Thousands Stranded. (2010). Retrieved from: http://cn.reuters.com/article/companyNews/idUKLDE61L03V20100222?symbol=BAY.L. Date Accessed: [Feb.22th, 2010]. Verma, H.V. (2008). Service Marketing: Text and Cases(1st). London: Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd.
Colorado Technical University Project Management Models Presentation
Colorado Technical University Project Management Models Presentation.
Your presentation must be 7 slides (with 150 words of speaker notes per slide). Additionally, include a title and reference slide. The title slide (including topic title, your name, etc.) makes your presentation look and appear professional. The reference slide at the end with correctly APA style formatted references ensures your information and positions are substantiated and that credit for others’ work is acknowledged with correctly APA style formatted in-text citations in your speaker notes.Research the library for information about 2–3 different project management models for you to compare.One of the selected models should be the model that you believe would be best for this course’s project.Develop a PowerPoint presentation of 7 slides that includes the following:Explain the value that each selected project management model offers to a project manager.Explain which project settings are ideal for their use.Use credible sources to support your arguments.Explain why one of your selected models is ideal for the current course project.Each slide must be accompanied by 150 words of speaker notes.For more information on creating PowerPoint Presentations, please visit the Microsoft Office Applications Lab.All sources must be referenced using APA style.
Colorado Technical University Project Management Models Presentation
IT 241 Saudi Electronic University Problems of Operating Systems Essay
essay help online free IT 241 Saudi Electronic University Problems of Operating Systems Essay.
You must submit two separate copies (one Word file and one PDF file) using the Assignment Template on Blackboard via the allocated folder. These files must not be in compressed format.It is your responsibility to check and make sure that you have uploaded both the correct files.Zero mark will be given if you try to bypass the SafeAssign (e.g. misspell words, remove spaces between words, hide characters, use different character sets or languages other than English or any kind of manipulation).Email submission will not be accepted.You are advised to make your work clear and well-presented. This includes filling your information on the cover page.You must use this template, failing which will result in zero mark.You MUST show all your work, and text must not be converted into an image, unless specified otherwise by the question.Late submission will result in ZERO mark.The work should be your own, copying from students or other resources will result in ZERO mark.Use Times New Roman font for all your answers.
IT 241 Saudi Electronic University Problems of Operating Systems Essay
4 Core Values
4 Core Values. Paper details In light of the discussion in class of the 4 Core Values (Respect, Responsibility, Honesty, and Compassion), which one of these values do you think is the most important and relevant to your life and your experience. Put them in order of their importance for you from 1 to 4. How would you specifically apply all 4 values to your profession. Take your time to seriously reflect on your answers. (English is a secondary language that i speak so please use simple words for this assignment. can you please put respect as first in the order. thank you! 4 Core Values
Marketing Messages Write down at least three most important messages to your target market.
Marketing Messages Write down at least three most important messages to your target market.. I’m studying for my Marketing class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?
Write down at least three most important messages to your target market. Remember that your target market is motivated by”
Social acceptance (“everyone in this group is doing it”)
Ensure that we know why you are using the message such as
Pivotal Moment Story
“Fresh Hot Pizza Delivered in 30 Minutes or Less” – Domino’s Pizza
“Where it absolutely, positively has to be there overnight” – FedEx.
“We’re number two. We try harder.” Avis
“The milk chocolate melts in your mouth, not in your hand.” – M&M
“A diamond is forever.” – De Beer’s
benefit that is a promise with meaningful specifics – with a guarantee. If you define your USP narrowly, it will give you a stronger appeal.
Meaningful specifics mean that you specify the benefit. Look at Domino’s example: They are not going to deliver your pizza “sometime” but within 30 minutes. It has a specific timeframe. They are taking two benefits that are what clients hate about delivered pizza. They hate it when it’s cold, and they hate it when it’s late.
You need to have meaningful specifics in your USP. The meaning will be a benefit to your ideal customer, client or patient.
The last part is a guarantee. If you can guarantee an outcome that your ideal prospect will love, use that in your USP.
Should be clear what impact the message is intended to have on the target market customer
Write down at least three media channels that are most important to your target market and why. Examples include:
Social Media (which social media specifically)
Public Relations (getting others to talk about you…who and where)
Search Engine Marketing
Search Networks (Pay per Click)
Display Networks (Banner Ads)
Awards & Recognition
Content Marketing (video, articles, youtube channels…)
Specify whether your choices are Owned Media, Paid Media, or Earned Media
Should list media channel’s importance to customer
Write down what is most important to your target market about your marketing mix:
Product (Features, benefits, design…)
Place (where and how they buy)
create brand loyalty (separate yourselves from others)
Should list order of target market preference for Product, Price, Place, and Promotion
Should include explanation of why target market has that preference
ill attached the previous assignment to make it easy
Marketing Messages Write down at least three most important messages to your target market.