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History and Developments of Marketing Practices

Introduction Marketing as a subject was revolutionised between the 1950s and 1980s through a variety of different theories and practices incorporating higher levels of scientific theory than at former times. These practices formed a successful transactional approach to marketing through accredited concepts such as the ‘Marketing Mix’ and also ‘Marketing Management’ in which I will discuss in further detail throughout the text. In addition, I will also discuss how and why the marketing discipline changed from the 1980s onwards alongside key challenges for marketers now and into the immediate future. To begin with what is marketing? “Marketing is the social process by which individuals and organisations obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging value with others” (Kotler and Armstrong 2010) this definition is based upon supplying satisfaction to consumer demand emphasising the value to the customer. In my own words, marketing is a business discipline managing customer satisfaction as a prime focus through communicating and exchanging goods or services consisting of value for customers. This could be performed in a transactional method as a strategy concentrating upon single point of sales; in comparison to a relationship marketing manner that places immense importance on consumer retention and interaction. (SearchCRM, 2018) 1950s The transactional approach was introduced in the early 1950s, by Borden (1954), consisting of 12 different variables collectively called the ‘Marketing Mix’. However, the model was soon reconstructed by McCarthy (1960) and shortened to four variables being ‘price, product, promotion and placement’, to make a marketing strategy (Grönroos, 1994a, 1994b). The mixture of these variables all reflect off another and combine for one objective – making a sale. Factors such as promotional incentives are more common in the marketing mix rather than relationship building as the purpose of a transactional paradigm concentrates on achieving volume of sales in a shorter period of time. [Int. J. Electronic Customer Relationship Management, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2010] Additionally, the 1950s also overlooked marketing take a further shift from being a previous functionalist school of thought, transition into a more managerial type. Such a transition promoted problem-solving and decision-making, as more questions were asked in regard to how marketing should function in comparison to explaining how marketing functioned. (Egan, J, 100 Years of Marketing). Many social and economic factors were conceived that favored the success of the marketing mix paradigm. Firstly, greater economic strength existed globally for example in 1925 the United States and United Kingdom GDP was calculated at $730,545 and $231,806; shifting significantly to $1,455,916 and $347,850. The outcome of the economic strength affects the enhancements of consumers lifestyles characterizing social identity and emerging lifestyles. Furthermore, other social factors consisted of an evolution in greater levels of rural to urban migration, infrastructure development that facilitated distribution. These two factors increased consumption levels and expanded markets beyond the previous regional limitation (Eric H Shaw and D.G Brian Jone, Marketing Theory 2005). Similarly, the opportunity to advertise to vast audiences was introduced by means of televisions, expenditure in advertising soared alongside the launch of ITV in the UK in 1955. Marketing was trusted as the method to ensure consumption kept up with output with immense levels of demand through the factors mentioned (Egan, J, 100 Years of Marketing). As a result of these socio-economic factors transactional marketing paradigm was adopted globally through the increased levels of consumption leading to such marketing being educated within schools. (Dixon and Blois, 1983; Kent, 1986). 1960s During this period of time, computer technology advanced massively aiding, the key theory known as conjoint analysis, which was developed by Professor Paul Green (Green and Rao, 1971). Many broad concepts were now considered within marketing for example social and behavioral patterns, qualitative analysis and environmental constraints. Conjoint analysis enabled marketers to function a wider range of examinations for example consumer preferences and reactions to new or altered products. This theory allowed for marketers to gain a better understanding and more effective decisions of the marketing mix as better information is available. 1970s Kotler (1972) was the leading marketing author at the time and believed marketing management has to adjust the company’s marketing decision variables in a way wherein company objectives were maximised considering expected behaviour of non-controllable demand variables. Two key theories were established being: macromarketing and strategic planning school. (Egan, J, 100 Years of Marketing). Firstly, the role of macromarketing is to assess how marketing may have an impact on society and how society may also have an impact on marketing. On the contrary strategic planning school set about their ideology to explore existing correlations concerning environmental change and change within the organization. Further concepts came to light such as ‘demarketing’ known as a type of marketing planned to alter behaviour as well as ‘network marketing’ (Egan, J, 100 Years of Marketing). In 1977 the American Marketing Association and the Marketing Science Institute concluded that academic marketing could not progress marketing management much further (Mentzer and Schumann, 2006). Numerous criticisms were formed, and the transactional paradigm was put under scrutiny. For example, it was stated difficulties existed applying the transactional marketing outside its original context. Furthermore, as a result of a healthy economy, consumer spending masked the flaws of the concepts at the current time. Likewise, transactional marketing was revealed to be a theory for times of growth and not stagnation, as when competition and number of businesses increases, markets are matured with a fixed number of consumers and overload of products. (Egan, J, 100 Years of Marketing). The transactional paradigm had numerous problems regarding the theory behind it and also the practicality of it in certain situations such as in economic growth in comparison to economic stagnation. A fitting description of another flaw can be spotted here explaining how customers are not a focal point, Dixon and Blois (1983) – customer is someone ‘to whom something is done’ rather than ‘for whom something is done’ (cited in Grönroos, 1994 p.6). Lastly it is a singular process and overlooks higher levels of customer satisfaction. The period between 1950 – 1980 can be described as a mass market followed by world wars wherein consumption levels were high in a fairly homogenous market. These levels cool down post 1980s therefore markets were fluctuating and becoming more heterogenous, consequently the transactional paradigm was no longer fitting and functional in such markets. Additionally, another contextual change was the fact that marketing management was sought to be a tactic and waste of money. It was deemed fitting for customer relationship marketing to replace traditional transactional paradigm, as a long-term establishment is formed between customers and businesses. Reichheld[86] gives an example of this: “At MBNA (in the credit card business in the US), a 5 per cent increase in retention grows the company’s profit by 60 per cent by the fifth year” (p. 65). In this day and age a new era of digital marketing exists through advancements in technology, that takes marketing to a whole different level incorporating television advertisements globally, social media platforms such as Instagram as well as online resources such as YouTube. Social media has allowed celebrity endorsements such as YouTube star Zoella, to embrace products to global audiences online as marketing is far more networked. A problem could be the mass expense of marketing now as so many different methods are available which are costly. Furthermore, online buying platforms such as Amazon and eBay provide instant feedback for their service and products that is easily accessible online. Additionally, globalization, which is the interlinking of different countries, has allowed international relations to build improving the marketing as a whole. Additionally, another problem is that consumers are more demanding and knowledgeable and will reject marketing that isn’t relevant and appropriate. Another example of customer relationship management marketing is in the company Tesco and Nike. Here a special connection lies between the firm and customers as for example in Nike they have the opportunity for customers to buy online and in store as well as customize products to their own liking, known as ‘Nike ID’. Furthermore, Tesco have a concept of a ‘Club Card’ that build a relationship between the firm and customer as the customer receives points that can be traded for discounted goods – this brings a trusted relationship and therefore will mean the customer will return to the business achieving its targets. In conclusion through the text it is clear to imagine that marketing has changed drastically from a transactional approach to a more customer focused and managed approach as it is more effective and fitting to a global audience who have access to a wide range of knowledgeable online platforms through the internet. References SearchCRM. (2018). What is transactional marketing? – Definition from [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Nov. 2018]. [Int. J. Electronic Customer Relationship Management, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2010] Grönroos, C. (1994a) ‘From marketing mix to relationship marketing: towards a paradigm shift in marketing’, Management Decision, 32 (2), 4–20. Grönroos, C. (1994b) ‘Quo vadis, marketing? toward a relationship marketing paradigm’, Journal of Marketing Management, 10, 347–60. Dixon, D.F. and Blois, K.J. (1983) ‘Some limitations of the 4Ps as a paradigm for marketing’, Marketing Education Group Annual Conference, Cranfield Institute of Technology, Cranfield, UK, July Marketing Theory 2005, Eric H Shaw and D.G Brian Jone. Green, P.E. and Rao, V. (1971) ‘Conjoint measurement for quantifying judgmental data’, Journal of Marketing Research, 8 (August), 355–63. Egan, J, 100 Years of Marketing, 7-15. Mentzer, J.T. and Schumann, D.W. (2006) ‘The theoretical and practical implications of marketing scholarship’, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice McCarthy, E.J. (1960) Basic Marketing, Homewood, IL: Irwin. Borden, N.H. (1954) ‘The concept of the marketing mix’, Journal of Advertising Research, 4 ( June), 2–7. Reichheld, F.E., “Loyalty-based Management”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 71, March-April 1993, pp. 64-73
ABO and Secretor Blood Group Genetics. The secretor factor (Se) might be considered either a physiologic trait or an honorary blood group. The individual who is a so-called secretor has demonstrable ABH blood group antigen in the saliva and other body fluids; the nonsecretor does not. Secretor is dominant. Genetically independent of the ABO blood groups is the secretor system which comprises two allelomorphic genes, (Se) which causes secretion in saliva and other fluids of the antigen or antigens corresponding to the individual’s ABO group, and (se) which, in the homozygous condition determines non-secretion. Heterozygotes are secretors. There are wide variations in the frequencies of the two genes, which could therefore be of considerable anthropological value. Also the secretor and non-secretor states have significant associations with certain diseases. Natural selection is therefore thought to be of considerable importance in determining the frequencies of the genes. Genetics The Se and se genes of the ABH secretor system vary widely in frequency in different populations, but our knowledge of their distribution is incomplete and patchy. In particular the Se gene has a very high frequency in American Indians and apparently a low one in southern India. The system shows well-defined associations with certain diseases and there are indications that it is involved in major processes of natural selection. Secretor function centers around the action of a cluster of genes which control the production of enzymes called ‘fucosyltransferases’. The genes are called ‘FUT’ and are numbered 1-7. The majority of these are on chromosome number 19 (19q13.3). These enzymes help assemble thefucose strings which then become the H antigen, or are further glycosylated to A and/or B antigens. Chromosome 19 does most of the secretor work. It carries the the code for FUT1 and FUT2(fucosytransferase enzymes) of which the ‘null allele’ on FUT2 codes for ‘non-secretor’ status. FUT2 codes for fucosyltransferase activity in body exocrine (a type of gland) tissues, which then makes you a secretor, since you are pumping blood type antigens into your secretions. Many of the FUT genes are intimately involved in the development of the embryo, a fact which helps explain why many people feel that the primary function of ABO antigens are to act as a scaffold in our inter-uterine life. One of the genes, FUT4, is found on chromosome 11. It appears non-lethal as mice bred to not have it appear healthy. It apparently has something to do with the effects of ABO in bone marrow. Recently, a new fucosyltransferase gen, FUT7, has been linked to 9q34 (the ABO blood type locus). Tissue distribution of FUT7 is very restricted to leukocytes and high endothelial (blood vessel) cells, and plays a critical role in the function of selectins (tissue specific lectins involved in the migration of white blood cells to areas of infection or tissue damage.) Thus the body itself uses ABO and internal lectins to help target the immune system. Functional and Genetic Factors Involved in ABH Secretion ABH secretion is controlled by two alleles, Seand se. Se is dominant and se is recessive (or amorphic). Approximately 80% of people are secretors (SeSe or Sese). In the most rudimentary sense, the secretor gene (FUT2 at 19q13.3) codes for the activity of the glycosyltransferases needed to assemble aspects of both the ABO and Lewis blood groups. This it does in concert with the gene for group O, or H (FUT1). These enzymes are then active in places like goblet and mucous gland cells, resulting in the presence of the corresponding antigens in body fluids.(1) The H antigens are indirect gene products expressed as fucose-containing glycan units, residing on glycoproteins or glycolipids of erythrocyte membranes or on mucin glycoproteins in secretions and are the fucosylated glycans substrates for glycosyltransferases that give rise to the epitopes for the A , B and Lewis blood group antigens. The major difference between the two genes is in their pattern of expression: the FUT1 (H) gene is expressed predominantly in erythroid tissues giving rise to FUT1 (H enzyme) whose products reside on erythocytes, whereas the FUT2 (Secretor) gene is expressed predominantly in secretory tissues giving rise to FUT2 (Secretor enzyme) and to products that reside on mucins in secretions. When alleles of both genes fail to express active enzymes, individuals bearing them, in homozygous state, lack the substrates for the A or B glycosyltransferases and do not express the A and B epitopes. ABO and Secretor Blood group Genetics Description Glycosphingolipids carrying A or B oligosaccharides are integral parts of the membranes of RBCs, epithelial and endothelial cells; they are also present in soluble form in plasma. Glycoproteins that carry identical oligosaccharides are responsible for the A and B activity of secreted body fluids such as saliva. A and B oligosaccharides that lack carrier protein or lipid molecules are found in milk and urine. Genes at three separate loci (ABO, Hh, and Sese) control the occurrence and the location of the A and B antigens. Three common alleles -A, B and O- are located at the ABO locus on chromosome9q34. The A and B genes encode Glycosyltransferases that produce the A and B antigens, respectively. The O gene is considered to be amorphic since no detectable blood group antigen results from its action. The RBCs of group O persons lack A and B, but carry an abundant amount of H antigen because this antigen is the precursor material on which A and B antigens are built. Family studies have shown that the genes at the remaining two loci, Hh and Sese (secretor), are closely linked. The chromosome on which they are located has not yet been identified. It is suggested that one of these loci may have arisen through gene duplication of the other. Two recognized alleles reside at each locus. Of the two alleles at the H locus, one of these, H, produces an enzyme that acts at the cellular level to construct the antigen on which A or B are built. The other allele at this locus, h, is very rare. No antigenic product has been linked to h, so this gene is also considered an amorph. The possibility exists that other alleles occur at the Hh locus that differ from H in that they cause the production of only very small amounts of H antigen. Secretor Genetics The Sese gene is directly responsible for the expression of H (and indirectly responsible for the expression of A and B) on the glycoproteins in epithelial secretions such as saliva. Eighty percent of the population are secretors because they have inherited the Se gene and produce H in their secretions that can be converted to A and/or B (depending on the genetic background of thesecretor). The se gene, having no demonstrable product, is an Amorph. Oligosaccharide chains on which the A and B antigens are built can exist as simple structures of a few sugar molecules linked together in linear fashion. They can also exist as more complex structures that are composed of many sugar residues connected together in branching chains. It has been proposed that the differences in cellular A, B and H activity seen between specimens from infants and adults may be related to the number of branched structures carried on the cellular membranes of each group. The RBCs of infants are thought to carry A, B and H antigens built predominantly on linear oligosaccharides. Linear oligosaccharides have only one terminus to which the H, then A and B, sugars can be added. In contrast, the RBCs of adults appear to carry a high proportion of branched oligosaccharides. Branching creates additional portions on the oligosaccharide that can be converted to H and then to A and B antigens. A and B genes do not produce antigens directly but instead produce enzymes calledglycosyltransferases that add specific sugars to oligosaccharide chains that have been converted to H by the action of the H gene. H antigens are constructed on precursor oligosaccharide chain endings called Type 1 and Type 2. The number 1 carbon of the terminal 6-carbon sugar b-D-galactose (Gal) is linked to the number 3 carbon of subterminal N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in Type 1 chains and to the number 4 carbon of GlcNAc in Type 2 chains. Blood group-activeglycoproteins present on cell surfaces or in body fluids carry either Type 1 or Type 2 chains.Glycosphingolipids present in the plasma and those on the membranes of most glandular and parenchymal cells also have either Type 1 or Type 2 chain endings. In contrast, the glycolipidantigens produced by the RBCs; appear to be formed exclusively of Type 2 chains. These chains are carried on a class of glycosphingolipids called paraglobosides. At the cellular level, the H gene transferase produces a Fucosyltransferase? that adds fucose (Fuc) in alpha (1-2) linkage to the terminal Gal of Type 2 chains. The A and B gene transferases can only attach their immunodominant sugars when the Type 2 (or Type 1) chains have been substituted with Fuc (ie, changed to H) thus, the A and B antigens are constructed at the expense of H. The A gene-specified N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-transferase and the B gene-specified galactosaminyl-transferase add GalNAc and Gal respectively in alpha (1-3) linkages to the same Gal acted on by the H gene transferase. The alleles at the ABO locus that result in subgroups (phenotypes of A and B that differ from each other with respect to the amount of A or B carried on the RBCs) produce transferases that differ from one another in their ability to convert H antigen. The O gene is thought to produce a protein that can be detected immunologically but has no detectable transferase activity. As a consequence, the RBCs of group O persons carry readily detectable, unconverted H antigen. The secretion of Sese persons contain Type I and Type 2 chains with no H, A or B activity. It has been suggested that the H and Se genes each encode a different Fucosyltransferase. The enzyme produced by H acts primarily on Type 2 chains and in RBC membranes. That produced by Se prefers (but does not limit its action to) Type 1 chains and acts primarily in the secretory. Studies performed on the secretions of persons with the rare Oh phenotype support the concept that two types of H antigen exist. Persons of this phenotype, who are genetically Hh and Sese, have no H and therefore, no A or B antigens on their RBCs or in their secretions. However, H, A and B antigens are found in the secretions of genetically hh persons, who, through family studies, appear to possess at least one Se gene. Genomics The ABO gene codes for the glycosyltransferases that transfer specific sugar residues to H substance, resulting in the formation of blood group A and B antigens. This gene maps to chromosome 9, position 9q34.1-q34.2. It consists of 7 exons, ranging in size from 28 to 688 base pairs (bp), and 6 introns with 554 to 12 982 bp (Figure 1).1-3 The last 2 exons (6 and 7), which comprise 823 of 1062 bp of the transcribed mRNA, encode for the catalytic domain of ABO glycosyltransferases. Figure 1. Schematic representation of the genomic organization of the ABO gene. The exons (black squares) and regulatory regions (clear squares) are drawn to scale, as are the intervening introns, although the scale of the latter is 10 times smaller. The calculated numbers of nucleotides (nts) in the exons and introns are shown. The upstream regulatory region, which includes a CBF/NF-Y binding motif, is located around nt -3800 and, depending on the ABOhaplotype, 215 or 344 base pairs (bp) in size; the regulatory region in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) is located from nt -118 to -1. The 6 common ABO alleles in white individuals are ABO*A101 (A1), ABO*A201 (A2), ABO*B101 (B1), ABO*O01 (O1), ABO*O02 (O1v), and ABO*O03 (O2). In exons 6 and 7 they differ by only a few base positions. ABO*A201, which is responsible for blood group A2, is identical to ABO*A101 apart from a nonsynonymous substitution at nucleotide (nt) position 467 and a single deletion (1060delC) in exon 7. This deletion results in disruption of the stop codon and an A-transferase product with an extra 21 amino acid (AA) residue at the C-terminus. ABO*B101 is distinguishable from ABO*A101 at 7 nt positions: 3 synonymous mutations at positions 297, 657, and 930; and 4 nonsynonymous mutations at positions 526, 703, 796, and 803. The nt sequence of ABO*O01 differs from that of ABO*A101 by a single base deletion at position 261 in exon 6; this deletion shifts the reading frame, thus generating a premature stop codon. ABO*O01 is thought to be either silent or translated into a truncated and catalytically inactive peptide. In contrast, the ABO*O03 allele lacks the 216delG polymorphism but possesses nonsynonymous mutations that may abolish the protein’s enzyme activity by altering the nt sugar binding site. Eighty-three ABO alleles discriminated at 52 polymorphic sites within the coding region of the ABO gene have been reported in the literature so far. In most cases the investigators analyzed only exons 6 and 7. The number of described ABO alleles increases to 88 when nt differences within intron 6 are also considered. It has been shown that studies of the nt sequence of intron 6 are crucial for elucidation of the origin of some novel haplotypes. To our knowledge, there is no information available on sequence variation of the noncoding regions upstream from exon 6 and little data on mutations within the first 5 exons of the ABO gene and their relevance for the ABO phenotypes.14 In the present study, we therefore examined the complete exon/intron sequences (except for the huge intron 1 comprising 12 982 bp) and 2 regulatory regions of common and rare ABO alleles to evaluate the genetic diversity and diversification at the ABO locus. The genomic sequence data were first correlated with the associated ABO phenotypes then used for lineage definition. The presence of a large number of recurrent mutations is characteristic for the considerable diversity of the ABO gene. Phenotype-genotype correlation revealed that an extensive heterogeneity underlies the molecular basis of various alleles that generate serologic ABO subgroups. ABO sequence variations also include phenotypically relevant replacement mutations in exons 2 to 5. Thus, ABO genotyping strategies would have to consider all variations distributed across the entire coding region to achieve safe phenotype prediction. Therefore, ABO genotyping remains mainly reserved as a complement to serology for determination of inherited ABO subgroups and exclusion of ABO*B allele markers in the acquired B phenotype. The data on highly conserved and lineage-specific intron sequence motifs provide a powerful base for elucidating the origin of variant ABO alleles and may prove valuable for anthropologic studies on the origins and movements of populations. In a cohort of asthmatic children, we have recently shown that the ABO-secretor genetic complex influences susceptibility to asthma in children. Since previous studies have shown an association of asthma with adenosine deaminase (ADA) genotype 2, we have searched for possible interactions between the two systems concerning their effects on susceptibility to asthma in children. The sample study has been described in a previous paper 1 and was composed of 165 children, 109 males and 56 females, aged from 1 month-15 yrs. The criterion for inclusion in the study was the occurrence of two or more episodes of wheezing in the last 6 months, irrespective of aetiology/pathogenesis of the attack. A consecutive series of 362 newborn infants from the same Caucasian population in Rome, Italy, was used as the control sample. The proportion of nonsecretor/O subjects with the ADA*1/*1 genotype was much higher in asthmatic children than in controls. On the contrary, the proportion of subjects with other phenotypes of secretor-ABO complex carrying the ADA*2 allele was much lower in asthmatic children than in controls. The other two phenotypic categories showed a similar proportion in asthmatic children and controls. The lack of three-way interaction among secretor/ABO complex, ADA and disease (table 2⇓), suggests that ADA does not influence the effect of the secretor-ABO complex and vice versa, thus indicating that there was not an epistatic effect. On the contrary, the analysis suggests a cooperative effect of the genetic factors on susceptibility to asthma. The secretor gene (FUT2) and the ABO system act in concert to build up oligosaccharide structures in exocrine secretions, including secretions in the respiratory tract. Specific oligosaccharide epitopes are necessary for recognition and adherence of microorganisms to the cell membrane, suggesting that genetic variation in these systems may influence susceptibility to viral and bacterial respiratory infections. Based on the different roles of the ABO-secretor complex and ADA in the functional integrity of the respiratory tract, it is likely that the effects of the two systems on susceptibility to asthma follow different pathways: the ABO-secretor complex acting on the bacterial-viral infective component and ADA on the cellular reactivity component. Description FUT2:fucosyltransferase 2 (secretor status included) Chromosomal Location: 19q13.3 Abstracts The fusion allele of the FUT2 (secretor type alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase) gene at a high frequency and a new se385 allele in a Korean population Ann Hematol. 2005 Oct ;84:656-60 Kyoung Un Park, Junghan Song, Kyou Sup Han, Jin Q Kim The fusion gene (se(fus)), a nonfunctional allele of the FUT2 [secretor type alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase] gene, was found in Japanese populations with high frequencies (4.8-7.9%). In a study on a Korean population, se(fus) was found at a very low frequency (0.6%), but it has not yet been revealed in any other ethnic population. The aim of the present study was to investigate FUT2 gene polymorphisms in a Korean population and to evaluate their implications in secretor expression in saliva. From a total of 696 alleles examined, the frequency of the se(fus) allele in the Korean population was 10.8%. In addition, the new se385 allele was found in about 7.2% of the subjects, an unusually frequent occurrence compared to any other population investigated so far. The null alleles of the FUT2 gene are another example of rare alleles occurring with unexpectedly high frequencies in distinct geographic regions or populations. The Genes ABO genes consist of at least 7 exons, and the coding sequence in the seven coding exons spans over 18kb of genomic DNA. The single nucleotide deletion, found in a large number (but not all) of O alleles and responsible for the loss of the activity of the enzyme, is located in exon 6. The first of the seven nucleotide substitutions which distinguish the A and B transferases, resides in coding exon 6; exon 7, the largest of all, contains the other six nucleotide substitutions which result in four amino acid substitutions that differentiate the A and B transferases. Among those, substitutions responsible for alterations at two sites (residues 266 and 268) determine the A or B specificity of the enzyme (Yamamoto and Hakamori). In addition to four common alleles (A1, A2, B and O), numerous alleles which encode glycosyltransferases with changes in activity and/or specificity have been identified. The primary gene products of functional alleles are glycosyltransferases. The A alleles encode UDP-GalNAc: Fuc alpha1->2 Gal alpha1->3 N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase (alpha 1->3 GalNAc transferase or histo-blood group A transferase). The B alleles encode UDP-Gal: Fuc alpha1->2 Gal alpha 1->3 galactosyltransferase (alpha 1->3 galactosyltransferase or histo-blood group B transferase). O alleles encode proteins without glycosyltransferase function. The function of ABH antigens remains unknown. Location of the FUT2 gene, which codes for secretor status. Secretion of ABH antigens is under control of two linked genes on gene locus 19q13, another Haplotype: a mutation (SNP variant) in one always goes with a mutation in the other. Presence of the secretor gene adds the H antigen (fucose) to red blood cells and body secretions. If this genetic code for secreting H is absent in the genetic material inherited from both parents, the individual will not secrete their red blood cell antigens into their body tissues, which is what we know as ABH non-secretors. If they inherit the secretor gene from one parent only, they may still have some of the characteristics of a non-secretor: even though they secrete their ABH antigens, it was postulated that they may have some of the metabolic disease associations connected with being a non-secretor (but not necessarily the cell surface antigen-related ones). 19q13 has 288 verified genes related to this locus, even more than the ABO locus. Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, and many of these relate to how the immune system works, which explains the difference between immune response of secretors and non-secretors: the humoral vs. the cellular response (TH1 and TH2). Other potentially genes on this chromosome relate to insulin-dependent diabetes, familial hypercholesterolaemia, and repair of other genes relating to repairing DNA damage from exposure to radiation and to other environmental pollutants. The probability of having a particular combination of two specific alleles at a given locus can be calculated using a mathematical formula, which suggests that 2/3 of the general population will be heterozygous for secretor status (i.e. having both secretor and non-secretor genes), which may have a significance in itself when compared with homozygote secretors and non-secretors. 9q34 is the location, or locus of the ABO gene, which codes for the ABO blood group. It is also the location of many other genes that may be associated with the ABO blood group of an individual through genetic linkage. ABO and Secretor Blood Group Genetics
CSU Analytical Report About Apple CEO Vs Samsung CEO Analytical Report.

detailed critical and analytical report of 2000 words on the following:Select two leaders (I choosed Apple CEO vs. Sumsung CEO).Formulate a comparative critical appraisal of their leardeship styles, discussing their impact on their organizations; the role they play/have played in influencing the development/change of culture within their organizatins; as well as the ethical values practiced and maintained within the culture of the organixation. Students are required to refer to theories and concepts that have been covered in class lectures related to the various topics and to critically comment on any and all applications of these concepts and frameworks in their appraisal of the two leaders.To conclude, students are required to compare the overall effectiveness of the two leaders in the scope of their positions and to provide evidence to support their level of overall effectiveness inthe operations of their specific organizations.II. Executive SummaryIII. Introduction of the leaders and the backgrounds.IV. Comparative appraisal of the leadership roles.V. Assessment of methodologies used by the two leaders with references to theories , concepts and frameworks covered in the course.VI. Evaluation of their accomplishments/non-accomplishments.VII. Summary and Conclusion.VIII. Recommendations with supportive Evidence.APA reference in text and in the end
CSU Analytical Report About Apple CEO Vs Samsung CEO Analytical Report

POL 103 San Diego State University Nationalism in China and India Discussion

POL 103 San Diego State University Nationalism in China and India Discussion.

The rise in nationalism has, for better or worse, increasingly been an important political phenomena in the past few years, including in the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, China, and India. To some observers, these policies have served to defend the rightful sovereignty of the nations in questions, for others it has been used to discriminate against and repress immigrants or ethnic and religious minorities within each country. Pick two (2) of the countries mentioned above and briefly discuss how nationalism has manifested itself in recent years. How have the current governments in the two countries handled the question of nationalism, and in what ways do their experiences compare and contrast? Overall, how would you characterize these policies, and do you believe one country has done a better job?Your paper should be roughly five double-spaced pages in length, and it is worth 250 points. Be sure to give citations for all sources you quote or use in a substantive way (including any on-line sources you may use), with a reference page at the end. These should include at least one reference to the assigned textbook for the course (O’Neil, et al.), as well as any other sources you find relevant. Also, try to organize your answer well, with both introductory and concluding paragraphs indicating the overall direction of the paper, and the general argument that you are making.This essay is due Wednesday 11/18/2020 11:30 pm. I have some sources to send for the paper once you decide which countries you will write about for this essay.
POL 103 San Diego State University Nationalism in China and India Discussion

Open “Homework Worksheet – Week 1” which can be found in the file attached. Answer each question on the

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Fundação Getúlio Vargas CGMA Competency Framework

Fundação Getúlio Vargas CGMA Competency Framework.

ACADAMIC REPORTInstructionsOVERVIEWThe CGMA Competency Framework incorporates technical, business, leadership, and people skills needed in the workplace today. Consider the foundation in Financial Accounting you have received in this course as an integral part of this skill set and as a building block for your future academic and professional journey.Additionally, take a look at the graphic explaining the concept of competency integration in accounting education. Notice how business and accounting have many points of intersection.CGMA Graphic: A. Lawson, Edward J. Blocher, Peter C. Brewer, Jan Taylor Morris, Kevin D. Stocks, James E. Sorensen, David E. Stout, and Marc J. F. Wouters. Issues in Accounting Education Aug 2015, Vol. 30, No. 3 (August 2015) pp. 149-171. The above Thoughts on Competency Integration in Accounting Education graphic from page 150 is presented here: IMA Framework for Accounting EducationREPORT REQUIREMENTSYour supervisor has asked you to explain the value of the fact that you completed this accounting course.Complete a two- to three-page report with your comments on the relationship of these concepts to accounting and to your organization to fulfill a request from your supervisor to explain the value of the accounting course supported with funding by your employer.Consider your work throughout the semester as your prepare the report for submission.
Fundação Getúlio Vargas CGMA Competency Framework

CIS517 Strayer University Utility of Cloud Computing Paper

CIS517 Strayer University Utility of Cloud Computing Paper.

Assignment 4: The Utility of Cloud ComputingResources on Cloud Computing: a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:Examine the deployment methods of cloud computing for this organization. Determine which method you prefer and explain why.Compare and contrast the selected cloud computing model(s) of your selected company to a traditional utility company.Examine the technologies that this organization migrated to the cloud. Predict three (3) challenges that you foresee the selected company facing while migrating to a cloud-based environment.Determine three (3) major security considerations this company faced or likely faced in its migration to cloud computing.Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.
CIS517 Strayer University Utility of Cloud Computing Paper