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HIstory 20 Final exam questions and paper

HIstory 20 Final exam questions and paper.

Answer the following questions based on the textbook and lectures:1.Discuss Marbury v. Madison. What events led to it? What happened? What was the result? What are the implications of the judgment?2.Discuss the controversy surrounding the Presidential election of 1800. What happened and what were the implications?3.Discuss the foreign policy problems of John Adams. What were the problems with Britain and France? What were the implications of his policies?4.Discuss the Louisiana Purchase. What happened and why? What were the implications of the Purchase?5.Discuss the Tecumseh Confederacy. What was it? What were its goals? How did it end and what were the implications?6.Discuss the causes of the War of 1812.7.Discuss the cotton gin. What was it? Why was it needed? What were the effects?8.Discuss the Missouri Compromise. What were the implications?9.Discuss the Trail of Tears.10.Discuss President Andrew Jackson and the National Bank. Why did he oppose it? What did he do to it? What were the effects?11.Discuss how Texas and Oregon became states. What were the controversies with each area and how did the U.S. acquire them?12.Discuss the Compromise of 1850 and its implications.13.Discuss the Mexican War. What were the issues? What happened? What were the implications of the peace settlement?14.Discuss the controversy in Kansas. What were the problems and issues? What were the implications of those issues?15.Discuss why the Civil War was the first modern war and what were the implications of this.16.Discuss the assassination of Lincoln and its implications.17.Discuss the impeachment of Andrew Johnson and its implications.18.Discuss the Emancipation Proclamation and its significance.19.Discuss Congressional Reconstruction and its implications.20.Discuss sharecropping and the economic realities that supported it. What were the long-term implications?21.Discuss the Panic of 1873 and its implications.22.Discuss the Southern response to Reconstruction and the future implications including the Jim Crow laws and disenfranchisement.24.Discuss the Election of 1876 and its implications.Paper:Each student will write a 5-7-page paper. This paper is worth 100 points. In addition to the final paper, this assignment includes a thesis statement worth 25 points and an outline worth 75 points. All written assignments are due within the first 15 minutes of class. After the first 15 minutes of class, the paper assignments will be considered late.This paper must have an arguable thesis presented in the last sentence of the first paragraph of the paper. The paper should use reflect one of the problems in either Problems in the Era of the American Revolution or Major Problems in African-American History, Vol. 1, or both. The student should choose a chapter from one of the Major Problems books, read the two essays by scholars in the chosen chapter and then pick a side to argue.
HIstory 20 Final exam questions and paper

The Theory Of Positivism Sociology Essay

As what Beauvoir had said, ‘Representation of the world, like the world itself, is the work of men; they describe it from their point of view, which they confuse with the absolute truth Men dominates the legal system, has created law and theories about law. The law is made in how they see the world. It becomes their representation of reality and it is held to be the absolute truth. Based on such arguments, the law is thus gendered. This is due to a patriarchy world where men rules over women. A patriarchy world where an unjust social system which is oppressive towards women exists. It looks at them not as an individual capable of the same reasoning as men and not on equal standing with men. Liberal feminism challenges male domination by showing that there are no difference between men and women. Both men and women are equal and capable of the same social role without any form discrimination. However, Catharine Mackinnon does not agree with liberal feminism. She believes and argues that sex and sexuality are the main reason, the fundamental reason why women are being dominated and discriminate. Sexual domination is the main reason for sexism. To understand deeply on Catharine Mackinnon’s argument of sexual domination, we need to first understand on how the law objectifies, how sexual domination occurs in the reality and other counter arguments. Mackinnon pointed out that the whole problem with this unjust system is the dominance of men over women [2] . This domination is deeply embedded in the system, in the Rule of Law. It is not a matter of rights or being equal with men as what the Liberal feminists see. It is the domination of women by men by the law/the State which is male in nature. The domination occurred due to the objectification of women by men. Men objectify women. As the legal system is dominated by men, the law thus objectify women. Thus sexism was born. Liberal feminist see it as an illusion or myth that need to be dispelled but Mackinnon views it as a male power that creates the world in its own image and how male desires it to be. This is quite true as the law is legislated by male and thus it does not take into account of the point of view of women. Nor does it drafts based on a women’s experience of everyday life by women and for women. It was after all drafted by white upper class men to be exact and their opinions which they held to be the absolute truth. The irony is that despite being excluded from the legislating process, women are bound by the rules. The law was not create for the benefit of women as what women think they ought to be but merely it was create by what men thinks benefit the women. By not taking into account the point of view of women and their everyday life and experience, the law is thus ineffective and oppressive. This is why objectivity epistemology is the law of law. Objectivity is just a conception of the society by men. Men legitimizes itself by reflecting their beliefs and view of existing society, a society men made and makes by so seeing it and calling that view and that relation practical rationality and objective. Thus the law shows men rules and dominates over women and in a male way. To put it more simply, objectification is the primary process of the subordination of women. How does objectification occur? How does it affect women as what the radical feminist preaches? Mackinnon in her works examined the law regarding rape and how the law had objectified it. She stated that, “where the legal system has seen the intercourse in rape, victims see the rape in intercourse [3] “. The legal system describes rape as violence and failed to see the effects of rape toward women. For all the law could see was the intercourse in rape but the victims see rape in intercourse. The law failed to see from the point of view of women and imposed their view, the view of upper class white men and the law was legislated according to their views. Rape law is one of the many laws which were objectified. According to s1 (1) (a) Sexual Offences Act 2003, rape is defined by the penetration of penis. The law is fixed upon the act of penetration. It shows oppression toward women by defining the element of rape from the point of view of male. What Mackinnon try to point out from her analysis of rape law is that the law is based on a male point of view and incapable of understanding or even comprehend the perspective from a woman point of view. It renders the law to be distant and unable to understand rape from the experience of a victim. The rape law is only concern with penetration of the vagina, it reflects upon a loss defined in a male term. It favours male sexuality rather than female sexuality. It does not understand what loses the female went through but what male loses instead. Mackinnon described rape as a crime against female monogamy than against female sexuality [4] . This is very true with such phallus-centric definition of rape. It acts as a protection for men more than a female. The female sexuality was ignored; their experience and resentment of rape were not taken into account. The rape law is to protect the property of men which is women. Women are thus objectified. They are not considered to be equal with men; they are sadly, regarded as property. This is oppression on the ground of sex. Sex is defined by men and on what they believe to be. It is the masculine form of sex that was incorporated into the law. The law was imposed onto women and male domination occurred. The projection of a patriarchal belief and vision of female sexuality occur and imposed onto the body of women. Consent is the line that governs between what is rape and intercourse. Intercourse without consent is rape. This show how the law governed and defined the sexuality of women. Rape in the eyes of women is not prohibited but it is in reality regulated. When a woman is rape and the prosecution failed on the ground of consent, the women is not considered to have suffers any loss. Because it is sex and it is not a violation and thus it could not be an injury. The law governed from the point of view of men. When women described rape, men could only see sex for they see it as sex. Thus the law objectified from a male point of view and dominated over women who are forced into subordination. It fails to deal with the more important issue, how the law going to reduce the rate of women being rape. While it is very true that the law is male and phallocentric in nature, radical feminism focuses too much on the issue of sex and sexuality. It does not take into account of other types of oppression and other school of feminism. It is criticised for being essentialist, oppositional, and utopian [5] . Mackinnon presented her argument as the universal truth and essentialises the experience that women faced. She sees sexual division as the foundational division at the heart of social life. This is because according to her oppression of women occurred because male dominates women over sex and reproductive rights. Due to this sex domination, women are thus oppressed and discriminated. However radical feminist reduces everything to sex and emphasise everything to sex. Mackinnon stated, ‘Sex makes a woman a woman. Sex is what women are for [6] ‘. This shows that sexual oppression happens due to what men perceive women to be. Mackinnon turned her theory into the ultimate truth and failed to take into account of other cultures or other oppressed groups. What she did was the same as what white upper class men did. Objectified the world according to what they believe. Thus by adopting the method men had used, did she not ended up being the same as men and render her argument against liberal feminism’s aspiration to be like men to be nothing. Mackinnon and her sexual objectification had victimised women. It had in a sense betrayed the goal of feminism of overturning and restructuring this patriarchy world. It reduces women into victim and to be subjected into sexual violence instead of empowering them. She creates a specific voice for women and assumes that all women have the same experience. All women undergo the same sexual oppression whether they are lesbians, non-white women and for other non-privileged women which is not true. . Sexism occurs in a variety way and sex is not the only cause for it. There is after all a variety different cause of sexism that happens in the world. In America, it may be due to sex as what Mackinnon had argued but what about those from Islamic nations where sexism occurs due to religious or cultural reasons. For example, women are not allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia and Chinese women used to practise foot binding during the 19th century A.D. It is not due to sexual domination but due to religious belief and, for the latter, cultural traditions. While it is truth that men objectified women and thus a patriarchy world was born but it is not sex that is the only cause. Gender stereotypes, social reproduction, cultural are only a few examples of how sexism occurs. Cultural feminist, Carol Gilligan [7] stated that boys and girls reason differently to resolve problems. Their ways to react and deal with problems differ from one another. Boys tend to focus on individual entitlement and generate rules to solve problems or conflicts. Girls tend to emphasise on personal relationship and seek compromise so that everyone interests are taken into account. What happen is that gender stereotypes occur since young and children are brought up in such scenarios. This creates a social reproduction. Discrimination happen to women is not just due to sex domination. It is due to gender stereotype that was installed into children since they are young. They grew up and they acted the way they though they ought to be. Davies asks, how can we disentangle ourselves from the social environment which has made us what we are [8] ? This question is respond towards Mackinnon’s feminism which focuses too much on sex subordination. Men and women are different and this is a naturally self-evident attributes. Clearly Mackinnon did not agree with Gilligan in regards the differences between men and women. But it is impossible to think of such world where there is no difference between men and women. It is clearly beyond our comprehension and clearly too utopic in nature. This is due to us being brought up in a patriarchy world and socialise according to the order of such world. Radical feminists strive to eliminate sex subordination and by doing so eliminate the way the law looks and objectified women due to her sex. Nevertheless the question remains, how it is possible for women to be defined in an alternative legal way when the difference between men and women are not just sex but naturally and self-evident attribute. It is too utopic that it is absurd and incomprehensible. I do agree with most feminists that the law is male in nature. It is phallocentric and it objectifies women the way we men see women and think women ought to be and imposes it to be the law. Nevertheless, I could not endorse or agree with Mackinnon’s view that sex and sexual subordination are the fundamental reason for women to be discriminated against. It is too simplistic. For in my opinion, there are others valid reasons why the law objectifies women as men see it. One of them is Gilligan’s point of view that women and men have different voices and ethics. We are brought up in this patriarchy world and our points of views are being shaped by what society thinks we ought to behave based on our gender. Radical feminism pretends that their point of view to be the ultimate truth without taking into account of other groups such as black women or lesbian. Lastly, it forgets that other part of the Earth have different reasons for sexism to occur, be it cultural or even religion.

Egypt’s Political Situation in the Next 5 Years Essay

essay help online free What Is the Near-Term Future (Next Five Years) of Egypt? Nowadays, the world has become a witness of how one nation could change the current state of affairs and promote a revolution using information and communication technologies. Egypt is the country that has undergone considerable political changes during the last five years, and it is hard to predict what is waiting for it in the nearest five years for sure because the intentions and the actual abilities of the citizens could be hardly understood and analyzed. Still, the evaluation of the current financial reports (“Trading Economics: Egypt” par.1) and the observations of the current achievements that are defined as the means to survive (Banks par. 4) help to realize that Egypt may see the significant changes in the nearest future and become closer to its true goal that is to become a truly democratic country. There are many predictions that the current military activities, mass protests, and the change of the political forces can influence the development of the country considerably. It could become free in its intentions to develop international relations with several countries worldwide. A referendum could be organized based on a new constitution within the frames of which the idea to organize presidential or parliamentary elections could be held. Besides, citizens want to believe that no religious manipulations could be observed in the country. People should not want to ask for each other religious preferences because there should be one common religion for all citizens in the country. The future parliament of Egypt could show how a fair representation of different social groups should be developed. Besides, it is expected that female rights could be widened that helped to decrease the unemployment rates from 12.77% (today) to 9.8% (in 2020) (“Trading Economics: Egypt” par.1). At the same time, certain changes should be observed in the economic field of the country. Though some theorists and economists admit that Egypt remains to be a frustrating place where people’s desire to promote “inclusive growth and sustained investment is too often not followed-through at an operational level” (Banks par. 9). Therefore, many foreign investors are afraid to develop relations with the country, and Egypt tries to use its sources to achieve success. At the same time, Egypt is the country that demands electricity a lot, and this country remains to be the best example “to show Africa the way to generate electricity from solar power” (Al-Aees par. 5). Therefore, in five or more years, Egypt may become the country that uses solar energy and exports the same possibilities to other countries. Such innovation should help the country to attract the attention of other developed countries and make agreements. Besides, such innovation should increase the necessity of a high education among the citizens. Therefore, it is possible that the educational system could be improved considerably in terms of the development of specialists in different engineering, construction, and managerial fields. In general, the forecasts for Egypt to the next five years are rather positive. The current political and economic changes should inspire the country to take the steps and stabilize the situation in the country, unite the citizens using the same religious beliefs, and introduce Egypt as a powerful and meaningful country with several opportunities not only in the sphere of tourism but many other fields. Works Cited Al-Aees, Shaimaa. “Egypt to Export Solar Powered Energy by 2020: REC Senior VP. Daily News Egypt. 2015. Web. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Banks, Richard, M. “20 Years from Now – The Future of Foreign Investment in Egypt.” Daily News Egypt. 2015. Web. Trading Economics: Egypt: Economic Forecasts. 2016. Web.

Inclusion in the Classroom A Critical Review

Issues surrounding the integration of students with disabilities into the general education classrooms are explored in this research paper. The history of inclusion if first examined by tracing the movement from mainstreaming to the least restrictive environment and finally to full inclusion of students in age-appropriate general education classrooms. Next, the current position of inclusion and its place in education in Canada is discussed. Also, issues facing students, their families and teachers are addressed and suggestions to overcome them are provided. Finally, the pros and cons of inclusive education are presented and it is concluded that the benefits of inclusion overshadow the costs of including special needs students into regular classrooms. Also, inclusion tends to improve the overall educational experience for both special needs students as well as regular students in the classroom. Keywords: integration, disabilities, inclusion, inclusive education Inclusion in the Classroom: A Critical Review Education and inclusion Education is the cornerstone of responsible citizenship in most well-established democracies. Post Confederation of Canada, the government and ordinary citizens have recognized the significance of education and have made public provisions for its universal availability to children and youth at the elementary and high school levels. School is the place that provides a community setting for children and youth by helping them develop their knowledge, by promoting citizenship and building social relationships. Hence, when a school is inclusive, communities become inclusive too. Educating children is not only a basic human right, but a vehicle for social inclusion and change. The recent drive toward inclusive education is more than just about ‘special educational needs’. It reflects changes in the social and political climate wherein a new approach characterizes thinking about differences. The main aim of inclusive education is to ensure that all students participate in the classrooms with their same-age peers and develop emotionally, socially, intellectually and physically to their fullest ability. Inclusive education is a developing concept. Usually it is understood as education of children with disabilities in regular schools, but it is a much broader idea. It refers to an education system which continually works at increasing participation and removing exclusion from all the aspects of schooling in a way which makes a student feel no different from any other student and which ensures academic achievement (Booth, 2002). Inclusive education makes the school a place of education for all students, and manages to meet the individual needs of each pupil better. It should be able to lead the school to seek ways to educate all children in the most ordinary ways possible Inclusive schools put into place measures to support all students to fully participate in the life of the school with their age peers. Where barriers to full participation exist, inclusive schools are able to change their organization, and adapt the physical premises and elements within classrooms to the needs of each student. The primary principle of inclusive education is that ordinary schools should provide education as commonplace as possible for all young people while adapting it to the needs of each. It consists of placing learning-impaired students in general classrooms and integrating their learning experience with students in the general education classes (Turnbull et al., 2004). Furthermore, there is a distinction between inclusion, where students spend most of their time in the general education classroom; and mainstreaming where students with special needs are educated in the general classroom during specific time periods based on their skills. The inclusive education model challenges the special education model, mainly the belief that differences in academic or social achievement between students with and without disabilities are too difficult to be accommodated in regular educational settings; that special settings are more effective than regular classroom environments for students with disabilities; and that labelling is necessary for appropriate service. Advocates of inclusion argue that the rights of and benefits to learners with disabilities who are included in regular classroom environments outweigh the challenges faced by teachers in such a situation. With the support of properly trained resource teachers, regular classroom teachers should be able to work effectively with all students. History of inclusive education The history of accommodating the needs of diverse learners in the contemporary educational settings parallels the evolution of social and psychological systems (Kaufman, 1999). Smith et al. (1998) summarize this history as having moved through three phases: segregation, integration and inclusion. However, recently a global shift in thinking on methods schools use in responding to the needs of diverse learners has taken place. Special education found its origin in society’s concern with human rights following World War II, and by the 1950’s educational placement based upon minority or disability status was a debated issue (Smith et al., 1998). Thus, special education owes much of its origin to the Civil Rights Movement, when the desegregation of American schools validated a parallel human rights argument against segregation based on physical/mental abilities (Friends et al., 1998). While both Canada and the United States presented responsibility to the provinces and states for implementing educational legislation, The Education for All Children Act (1975) steered in a more inclusive model of special education which supported free and appropriate education for all children in the least restrictive and non- discriminatory environment. Written individual educational plans (IEPs) to target individual needs were designed and implemented (Salend, 2001). In Canada, indirect support for greater inclusion of diverse learners came from the 1982 Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which challenged discrimination based on mental or physical disability. By the 1980’s most provinces and territories were providing some type of special education through a combination of regular and individualized environments (Dworet

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Read these articles and answer the following questions. I’m studying for my Statistics class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Based upon the assigned readings (there are seven articles below) and supported by additional sources, 1. Describe the “Mintzberg” school of strategic management theories. 2. How does Mintzberg’s approach differ from the “Design School” of strategy?
United States International University, San Diego, California, U.S.A.
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