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HIS implementation

HIS implementation. I’m trying to learn for my Health & Medical class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Write a 7- to 10-page technical paper that outlines the acquisition, implementation, standards, policies, and applications of a major health information system such as electronic medical records (EMRs), clinical decision support systems (CDSS), medical administration records (MARs), computerized provider order entry (CPOEs). Discuss the needs, benefits, challenges, and technical specifications of the system.
Assignment Expectations

Your references and citations should be consistent with a particular formatting style such as APA.
Provide references from at least 3 scholarly articles.
Your response should be based on reliable and scholarly material, such as peer-reviewed articles, white papers, technical papers, etc. Do not include information from non-scholarly materials such as wikis, encyclopedias, or (or similar websites).
Your response should incorporate the outcomes of the module with the requirements of this assignment.
Your paper must demonstrate a practical understanding of the architectural framework of the health information system selected.

HIS implementation

Organizing HR Projects. I’m studying for my Management class and need an explanation.

Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you:

Review and define the five (5) steps of strategic planning depicted in Exhibit 2-1 (attached below). Based on the information, provide a statement of overall importance of these steps to your project team.
Develop a vision and mission statement for the project team specific to the current project. HINT: It is highly recommended to follow the guidance offered in the textbook about vision and mission statement.
Explain to the project team what a project charter is and why it is used. Then, review Exhibit 3.3 (attached below) and select any 3 charter elements you feel are more important and explain why.
Provide a “Statement of Emphasis” to your project team based on the information you provided in the previous 3 sections above. The goal is to ensure your team understands the importance of the information.
Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
At least three (3) quality academic (peer-reviewed) resources in this assignment. One of the references must be from the textbook Contemporary Project Management, 4th ed. by Timothy Kloppenborg. I must be able to easily find and access the other references used.

Organizing HR Projects

Analysis Of Blood Smears. The aims of this experiment are to study the morphology and characteristic of blood; distinguish the disproportion of blood when suffering from different diseases and identified the differences between animal and human blood. To achieve the aims, smears of horse blood are prepared and compare with human blood. Then the prepared human blood smears are observed under electron microscope. INTRODUCTION Blood performs a lot of important functions within the body; it contributes homeostasis to the body and playing major role in defence system by phagocytises activity. On an average male adult who weights 70kg has a blood volume of about 5 litres, about 1/12th of the body weight. Blood consists 55% of blood plasma 45% of hematocrit in men, 58% blood plasma and 42% of hematocrit in women. Hematocrit packed with erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets (Sherwood 2010). Erythrocytes are the most abundant blood cells with about 4-6 millions/mm3 in blood. Erythrocytes are commonly known as red blood cells. In mammalian, erythrocytes are free of nucleus to allow more room for haemoglobin and are biconcave in shape. Hence, vertebrate’s erythrocytes have a nucleus. Haemoglobin is the main contained in erythrocytes; it carries oxygen to the tissues, collects and transports the unwanted carbon dioxide away, conveys nutritive substances like amino acids, sugars and mineral then gathers the waste materials that want to eliminated through the renal filter, carries hormones, enzymes and also vitamins to their sites of action (Sherwood 2010). Leukocytes or white blood cells are much less abundant than red blood cells but bigger in size. They responsible for the defence of organism or eliminate harmful foreign material and make up the immune system of the body. The density of leukocytes in the blood is 5000-7000/mm3. There are two categories of leukocytes which are granulocytes and agranulocytes. Granulocytes is due to the presence of granules in cytoplasm and agranulocytes is the absent of granule in the cytoplasm. The granules are difference in different types of granulocytes and make it easier to distinguish among them. The granulocytes distinguish themselves as neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil. Agranulocytes distinguish themselves as lymphocytes and monocytes. Beside of the granules, shape of the nucleus help in recognition of leukocytes (Underwood 2004). The proportion of neutrophil amongst leukocytes is about 50-70%. Its main function is phagocytes bacteria and always present in large amount within the pus of wound. Unfortunately, these cells dead after phagocytes due to unable to renew the lysosomes that used in digesting microbes. Well, eosinophils only 2-4% amongst leukocytes, they attack parasites and phagocytes antigen-antibody complexes. Basophil is 0.5-1%, it secrete anti-coagulant and vasodilator substances as histamines and serotonin. It takes part in phagocyte activity but the main function is secreting substances that mediate the hypersensitivity reaction. Lymphocyte own 20-40% proportion of leukocytes, its little cell that compact with round nucleus. Lymphocytes populate the lymphoid tissues (Bajanowski 1997), lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen, lymphoid nodules, and palatine tonsils) as well as the lymph that circulate in the lymphatic vessel (Underwood 2004). Monocytes cooperate in immune defence although they are only 3-8% of leukocytes volume and it’s the precursors of macrophages (Sherwood 2010). They are large blood cells, which mature in the bone marrows before enter to the blood circulation and they only stay for 24-36 hours then will migrate into the connective tissue, where they become macrophages and move within the tissues. Monocytes migrate very rapidly to site if presence of an inflammation and intense phagocytory activity. Beside phagocytory activity, monocytes involve in secreting lysozime, interfereons and other defensive substances (Underwood 2004). Platelets or thrombocytes are fragments of cells in the blood with diameter about 2-3µm; hence they are much smaller than erythrocytes. Their density in the blood is only 200000-300000/mm3. They are responsible for blood clotting to prevent blood loss from broken vessels. The blood vessel constricts to reduce blood flow and loss. Platelets then aggregate at the point of the broken vessel and produce a plug to stop blood loss. To this purpose, they aggregate and release serotonin to reduce the diameter of lesion vessel and slow down the haematic flux to promote the blood coagulation (Sherwood 2010). Plasma is the most abundant liquid component of blood with a yellowish colour. It makes up approximately 55% of total blood volume. Plasma is alkaline and it functional to maintains the pH of the blood at approximately 7.4. It also maintains the osmotic balance of body cells. The composition of plasma is 90% water and 10% of dry matter like glucose, lipids, protein, glycoprotein, hormones, amino acids and vitamins (Sherwood 2010). The morphology and characteristics of blood will be study by preparing the horse blood smears samples that with and without stained. Blood smears stained by haematoxylin and eosin are easier to identify under microscope during this experiment. Blood smears of different pathologies will be investigated and identified by taking noted the numbers of cells present, shape and sizes of different types of cells and remark with drawing. METHODS First part of this experiment involved preparation of horse blood smear samples. A small drop of horse blood is placed at one end of a slide and placed a cover slip at the edge of the blood then dragged gently through the slide in order to produce a thin blood smears. The blood smear needs to be essentially thin until the blood is hardly visible; this is to ensure that individual cells were easily determined. If the smear appear red that mean it is not thin enough or too thick, this may be hard to observe through the microscope and do the cells count as packed cells is hard to see clearly under microscope. Second slides are prepared by using exactly the same way as the first one. Both slides placed immediately into a container containing ethanol for 2 minutes. Ethanol is a colourless substance and used as a fixative, it helps to preserve cell smear samples so that cells do not denature. It does not damage the cells at all, just helps to maintain them for analysis. After the use of ethanol, the slide then dried by just slanting it on a piece of tissue. Dap and rubs are not allowed, as it will destroy the thin film of smear. The unstained smear was considered ready for analysis. It was placed a side waiting for investigation progress. The second remaining slide then stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Haematoxylin is widely used in medical diagnosis; it is a blue substance stain that used to stained nuclei of cells into blue or purple colour. The nuclear staining is followed by other structures of the cells bodies with eosin stain that stain the granules of the cytoplasm in shades of red, pink and orange. Stained process performed by dipped the slide in a staining container containing haematoxylin for 2 minutes and rinse gently with water followed by dipped in another staining container containing eosin for 30 seconds and again rinse gently with water. A drop of mountant is applied on the smear and then covered with a glass coverslip. Mountant is a medium used for mounting a slid for microscopy purposes. The staining times varied slightly because the specimen was leave in the haematoxylin longer when the colour looks pale or pink and leave in the eosin for longer when it looks very dark blue. Both slides are completed and viewed under microscope. Unstained and stained smears were then observed under the microscope initiate by x10 magnification to find the cells and upgraded to higher definition of x40 magnification for details observation. Observation started with stained smears followed by unstained smears, as stained smears is easier to determine the cells. Both smears were drawn accordingly and labelled all the particular structures of interest. Commend are made upon on how the stained smear differs from unstained smear. In second part of the experiment, human blood smears are observed. Stained human blood smears taken from patients who suffer from no known pathology, sickle cell anaemia, eosinophilia, acute lymphocytic leukaemia and iron deficiency anaemia were observed. A textbook includes of brief description and expectation of what to see from the pathological blood smears are provided during the practical. In this session, each slide provided is observed under microscope. Always started with x10 magnification and moved to x40 magnification while drawing. First, normal human blood smear is observed in order to identified elements in normal blood, then go onto the pathology smears and compared found morphology that identified in horse blood in part A. The cellular elements of each smear were drawn, labelled and recorded any differences observed in pathological smears when compared to normal blood smears. The relative numbers of each cell type are counted. RESULTS: Part A: Horse blood smears Figure 1 illustrated stained horse blood smear under microscope of x40 magnification. The blood cells are stained with haematoxylin and eosin. One monocyte, one small lymphocyte, one neutrophil and bundle of erythrocytes (red blood cells) are seen. Nuclei of the leukocytes were purple-blue in colour due to the haematoxylin staining and the cytoplasm of the leukocytes appeared pink due to eosin staining. The erythrocytes are more abundant compared with leukocytes. Renown, erythrocytes are boconcave disc that absent of nuclei and mitochondria. Figure 2 shows the unstained horse blood smear. The blood cells appeared to be transparent and hard to determine the differences between the erythrocytes and most of the leukocytes except monocyte, as it is greater in size. Part B: Human blood smears Figure 3 shows the human blood smear with no known pathology. Erythrocytes, leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, basophil) and platelets are presented. The smear make out with more abundant of erythrocytes (R.B.C) than leukocytes and they all appeared healthy. The leukocytes were blue-purple in colour surrounded by numerous erythrocytes that were pinkish in colour. Most of the leukocytes seen are neutrophils; this proves the theory stated leukocytes making up with 50-70% of neutrophils. The neutrophils were intermediate in size, lymphocyte was smaller and monocyte was larger. Their cytoplasm appeared pink in colour. The nucleus of neutrophil lobed with clumps of chromatin. Figure 4 shows human blood smear with sickle cells anaemia. Abnormal red blood cell morphology and sickle cells are seen. Figure 5 shows human blood smear with eosinophilia deficiency. Abnormal or sickle red blood cells appeared. Eosinophil and monocytes are broken. Several of smudge cells presented. Figure 6 shows the blood smear for acute lymphocytic leukaemia. The erythrocytes are not as densely pack as in the smear of human blood with no pathology. This observation clearly illustrated the presented of several lymphocytes in the smear and it appeared larger than erythrocytes. Where acute lymphocytic leukaemia is a blood cancer where the body produces a large numbers of lymphocytes. Figure 7 shows the smear for human iron deficiency anaemia. The erythrocytes are pallor in appearance. Some of the erythrocytes were larger in size. Besides that, smudge cells and different types of leukocytes seen in this smear. There are lymphocytes that small in size and also neutrophils. DISCUSSION Many diseases, disorders, and deficiencies can distinguish by observation of blood cells distribution and appearances (Bain 2005). Disproportionate numbers of leukocytes, presence of immature leukocytes, too high or too low of platelets counts, and deformed of red blood cells are all signs of serious diseases. Somehow, blood smear provides the primary evidence of a specific diagnosis. Monocytes of horse blood smear in fig. 1 are greater in size compare with human blood smear in fig.3. The comprehensive kinetic force between erythrocytes of horse blood is stronger and produced closely attached long chain of erythrocytes. The erythrocytes in fig.1 and 3 appeared normal, uniformed in size and do not have a nucleus as most other cells do. They are round and flattened like a donut with a depression in the middle. Due high density of haemoglobin presented inside the erythrocytes (Sherwood 2010), they appear pink to red in colour with a pale centre. While there are some erythrocytes in fig.4, 5, 6 and 7 had significant different in shape and irregularities that indicate severe problems. The histological section with stained are more visible and can be noted that the nuclei of the cells appeared purple-blue with stained of haematoxylin (Bain 2005); cytoplasm appeared pinkish with stained of eosin. Unstained leukocytes are colourless and hard to determine as they lack haemoglobin (Bain 2005). The stains enhanced the illustration of the leukocytes and make it easier to distinguish. Granulocytes and agranulocytes were differentiated by observed their cytoplasm. Granulocytes are neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil that has granule in their cytoplasm and its cytoplasm is visible when staining, while agranulocytes are lymphocytes and monocytes that absents of granule in their cytoplasm where their cytoplasm appeared transparent although stained. Neutrophils are cells that have cytoplasm with pink granules, intermediate in size with lobed clumped nucleus, can be identified by observing their nuclei; their nuclei are segmented into 2-5 lobed of different shapes. They composed majority of leukocytes and function to phagocytosis . Eosinophils will easily recognize with their large, red-orange granules. Unfortunately, they aren’t found from the smears because they are generally low in number. Eosinophils most often become elevated in number when the individual are facing with allergies or parasitic infections. Basophils (figure 1) had large black granules and least often seen from the smears as they are only 1% of leukocytes. Increased numbers of basophiles are not often encountered but may be elevated in certain leukaemia, chicken pox, ulcerative colitis, or after an immunization. Monocytes are the largest cell amongst leukocytes with diameter of 12-20 µm and are often referred as phagocytes. They engulf particles such as cellular debris and bacteria. LHYPERLINK “javascript: optionsdisplay(‘../../../glossary/lymphocyte.html’)”ymphocytes are smaller and have a homogeneous cytoplasm and a smooth, round nucleus. These cells are responsible for the production of antibodies or immunoglobulin (Bajanowski 1997). There are two types of lymphocytes, B and T cells and they mediated within each other. B cells induce production of antibodies; T cells destroy specific cells (Bajanowski 1997). Figure 4 illustrated human sickle cell anaemia. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) affects millions of people worldwide (Charlotte 2010). SCA is disorders of erythrocytes that caused difficulty to haemoglobin molecules when delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body (Peterson 2009). The change of the amino acid results in haemoglobin that responds to the oxygen deficiency by stacking filaments and clustering in red blood cells containing the mutated protein in such a way that their shape is distorted (Sherwood 2010). Eosinophil usually hardly noticeable in blood smears indicates the response of the body to abnormal cells, parasites, or substances that cause an allergic reaction. Donor of the blood smear illustrated in figure 5 may have eosinophilia disorder as broken eosinophil is presented. Eosinophilia is commonly happened to people who have asthma, hay fever, food allergic or parasitic infections such as intestinal worms (Sherwood 2010). In the acute lymphocytic leukemia sample shown in figure 6, there was a noticeable increase in the number of lymphocytes seen. The erythrocytes are pallor and lymphocytes appeared larger than erythrocytes and this is due to a disease of lymphoid cells causing uncontrolled production of lymphocytes (Underwood 2004). Acute lymphocytic leukaemia is a disease where the physical changes take place within the cell (McClain 1990), a reduced count of red blood cells with a raised level of leukocytes. This may leads to an accumulation of blast cells in the bone marrow and causes bone marrow failure (McClain 1990). All the red blood cells in the iron deficiency anaemia sample appeared pale in colour. This usually caused to people with poor diet that contains little iron especially vegetariansbecause the main dietary source of ion is red meat. Besides that, diseases of the small intestine such as gluten intolerance can reduce its ability to absorb iron (Sherwood 2010). Analysis Of Blood Smears

University of The Cumberlands Management The Martian Movie Project Paper

University of The Cumberlands Management The Martian Movie Project Paper.

The movie “The Martian” can be viewed through the framework of project management. There are two different but simultaneous projects going on in The Martian. One is the survival project of Mark Watney and the other is the project aiming to save him. Watney has the right skills for his survival project: he’s a botanist, he knows how to repair a broken Pathfinder and the most important thing is he doesn’t panic even in his first day alone on Mars. On the other hand, he’s not alone in this project. The members of the ‘remote’ team helping him are trying their best to achieve their goal. This is a good example for the importance of the communication between the team even if they are far away!

The movie can be rented on YouTube for $3.99. Below is the link…

For this assignment, as we watch the movie, you will be required to address the following questions and answer them.  
Question #1 (1 full page)
The definition of a project as provided by Pinto (2019): A project is a unique venture with a beginning and end, conducted by people to meet established goals within parameters of cost, schedule, and quality. A project can be considered to be any series of activities and tasks that:

Have a specific objective to be completed within certain specifications
Have defined start and end dates
Have funding limits, if applicable
Consume human and nonhuman resources, such as money, people, equipment
Are multifunctional (i.e., cut across several functional lines)

How does this definition fit the movie personalities and events versus just operations management?
Question #2 (~3 pages or 1 page each process)
Select 3 of the project management processes below. For each of the 3 you must 1) provide a brief description of each process, 2) describe how Mark Watney or one of the project teams manages this process, and 3) provide a specific example of the management of this process from the movie and why this is a good example.
Perform Integrated Change Control
Validate and Control Scope
Control Schedule
Control Costs
Control Quality
Control Resources
Monitor Communications
Monitor Risks
Control Procurements
Manage Stakeholder Engagement
Question #3 (1/2 to 1 full page)
Do you think Mark Watney is a champion? Why or why not?
University of The Cumberlands Management The Martian Movie Project Paper

College of The Bahamas Convertible Wheelchair Walker Report

online homework help College of The Bahamas Convertible Wheelchair Walker Report.

Final Report DeliverablesPrepare a typewritten report describing your work tasks. Format using 1.5 line spacing. The report willapproximate 7-10 pages not including charts, performance tables, graphs, summary tables, and figures).Attach engineering analyses on 8 1⁄2 x 11 engineering paper to support your findings and to prove yourspreadsheet calculations. Neatly draw and fully label your diagrams. Specify all units and stateassumptions. Show all calculations.AbstractIntroductionSolutionLoad Analysis and TestingConclusionReferencesthe topic was attached about how to redesign a wheelchair/ walker Americans are living longer with increasing life expectancies. A local company has an idea for a wheelchair/walker device that can provide mobility assistance to the healthy older individual in a form that does not stereotype the user as being disabled: a typical stigmatism attached to those people who are required to use a wheelchair. The basic structure must be designed to support loads and have life expectancies typical of a standard wheelchair while also allowing the older individual to safely use the device in its collapsed ‘walker’ mode. Your work is to design thebasic load-bearing rear-support structure.
College of The Bahamas Convertible Wheelchair Walker Report

Decline in Biodiversity: Causes and Impacts

Nowadays, we see how human population is growing then we see many changes in animals, climate and more. However, everyone should question about biodiversity. What is it? And why it should be important? According to the American Museum of natural history, It explains that biodiversity is the living organism’s variability in any natural environment. It explains that we can find biodiversity in one specie as well as different specie which will form a ecosystem. The ecosystem is the community of those species that live, contribute and develop in that environment. Biodiversity is essential to maintain the life in earth and it also has important values such as: social, economics, scientific, education, cultural and much more. Biodiversity assumes a significant job in the working of biological systems and in the numerous administrations they give. Among these are the supplement cycle and the water cycle, soil arrangement and maintenance, protection from intrusive species, plant fertilization, atmosphere guideline, bother control and contamination. The case of ecosystem services, what matters is not only the number of species present but also which species are abundant. Everyone should be worrying about that we could lost biodiversity in many ecosystem. It will lead to harm the benefits that ecosystem provide to the people. Many advantages that the biological system give to individuals are: food security, prevent weakness to catastrophic events, vitality security and access to clean water and crude materials. However, Society frequently has issues conflicting those objectives, huge numbers of them incorporates biodiversity. At the point when individuals adjusts an environment to improve one of the administrations it gives, its activity regularly carries changes to other biological system administrations. For instance, measures to expand nourishment generation can bring about less water accessible for different employments. Because of these negative partners, numerous administrations have been corrupted; for instance, angling, water supply and insurance against catastrophic events. In the long term, the value of lost services can far outweigh the benefits that are obtained in the short term by transforming ecosystems. The damage caused to biodiversity affects not only the species that inhabit a particular place, but also damages the network of relationships between the species and the environment in which they live. Due to deforestation and fires, many species have become extinct before they could be studied, or before any action was taken to try to preserve them. We can affirm that biodiversity is not only significant for human beings, but that it is essential for the life of the planet, so we must try to preserve it. The biodiversity of the species provides us with necessary goods such as food or oxygen, provides us with raw materials that favor economic development, produces energy that we use as fuel, is the origin of some medicines and, finally, but no less important , we are filled with the retina of beautiful landscapes that we can enjoy. There are six main principles that causes a lost in biodiversity and it affects the ecosystem. Habitat destruction It is the result of changes in land use, whether due to agricultural crops, urban expansion, road construction or other causes. It is the main cause of loss of biodiversity in Latin America, it depends on both local factors and economic pressures and demand for resources that are not local (Simonetti and Dirzo, 2011). In addition to losing net amount of natural habitat, land use change processes form habitat fragments of different sizes and distance from each other. The smallest often do not have the viability to maintain populations of species or ecological processes necessary, so there are extinctions or loss of local environmental services. Overexploitation and extinction of species The extinction of species is due to multiple aspects. The main one surely, it is the loss of habitat. But, the direct pressures such as overexploitation and legal and illegal trade have a huge impact on certain groups of species. It has a great impact especially in cacti , orchids or showy birds and also those used for food. One example for food is the overexploited fishery resources. One problem we face is that the disappearance of species and populations may be faster through generation. It violates our ability to respond. A case that illustrates this is the San Ignacio del Huinay biological station that began operating in December 2001 on the mainland of Chile in front of Chiloé. It is an area of scarce accessibility very biodiverse and poorly studied. Thanks to its scientific impulse, more than 50 new underwater species have been identified. However, during the course of a decade the disappearance of complete banks of cold water corals has been detected, largely affected by the salmon industry and bivalves in the area. Population is growing dramatically. Then, the population have to expand in order to live. However, They are causing a great impact on the ecosystem. The creating of new roads and development of projects affects many numbers of species that live in that ecosystem. Many of those species will be extinct because their habitat is destroyed. Another important factor is the deterioration of forest, by cutting trees down to create those projects and roads, we are destroying many ecosystem. Pollution Pollution is the presence of a physical, chemical or biological agent – or a combination of several agents – in concentrations that are or may be harmful to the health, safety or welfare of the population, or that may be harmful for plant or animal life, in a terrestrial environment, of continental or marine waters. Common and everyday pollutants are domestic and industrial solid wastes, excess fertilizer and chemicals, sewage drains to the sea or rivers, carbon monoxide from vehicles, etc. The contamination can also be radioactive, thermal (emission of high temperature fluids in water courses or at sea), acoustic, light and even visual. Globally, the “World Energy Outlook Special Report” (IEA, 2016), of the International Energy Agency, reports that every day 18,000 people die from causes associated with air pollution, that is, a total of 6, 5 million people every year.The problem has become the fourth risk factor for human health, overcoming tuberculosis or HIV. Of the total number, 3.5 million deaths are linked to the use of biomass for cooking and kerosene to illuminate homes in poor areas, while three million are due to the breathing of polluted air, especially in large cities. To reduce the figure, the IEA proposes strong commitments to 2040. conserve biodiversity Inform the society as a whole about the benefits that are derived from the conservation of biodiversity and openly and with an overall vision the counterparts that arise when favoring some options to the detriment of others, helps to optimize the benefits for society. Recovering an ecosystem is generally much more expensive than protecting the original ecosystem, although it is becoming increasingly important as the number of degraded areas increases. Rhett Harrison, a tropical biologist, proposes that achievement ought not be estimated on the measure of land being ensured yet rather on the viability of implementation of regulations. For example, weekends that carefully rebuff people selling bramble meat in urban territories could be one measure for accomplishing this end. Moreover, there must likewise be a push to advance instruction and show neighborhood governments how significant environments are to their economy. It is necessary to face the direct and indirect generators that trigger the loss of biodiversity for better protection of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Possible measures may consist of eliminating harmful subsidies, fostering sustainable intensive agriculture, curbing the increase in the level of nutrients in water and soils, assessing the total economic value of ecosystem services and making transparent the processes of making decisions. Protected areas are a key aspect of conservation programs, but they are not enough to protect biodiversity in its entirety, and they are not always respected. To obtain results, it is necessary to carefully choose the location of the protected areas, ensuring that all the ecosystems in the area have adequate representation. References N. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2019, from (n.d.). The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture 2019. Retrieved July 27, 2019, from Lazarus, E., Lin, D., Martindill, J., Hardiman, J., Pitney, L.,

Artificial And Non Artificial Ingredients In Foods Biology Essay

Artificial And Non Artificial Ingredients In Foods Biology Essay. The aim of this research is to find out what are the differences between artificial and non artificial additives, and their modern use as well as the safety, benefits of their presence and side effects it might have on the body. As my examples of artificial additives I will discuss the properties of two synthetically obtained chemicals, a sweetner Aspartame and a flavor enhancer Mono sodium glutamate. Compounds vanillin and cinnamaldehyde as examples of natural ingredients. My intended sources of information were websites found on the google search engine, and other links associated with this topic.. First time line for the research was due on 20/02/2013 and it was requested by Joanne mitchel. 2 What are additives and what are they used for Food additives are ingredients added to foods during their manufacturing processes, food additives can also be identified as natural and artificial. Natural or non-artificial are often considered to be of natural origin, and have been used for centuries by people. These natural ingredients were obtained from organic sources such as part of the plants or animals that contained the active compound in them. Methods of obtaining these ingredients and their uses varied as many cultures and regions had their own methods of seasoning and preserving foods. Ingredients obtained synthetically are artificial, these ingredients are often obtained through bacterial fermentation, some artificial additives are simply, separated and concentrated active compounds found in natural ingredients, however synthetically obtained will never be the same as natural. Natural additives such as food dyes, preservatives and spices existed all throughout history, however their methods of preparation were often very time consuming and gave very little results, which not everyone could afford. Today the use of natural ingredients and natural ways of preserving foods has been greatly replaced by artificial additives. They can act as preservative to allow food to be eatable for longer, pH regulators to keep the food at its optimal pH, flavor enhancers to sharp the taste of other tastes and some additives can act as a substitute for tastes and flavorous such as sugar. Chemical properties and uses of Aspartame and Mono sodium glutamate Aspartame or E951 and MSG (Mono sodium glutamate) are two artificial ingredients used in the EU in many foods. Aspartame is a white odorless powder and it is very sweet in taste which eventually becomes bitter, chemically aspartame is a methyl ester of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid, in acidic conditions aspartame will breakdown to its components and also a 3rd dipeptide called aspartyl-phenylalanin, it will also produce methanol as a bi product. MSG is a sodium salt of an amino acid that is known as glutamic acid which is often found naturally in many animal proteins, chemically it is one sodium atom holding two glutamic acids together. Main use of aspartame are its properties that make it sweet in taste, aspartame is also widely used in soft drinks and chewing gums as a substitue for sugar. Although aspartame is not used in all sweetners, chemicals with similar chemcial properties are also used in other products such as confectionary and sweets. MSG is used as a flavor enhancer, it works best when combined with other flavors. It is generally used in ready meals, processed meats, fast food restaurants and snacks such as crisps and many other, MSG is also used in seasonings and canned soups. Chemical properties and uses of Cinnamon powder and Vanilla oil. Both cinnamon powder and vanilla oil are examples of natural ingredients that can be added to food to increase their taste quality, these ingredients are often less active on the body than their artificial forms, naturally these ingredients have to be prepared from the actual flower or part of the plant that contains the active ingredient found within the part of the plant. Cinnamon powder is grated bark of the cinnamon tree, the active ingredient found in cinnamon is the cinnamaldehyde which gives cinnamon its taste in cinnamon based products. Presence of a compound known as vanillin gives vanilla its smell and taste and it is the active compound that is used in the production of vanilla tasting spices and all vanilla tasting products, however this chemical is obtained both naturally and synthetically. These natural additives are just a fraction of what used to be an everyday spice, even though the active compounds can be produced synthetically. These spices are still produced naturally, and are sold as everyday spices however products such as confectionary that resemble in taste may have been produced artificially. Benefits of presence of additives in food The main benefit of presence of artificial additives in foods is that it is more economically efficient than obtaining and preparation of natural additives, especially in additives that are used as food dyes, preservatives, pH regulators and flavourings, flavour enhancers and emulsifiers. Naturally preservatives would be just a matter of preserving the food keeping it in cool conditions but even that will not give it a long lasting date of expiration and preservatives can extend that date as well as pH regulators by keeping the food at it’s optimum pH to preserve its freshness. Sugar substitutes can also be beneficial to people with disorders that excludes sugar from their diet. Some of the properties of certain compounds found within the additives could never be separated out naturally. Possible side effects associated with foods containing natural and artificial additives. Natural additives like vanilla extract and cinnamon powder are non essential to the human body but will digest. The desired active compounds in them will correspond to their function and breakdown to smaller harmless compounds. Side effects that are often associated with consumption of foods containing these ingredients are allergic reactions to compounds found within them. Artificial additives work in similar way, when obtained and prepared it is in its pure form, then it is added during foods manufacturing process. Some artificial additives are synthetically obtained active compounds found in natural ingredients. Some like aspartame were designed using other compounds creating in effect a new compound, aspartame partially breaks down to methanol which is toxic in even small amounts and the more aspartame is consumed the more methanol is produced. Regular consumption of foods and drinks containing aspartame may result in headaches, dizziness, and even vomiting, another biproduct of aspartame is L-phenylanine which by some cannot be consumed as it gives allergic reactions to people sensitive to it. MSG contains glutamic acid that is naturally found in meat proteins, it is non essential but will breakdown and digest, MSG is purely an active compound, the role for glutamic acid in proteins is that it is a building block for muscules and also supports brain function. Foods containing MSG could alter the functions of the brain for the moment of consuming the food and its digestion, over consumption of foods containing these ingredients may cause headaches, bowel distress, acid reflux, indigestion, nausia and fatigue. Long term effects and the impact on society. Natural ingredients added to foods should not be a cause of any physical or mental disabilities, there are always foods in nature that have low toxicity and are considered to be healthy and there are always those more toxic and should be avoided, many natural ingredients and spices were unique to different cultures and regions of the world which were renowned for them as well. It can not be ruled out that compounds found within artificial additives can be considered toxic and be potentially dangerous to the body if excess amounts of foods containing these chemicals are consumed on a regular basis over years. Children can be particularly affected by such foods that it can even be noticed, children require less food so it takes less to see the effects of such foods. Sugar causes hyper activity as well as other sugar based products, there are also concerns that the active compounds found in additives such as MSG can alter the brain chemistry to the point a person will be craving for this particular food without understanding that they were actually craving for the ingredient in that food. This might affect children more severely because as they are developing they might become more prone to simply buying these foods over fully nutritional foods that they require. People prone to stress eating will be more likely to want to eat products containing, high sugar content and foods containing richer and stronger flavours, which many additives were designed to simulate. In my opinion it is not worth it to fill foods with ingredients that can be potentially harmful with just having this advantage that they can stay for longer or taste more stronger. The best solution would by minimising the intake of foods containing these chemicals to only required mass their body needs. People in most developed countries are aware of what is in the food they buy and the daily amount required but it still dose not help the growing population of obesity in most countries. It should also be noted that additives were disqualified from many markets through out their short period of existence because they were considered potentially harmful and those considered ‘vital’ were always replaced by new. Health Benefits of Cinnamon And Non Artificial Ingredients In Foods Biology Essay