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Hi, its just a small assignment, you have to read a small case and have to answer only one question. No Intro and conclusion needed. I need the answer in one page in APA style. The Question is follow

No Intro and conclusion needed.  I need the answer in one page in APA style. The Question is following: What qualitative factors should be taken into consideration by A.B. Corp. before they decide on the best CWH location? Explain. The case is attached in the files.
Each student will write a major social policy paper. This paper will be an in-depth analysis of a current. Each student will write a major social policy paper. This paper will be an in-depth analysis of a current social welfare policy discussed in the readings. Consider such current policies as Social Security, Americans with Disabilities, Temporary Aid to Needy Families, No Child Left Behind, Health Care legislation. Follow the framework of social policy analysis and consider the history of the policy, the cost, its effectiveness, and its future. Additionally, this paper must address and discuss the Human Services values relevant to the topic, and the Saint Leo Core value that best informs an understanding of the analysis. This paper must demonstrate CSHSE Standards 11, 12, 13, and15. Identify two ethical concerns that developed as a result of your identified policy. Connect theethical concerns to two ethical standards from the Ethical Standards for Human Services 2 Professionals. This paper must be typed and double-spaced. Correct spelling, grammar, sentence structure is imperative. References must be cited correctly with a reference list included. Paper must follow the American Psychological Association. See the attached Rubric. Papers should be completed in APA format. Reference a Saint Leo Core Value, Theory, or NOHS Standards.)Each student will write a major social policy paper. This paper will be an in-depth analysis of a current
I have investigated the vehicle tracking methods available in our country. I found three methods which are suitable for the requirements of the company. Firstly, I would like to explain about the nature of the vehicle tracking devices available in the market. Basically, they can be classified as “Passive” and “Active”. “Passive” devices store GPS location, speed, heading, vehicle details, direction and sometimes a trigger event such as key on/off, door open/closed. When the vehicle arrives to a predetermined point back, the device is removed and the data is downloaded to the computer for evaluation. Usually, automatic download system is available which downloads the data wirelessly. “Passive” devices can store a certain amount of data that does not expire. “Active” devices also store the same information. But it immediately sends the data via cellular or satellite networks to the base station or to a computer of the data centre for evaluation. “Active” devices can store unlimited data for a certain amount of time. With this device, we can know the exact location of a vehicle as it is there. Some hybrid devices have both active and passive function. With hybrid device, the data is sent to a base station if the network is available and if the network is unavailable, the device stores data and send it later when the network is available. Secondly, I will explain about the three tracking methods. They all use active devices. They are: Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) system Assisted Global Positioning System (AGPS) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) AVL system is an advanced method to track and monitor any remote vehicle with the device that receives and sends signals through GPS satellites. AVL comprises of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) in order to provide the real geographic location of the vehicle. AVL system consists of PC-based tracking software to dispatch, a radio system, GPS receiver on the vehicle and GPS satellites. Among the two types of AVL, GPS-based and Signpost-based, GPS-based system is widely used. The tracking method GPS satellite is used to locate the vehicle equipped with GPS modem by sending satellite signals. The accuracy of the tracking method AVL system provides the vehicle location with the accuracy of about 5m to 10m. The information delivered by the tracking system The information transmitted to the base station is location, speed, direction, mileage, start and stop information, status of vehicle and asset in the vehicle. How often the information is transmitted from the vehicle to the central control system The information of the vehicle is often transmitted to the base station every 60 seconds. If the base station receives the data, it displays it on a computerized map. The method of data transmission from vehicle to centre GPS receiver on the vehicle receives the signals of its geographic location. Then the receiver sends that data plus speed, direction, etc. to the base station via a radio system. The cost per vehicle per day of using the system As the active vehicle tracking device is used, the subscription is needed. Average cost per vehicle per day is $1 to $2. Additional services that the system can provide The system can provide further more services: vehicle route replay facility, external sensor data, speed alerts. Limitations of the system AVL system cannot get accurate, complete and sufficient satellite data in dense urban areas or indoors and when transmission is blocked by natural obstructions (heavy tree cover) or many buildings. It can also occur in RF-shadowed environments and under unfriendly RF conditions. Sometimes, a position fix can be impossible. Assisted GPS (AGPS) In AGPS system, a terrestrial RF network is used to improve the performance of GPS receivers as it provides information about the satellite constellation directly to the GPS receivers. AGPS uses both mobiles and cellular networks to locate the accurate positioning information. AGPS is used to overcome some limitations of GPS. With unassisted GPS, locating the satellites, receiving the data and confirming the exact position may take several minutes. The tracking method AGPS uses GPS satellites to track the vehicles. A GPS receiver in vehicle is always in contact with 4 satellites (3 satellites determine latitude, longitude and elevation ad the fourth provides element of time). And so it never fails to detect the location of a vehicle. The accuracy of the tracking method Location of the vehicle is provided with accuracy of between 3m and 8m, and speed of 1km. The information delivered by the tracking system Vehicle location, average speed, direction, path traversed in a selected period and alerts (Engaged/Unengaged, speed limit, vehicle breakdown and traffic jam). How often the information is transmitted from the vehicle to the central control system The system provides continuous 10 second updates while the vehicle is in motion. It also provides data storage for up to 1 year. The method of data transmission from vehicle to centre The location is retrieved from the GPS device and relayed as an SMS using the cell phone by the Client Node to the Base station. The cost per vehicle per day of using the system The subscription for this system is $1.33 per day per vehicle (10 second updates) and $1.67 per day per vehicle (5 second updates). Additional services that the system can provide The system can provide atomic time (Accurate Time Assistance). There is a “panic” button. When pressed, you can contact an operator and he or she will help you out or keep you safe from accidents or hijacks. Limitations of the system As GSM network is used to transmit data from the vehicle to the base station, the cost of sending SMS can be a major concern to be considered. RFID system RFID is an automatic identification method using devices called tags to store and remotely retrieve data. RFID uses radio waves to capture data from tags. The tracking method RFID comprises of three components: tag (passive, semi passive and active), reader (antenna or integrator) and software (middleware). RFID tag which contains micro electronic circuits sends the vehicle information to a remote RFID reader. The accuracy of the tracking method This system provides the location of the vehicle with the accuracy of 4m to 6m. The information delivered by the tracking system Location of the vehicle, mileage and speed are delivered to the centre. d) How often the information is transmitted from the vehicle to the central control system The information is updated every one minute. The method of data transmission from vehicle to centre The information is sent to and received from RFID tags by a reader using radio waves. RFID reader, basically a radio frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver, is controlled by a microprocessor or digital signal processor (DSP). RFID reader with an attached antenna reads data from RFID tags. Then, it forwards the data to the computer for further processing. The cost per vehicle per day of using the system Vehicle operation cost of this system approximately between $2 and $5. g) Additional services that the system can provide Additional services are external sensor providing status and equipment of vehicle and alert systems. Limitations of the system T he limitation of the RFID system is short range. The system is only available in short distances. Recommendation I recommend using Assisted GPS system. AGPS system has many advantages over any other vehicle tracking system. AGPS information includes identification of the visible satellites. Because the receiver is now searching only for specific signals, the amount of time it takes for a GPS receiver to obtain its first location of time-to-first-fix (TTFF) is reduced from minutes to seconds. This makes the system performance better. AGPS effectively increase the sensitivity of the receiver so that it is able to obtain and demodulate the satellite signals in areas where unassisted GPS could not. It is important to note that these advantages will be seen primarily under circumstances present when the device is in an unfriendly RF environment. In this circumstance, the Assistance information enables the receiver to obtain a fix more quickly than an unassisted device and in some cases, obtain a position fix where an unassisted device could not obtain one at all. Task 2 Professional Mobile Radio (PMR) is radio communications system used to provide facilities of voice communication between base station and remote mobile users. The currently used standards of PMR are Terrestrial Trunked Radio Access (TETRA), APCO Project 25 and MPT-1327. Among them, I would like to explain about TETRA and APCO Project 25. TETRA TETRA is a modern standard of PMR and Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR). Within a local area, a transmitter at a single site provides service for customers usually up to 45 km from the transmitter. Or sometimes, up to three transmitters at different sites. These transmitters are often called as Common Base Station (CBS). If more than three transmitters are linked to provide a wider (national or regional) area, this is called PAMR. There are three categories (generic, open and proprietary), for equipment standards. TETRA is an open digital trunked mobile radio standard. How method works? The base station sends and receives from various mobiles continuously and TETRA uses Frequency Division Duplex. It also uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). To protect eavesdropping, it has end-to-end encryption and over the air encryption. Usually, 30 up to 1000 MHz spectrum bands have been identified to operate TETRA. But most TETRA system is operated in 380 to 400 MHz range. TETRA is implemented only in the spectrum bands reserved for its use. It doesn’t share with other radio system with other standards. The bandwidth for the TETRA network is 25 kHz/12.5 kHz. TETRA provides 7.2 kbps data rate. But an enhanced version of TETRA, TETRA release 2, can provide 130 kbps data rate. TETRA has a facility called trunking that links the channels. The user doesn’t have to wait for a specific to be free. The users can share all available channels. The users can take up another free channel. It provides full duplex quality voice communications. Details of the legal requirements for operating the system For the allocation of frequencies, frequency bands within the identified range (380 to 400 MHz) are allocated general commercial mobile radio systems. The band plan uses 25 kHz spacing between carriers. To be able to use frequency bands or telecommunications bands, a frequency license need to be applied. It is required to operate the system. The documents required for applying TETRA license are: A copy of valid Business Registration Certificate A copy of relevant document to prove the valid owner Moreover, for the grant of the license by Ministry of Post and Telegraph, the licensee: Should ensure that any radio communications stations and equipment are designed in the way that doesn’t cause any interference. Should not suffer the person who uses the equipment involved in any of radio communications stations. Should ensure that any person comprising in operation of the system are aware of this license and other applicable license. Should permit any authorized person to inspect or test any equipment or to access the stations whenever emergency case happens. Costs The costs for operating the TETRA standard are as following: The license can be renewable on an annual basis. Limitations TETRA handsets are more expensive than cellular phones ($1,200). Although data transfer rate is efficient, it can only provide 7.2 kbps data rate per timeslot (3.5 kbps per slot). But by combining 4 timeslots can turn into a single data channel and can provide higher rates. Also, TETRA requires higher cost as it requires sophisticated trunking equipment. APCO Project 25 Project 25 (P25) trunked radio system is digital radio communications standard developed by Association of Public Safety Communications Officials International (APCO). It is standardized under Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). How method works? P25 system uses APCO-25 Common Air Interface (CAI) standard. CAI standard enables to communicate with another CAI radio, regardless of manufacturer. It identifies the type, layout and content of signals transmitted. CAI uses Improved Multi-Band Excitation (IMBE). IMBE voice encoder-decoder transforms audio input into digital stream. The digital stream is then transmitted to the vocoder in the radio. It produces an equivalent of input sound. P25 system can be either conventional or trunked. If conventional, specific frequencies are used for a specific group of radio users. If trunked, 9600-baud control channel (pure P25) or 3600-baud control channel (proprietary Motorola protocol) can be used. Currently, P25 system uses 12.5 kHz wide channels. Usually, 300 to 800 MHz frequency range is available. Details of the legal requirements for operating the system To operate the system, license for APCO Project 25 need to be applied. When apply for the license, the following documents should be included with the application form. For limited company, A copy of valid Business Registration Certificate and A copy of Certificate of Incorporation. For sole proprietorship or partnership, A copy of valid Business Registration Certificate and A current Certified Extracts of Information on the Business Register issued by particular Business Registration Office. A copy of relevant document showing the applicant is the valid owner. Costs The costs for operating APCO Project 25 are as following: Limitations One disadvantage of APCO Project 25 is cost. It is costly than less specialized technology. Whether digital or analog, the radio may face interference as colliding transmission. Sometimes, losing signals occurs. However, interference can’t be heard and only noise occurs. Moreover, call setup delay and background noise can occur. Recommendation I would recommend using TETRA for the following reasons: It can provide large coverage area by linking three transmitters situated at different sites. It can also cut down infrastructure setting up cost as it uses lower frequency which gives longer range with few transmitters. For the security, over-the-air encryption and end-to-end encryption are available. Call setup rate is very fast. Equipment required for the system is available from a variety of suppliers. It can work at high speed (400 km per hour). If disaster occurs, fast recovery solutions and temporary capacity provision are available. Task 3 To create an in-house network (LAN), I have investigated three topologies and three media. Topologies Star In star topology, all computers are connected to a central device (switch, hub or computer) to transmit data. The central device, all computers and transmission links between them form a graph of star. The access method used is Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). For the central device, switch is preferred to hub. Hub retransmits all data received from any computer to all computers on the network. But switch retransmits the specific message to the specific node only. Although a transmission line is broken down, the rest of the network with the remaining computers will not be affected. But the failure of the central device will make the whole network unavailable. Bus In bus topology, all computers is connected to a single cable which is called “backbone” having two end points. These end points should be ended with a device called “terminator”. The terminator absorbs signal preventing it from being reflected back on the backbone in the opposite direction which can cause interference and degradation of the signals. In bus topology, two or more computers cannot send data at the same time. If sent, collision results. To handle or avoid collision, CSMA/CD method is used. It allows a computer to transmit data only when the backbone cable is free. Ring In Ring topology, each computer is connected to exactly two other nodes and the first and the last computer are also connected to form a single pathway a ring. The access method used is Token Passing. The data is transmitted using a Token. In the network, a token passes from one computer to another in a single circular direction. A token becomes busy when a computer puts data in it. Busy token passes through computers to destination. After destination computer has taken the data, the token has to travel to its originating computer to make a full circle. The transmission in the network is, therefore, slower. Media Basically, there are two types of media: Bounded media Copper wire Coaxial cable Twisted pair cable Fiber optic Unbounded media Radio transmission lines From the aspect of security, bounded media is better. So, I will explain about only bounded media further. Coaxial Cable Mostly, Ring and Bus topologies use coaxial cable. In the center of the cable is a copper conductor. Around the conductor is a flexible insulator which is covered with a metallic foil or copper braid acting as a shield. Coaxial covers longer distance than any other cable. It offers higher bandwidth and higher data rate of 10 to 100 Mbps. Coaxial comprises of thick coaxial (10Base5) and thin coaxial (10Base2). 10Base5 provides 500 meters and 10Base2 around 200 meters. Twisted Pair Cable Star topology uses twisted pair cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted to prevent crosstalk (the noise produced by contiguous pairs). Two types of twisted pair cable are unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP). Both cables provide 100 meters segment length. UTP is immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). The wires are wrapped with insulating material and are twisted. UTP supports 10Mbps to 1Gbps data rate. STP has each pair of wire covered with a metallic foil. STP is immune to interference both within (crosstalk) and from outside the cable (EMI and RFI). STP supports 10 to 100 Mbps. STP is rarely used due to difficult installation. Fiber Optic Cable In the center is a glass (WAN) or plastic (LAN) core covered with many layers of protection materials. Light waves are used to transmit data rather than electronic signals removing EMI. Fiber optic cable can be of two types: multimode and monomode. Multimode breaks down light waves into a number of paths along the fiber and are reflected off the fiber wall. Multimode supports 2km and data rate of 100 Mbps to 100 Gbps. In monomode, only a single stream of light flowed down each fiber strand. Monomode supports 1km and 100 Mbps to 9.92 Gbps. Main disadvantages are expensive special tools, handling and precision required to attach the connector and two cables required to send and receive data which double the costs. Recommendation I recommend using star topology and unshielded twisted pair (UTP). Star topology provides many advantages: Better performance: it prevents passing data to unnecessary computers. Every transmission needs only 3 devices and 2 links. Isolation of devices: each computer is connected to the central device with its own link eliminating breakdown of the whole network due to any non-centralized failure. Simplicity: it is easy to implement and understand removing complicated routing or message passing protocols. Future growth: expanding network is easily done by adding another concentrator. Star topology mostly uses UTP and UTP has many advantages: Most buildings are wired with UTP and, therefore, many transmission standards can be adapted to use UTP eliminating costly rewiring for an alternative cable type. UTP is the least expensive media for data transmission. Task 4 Transmission of vehicle location data In a network, any wireless device equipped can be an open invitation for threats to the entire network if there is no protection. The data transmitted over the network can be partially or totally observed by eavesdroppers or unintended persons. While the data is transmitted over the network, there are two possible security risks. They are monitoring and access of data by unauthorized user and modification of data by unauthorized user. The former one can’t be known easily when the data transmitted is listened, read or copied. For the latter one, it must ensure that the data passes the network without any modification. Whatever risk occurs, the network becomes insecure. The consequences can be: Gaining access to the pathway of important customers Car kidnapping Reduced customers’ trust Voice communications transmission For the voice communication network, voice conversation must be secure enough to prevent from eavesdropping and tampering. If an eavesdropper or a hacker gets access to voice conversation, he or she could rearrange the voice packets to provide new conversation. Also, a call between base station and vehicle can be redirected to different destination. As the result of eavesdropping and tampering, the following can occur: Crimes Terrorizing customers Kidnapping customers Reduced customers’ reliability Recommendation Whether voice or data communications transmission, integrity and confidentiality are important things and, therefore, a good security measure should be established. For any viable information security strategy, a robust encryption technology is required. The best way to protect security risks is encryption (data and voice). Privacy and authentication are the two most fundamental facts of data encryption. Among two types of data encryption: traditional encryption algorithms and key-based encryption algorithms, key-based ones are better and more effective. Key-based one need to define a key to encrypt data and it produces another encrypted output. That output uses the key to decrypt. In the encryption process, the plaintext (original message) is transformed by an encryption method into ciphertext (disguised message). In the decryption process, the ciphertext is retransformed into the plaintext. Among the various kinds of data encryption methods, the most popular one is DES (Data Encryption Standard), which is key-based. Among the various kinds of data encryption methods, the most popular one is DES (Data Encryption Standard), which is key-based. In DES, block cipher is used. A block cipher is that a block of data all is encrypted at once and then, next block. It is claimed that the ciphertext encrypted with DES are completely secure. The sender and the receiver of the message should use the same private key. For the security of voice communication, scrambling or encryption method can be used. The concept of voice scrambling (or voice inversion) is that it makes the signal reversed around a pre-set frequency. Encryption can be divided into two: hardware-based and software-based. Hardware-based can provide more secure and more useful encryption though they are expensive and rare. Although software currently available is free, a computer has to be used and it is not preferable. A hardware-based encryption method, DVP (Digital Voice Protection), is the most popular one. In spite of the fact that voice encryption may add costs and complexity to the network, voice encryption is needed for safety and efficiency of the network as it ensures that the network is accessible by authorized persons only. Therefore, voice and data encryption process is important for the network operation. It is more important then purchase of radio equipment and setting up of the network. Task 5 This report is written for a taxi company, A2B Cars. The company provides transport services for individual clients, commercial organizations and other bodies. In this report, I have carried out required investigation to implement a vehicle tracking system and two-way voice communication that the company requires. There are altogether four main subjects I have investigated for the company: Vehicle tracking system Two-way voice communication Network topologies and media for LAN network Security issues Vehicle tracking system The company wants to track its vehicle in order to provide route information, to provide information for security purposes and to dispatch the vehicle nearby to the customers. The company currently has 20 taxis and plan to expand further. I found 3 systems to track vehicle: Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL), Assisted GPS and RFID. All three systems can provide the required information such as vehicle location, average speed, status (engaged / unengaged), direction. AVL and Assisted GPS use GPS satellites to track vehicle while RFID use radio waves. All methods give satisfactory result for the requirements of the company. But some have limitations. AVL doesn’t work properly under unfriendly RF conditions. RFID covers only short range. Although Assisted GPS is costly than others, it is preferable as it can provide: Better system performance Increased receiver’s sensitivity working well under unfriendly RF conditions A fixed position Wider area coverage (easier to expand) As the company is providing taxi service, it is important to track vehicles even in RF-shadowed areas. Therefore, Assisted GPS is the most suitable method. Two-way voice communication The company has five controllers for planning customers’ journeys, routes for vehicles and dealing with customer telephone enquiries. Every controller will have his own workstation. For two-way voice communication between taxi drivers and the controllers, I found two systems: TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio Access) and P-25 (APCO Project 25). Whatever system is operated, you need to apply for the license. It is important to prove that your business is valid and registered. Two systems operate in different frequencies and bandwidth. P-25 is more expensive than TETRA. In P-25, signal loss can sometimes occur. TETRA is more secure with encryption, can offer fast call setup rate and less infrastructure setting up cost with few transmitters. Network topologies and media for LAN network For use by five controllers at base station, an in-house LAN network is to be established. The most popular network topologies are Star, Bus and Ring. Star network is more robust and Bus and Ring. In Bus, main cable breakdown results in network failure. In Ring, cable or a computer failure makes the whole network unavailable. In Star, even a transmission link or a computer fails, the remaining network can work well. This is one major advantage over other networks. For media, Coaxial, Twisted Pair and Fiber Optic cables are investigated. Coaxial and Fiber Optic are very expensive although they can immune to interference than Twisted Pair. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is more suitable than Shielded twisted pair (STP) as UTP can be easily implemented on traditional phone wiring. Security Issues When implementing a secure network, the following characteristics should be considered. Performance After security solution is established, network performance should be measured to ensure that the network can function effectively. The security solution must not affect network performance. Transparency Security solution should be implemented in an easy and simple ways without adding any complexity to the network. Easy management Security solution should be easily managed by the network administrator. To achieve a secure network, the best way is to encrypt data and voice. For data encryption, DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the most widely used method. It can provide very safe encrypted data block. For voice encryption, DVP (Digital Voice Protection) is used. DVP is considered to be very secure. I hope this report can outline some guidelines for the network requirements for the company. In recommending th
Descartes’ Meditations are a search for the ‘First Principles’ of Philosophy. In order for the Meditator to achieve an understanding of the principles of Philosophy, the Meditator must be certain that what they believe to be true, can in no way in their own mind be wrong. Hence, Descartes’ use of the ‘Method of Doubt’ which is used as “…an attempt to get the meditator to put aside his pre-critical sensory oriented picture of the world” [1] through the use of four stages, outlined within the Method Descartes works to prepare our minds for a withdrawal from the senses, to ensure that it is “…impossible for us to doubt any further…we later discover to be true.” [2] Within the ‘Method of Doubt’, Descartes talks of the mind and its reliance upon the senses “…whatever I had admitted until now as most true I received…from or through the senses” [3] . However, Descartes believes that the senses are somewhat misguiding when it comes to deciphering the reality or truth of an object, mainly that of what we see for example i.e. “distant objects” [4] . From this we can see that Descartes is trying to get the Meditator to understand, that knowledge gained from the senses is not always concrete in its truth or reality. Cottingham describes this as a “Clearing of the mind” [5] , Descartes’ motive is highlighted as a form of insuring certainty of knowledge, again, Cottingham sums up Descartes motive as “replacing the senses with something more refined” [6] . Descartes motive according to Kenny is a “…meditative technique…to cure the mind of excessive reliance upon the senses” [7] , as strong argument as it is more accessible for people to understand, as those whom Hobsbawm would call enlightened understand that knowledge comes from the intellect, and not from what we experience. This leads many to criticise Descartes, as in order to discount knowledge gleaned from the senses, one would need to recognise when an error has taken place, thus distinguishing right and wrong, LaBossiere compares Descartes method to the understanding of Optical Illusions stating that through our experiences of the senses we can see “…through the deception” [8] , thus the senses can bring about true understanding, therefore disproving Descartes belief the senses provide a false truth. Beginning stage two of the ‘Method of Doubt’, Descartes identifies the way in which dreaming and the idea of madness calls into question his beliefs regarding the senses, questioning the reality of his self”…deny these hands and entire body are mine” [9] . Descartes concludes that the images of the insane are on a par with the images of dreams, and therefore believes that considering the ideas we see when dreaming are a more accessible and effective way of doubting the senses; as not all of us have experienced madness, yet most have dreamt. Kenny adds “….madmen have the delusion their bodies are made of glass” [10] , and argues how can Descartes believe his senses are more trust worthy than the madman’s? Taking Kenny’s question further, we can see that Descartes doesn’t need to think himself mad, as he himself states he sometimes has dreams as “…wild” [11] as the experiences of the insane. From this we can understand that Descartes motive is to highlight the way in which our experience of sensory actions shapes our understanding of what is real. Rorty believes although Descartes’ argument surrounding the idea of dreaming is very simple, it still works effectively to show how we can’t be sure we are “always dreaming” [12] , thus how can we be sure of anything. Again LaBossiere, argues that whilst we may not know if what we perceive to be true in the ‘waking world’, we still ” have good grounds for believing that the ‘waking’ world is fundamentally different from the ‘dream’ world” [13] ; showing that although we may not have exact answers when it comes to reality, we still understand through our sense what is real and what isn’t, the fact I dream I am a Millionaire doesn’t make me one, as when I wake my bank balance remains the same as before; hence Descartes argument of sensory reliance can be proven to in fact work to verify reality and truth. However, Descartes furthers his argument in stage three of the ‘Method of doubt’; and queries whether reality stems from the imagination rather than the senses. In this case using the image of the painter as an analogy, assuming himself to be dreaming and that all perception of reality is imaginary, Descartes compares dreams to “…painted images, which could only have been produced in the likeness of true things” [14] , in other words we may not have an understanding of the reality of images we dream, but like the painter whom paints images that may not be of true reality, we can recognise images we ourselves know to be real; de Vinci’s Medusa would be an example of this. It would be futile to assume a female existed with snakes for hair, although we have experience of each object in its own reality, thus Descartes believes just as paintings represent real objects, can that not mean that our dreams also represent objects that “….i have experienced when awake” [15] . Here we can see that Descartes’ motive is to show that there are such rational truths such as size, and shape which are universally recognisable and seem not to be imaginary, and thus we can sort reality from non-reality through our intellect and not rely upon our senses. Cottingham believes that through doubt, Descartes has sorted “scientific truth from Imagination” [16] , and therefore proven we are in fact living in reality, not the dream world Descartes fears. Descartes must go further to doubt, these apparent universal truths in order to be clear he has a true understanding of philosophical foundations. Descartes supposes that they could be the work of an Imperfect Creator that is so powerful that he can deceive Descartes in to believing that “there is no earth at all” [17] . Descartes wonders if this said God is powerful enough to deceive him of the world’s existence, then he must also have to power to deceive him of even the basic truths, “…deceived every time I add two and three or count the sides of a square?” [18] The motive of the all-powerful God is to show Descartes Meditators that there are always external forces working against our innate understanding of reality and truths, in other words our experience and senses are always working to deceive us just as the Imperfect Creator does. Descartes also believes that we ourselves are also imperfect beings for allowing ourselves to slip back into “old habits and laziness” [19] , and therefore again relying upon our senses to guide us in understanding reality and truth. Kenny sums up Descartes theory of the Imperfect being as “the more likely we are to be so imperfect as to be always in error” [20] . Descartes would agree with the view point as he believed “…the more probable it will be that I am so imperfect that I am always deceived.” [21] , therefore reverting back to the old ways of relying upon the senses. Going as far as to doubt his own doubt, Descartes understands that many would rather except that the imperfect creator does not exist, however, he argues such as it would be fair for those to argue against the existence of a deceptive God, no counter argument provided can bring about the greatest of certainty concerning reality or truth. Carriero argues that the introduction of a deceptive God would be like “worrying we might trip over the corner of a circle” [22] , the fact that its existence has not been proven means that Descartes’ possibility of an omnipotent being has no credible testimony, thus, “we have no reason to except even the possibility of such as being” [23] . Overall we can assume Descartes has fallen into the trap of reverting back to relying upon a belief in the senses. Descartes outlines his philosophical motive at the very beginning of Meditation One, in order for him to fully understand the reality and truth of philosophical foundations he must, “…raze everything to the ground and begin again…” [24] Overall this is the general process of the Method of Doubt, to question the very knowledge that we consider to be truth in order to achieve complete certainty that we know, can actually be true. Descartes reaches the conclusion that “….natural sciences are doubtful, while mathematical sciences have an element of certainty” [25] ; mainly because Mathematical science has a structure that is able to withstand the method of doubt, as the senses play no role in building its foundations. This leads us to see that the process of doubt used by Descartes flows from stage to stage eliminating the possibility of being wrong, and eventually, quenches the “natural desire for truth” [26] . Quite Simply the ‘Method of Doubt’ is a philosophical institution that works to provide “that sort of pure intellectual clarity…needed for metaphysics” [27]



What is the interquartile range of the set of data this box-and-whisker plot represents?36810

The ethical practices of Biedronka, the largest supermarket chain in Poland

essay order The ethical practices of Biedronka, the largest supermarket chain in Poland. Introduction This report is concerned with the ethical practices of Biedronka (“Ladybird” in Polish), the largest supermarket chain in Poland. The report carries out a critical evaluation of the company’s current engagement with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) agenda and identifies key ethical issues for the organisation. In particular this report looks at the record of employee grievances regarding forced overtime under threat of dismissal, falsifying of records to deny overtime payments and various instances of employee poor treatment across the supermarket’s chain of stores. The Company In Poland, supermarkets started to appear in the mid 1990s. After decades of Communist rule these stores represented the Western ideal with their bright colours and wide choice of products at reasonable prices. The largest supermarket chain in Poland is Biedronka, based in Ruda Slaska it is a subsidiary of the Portuguese company Jerónimo Martins (JMD). Biedronka has more than 1,400 stores, over 28,000 employees and over 500 private label products (Jerónimo Martins, 2010). The Board of Directors of Jerónimo Martins consists of five Executive Members and six Non-Executive members. Mr. Pedro Manuel De Castro Soares Dos Santos (Chef Executive Officer of the Board of Directors and Director of Food Distribution Operations of Jerónimo Martins SGPS SA since 1995) is responsible for Operations in Poland (Reuters, 2010). See Appendix 1 for details of the company’s corporate structure. Biedronka is regarded as a discount chain with many own branded products; it is probably most similar to Lidl in the UK. Corporate Governance Structure The current Code of Best Practice for WSE Listed Companies, as drawn up by the Warsaw Stock Exchange Supervisory Board (May 2010), provides the guidelines for good governance for all companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (Rancewicz, 2010). “The Code of Best Practice for WSE Listed Companies aims at enhancing transparency of listed companies, improving quality of communication between companies and investors, and strengthening protection of shareholders’ rights, including those not regulated by legislation, while refraining from imposing a burden on listed companies that may outweigh the benefits resulting from market needs”. There are three areas that the main principles of the Code of Best Practice deal with: A – Management Boards B – Supervisory Board Members C – Shareholders These codes advisory only and rely on the self-regulation of companies to abide by them. Companies are asked to comply or, in the case of any non-conformance, explain why they have not applied the code to their governance practices. The means of providing good governance for a corporate company include the appointment of two distinct types of directors of the company: executive (Management) directors who are involved in the operational and strategic aspects of the business and non-executive (Supervisory) directors. The non-executive directors do not involve themselves in the daily running of the business, there’s is more a role for monitoring the behaviour of the executive management thereby adding a form of protection for shareholders and stakeholders interests. Stakeholders can be defined as” an individual or a group which either: is harmed by, or benefits from, the corporation; or whose rights can be violated, or have to be respected, by the corporation”. (Crane and Matten, 2007, p58). Biedronka has, through its parent company Jerónimo Martins, a strong structure of Governance with five Executive Members and six Non-Executive members. Operations for the Polish arm of the company are headed by Mr. Pedro Manuel De Castro Soares Dos Santos (Chef Executive Officer of the Board of Directors and Director of Food Distribution Operations). He also sits on the following committees: Financial Matters Committee, Corporate Responsibility Committee and the Evaluation and Nomination Committee (see Appendix 1 for further details). The difficulty with this structure is that it is based upon its Portuguese parent company and that the operational activities of Biedronka itself, within Poland, are very much in the hands of local and regional mangers. While the structure for Governance in the parent company is strong the effectiveness of its application may be diluted in the running of its subsidiary company, Biedronka. Corporate Social Responsibility Agenda Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is “the acknowledgement by companies that they should be accountable not only for their financial performance, but for the impact of their activities on society and/or the environment” (CBI, 2010). While there is legislation that regulates human resource issues, environmental issues, waste management, sustainability and health and safety matters there is a difference between actions that are driven by these legal requirements and others that go beyond this. Companies are often taking actions not because they have a legal requirement but because they are following an ethical policy of behaviour. This is often done at the expense of the company without seeking any financial reward. In Biedronka case, as shall be discussed later, this includes employee health care programmes, free summer holidays for employees’ families “in greatest need” and Christmas presents for all employees. This kind of social behaviour by corporations has not always been welcome and even considered unethical by some. Milton Friedman (1970) said social activity was the responsibility of individuals and not of someone whose responsibility is to their company or shareholders. Using company assets for social benefit was, in Friedman’s view, no different than stealing from the company and as such was unethical behaviour itself. Crane and Matten (2007) argue that corporations do have moral responsibilities and that the ethical position of a corporation is determined by groups of individuals within the company, rather than any single individual acting on their own. This gives the company an identity and therefore a responsibility in its corporate behaviour. How far a company acts in its own self interest and when an activity become purely an act of social good is represented in Archie Carroll’s Four Part Model of Corporate Social Responsibility (Crane and Matten, 2007, p.49). This model (Fig.1.) describes the components of CSR that are between fundamental economic responsibilities and more philanthropic activities. The base of the pyramid represents the most required activities of the company which includes the need to make a profit. In other words a company must act in such a way as to ensure the profitability of the company, if this is not done a company will most probably fail. The next step up the pyramid is complying with legal requirements. All companies are required to follow the laws governing company behaviour. There can be difficulties at times, especially with multi-national companies trading in countries with different regulations, but it is still the responsibility of the company to ensure it is acting legally in whichever country it is operating in. Fig.1. Carroll’s CSR Pyramid The third step concerns Ethical Responsibilities, this is where CSR issues are raised. Here activities go beyond what is required into what should be required, it is where a company takes an ethical stance and promotes certain aspects of behaviour of all its activities guided by an ethical and moral viewpoint. The final step of the pyramid deals with philanthropic activities. These are actions that could be seen to promote human welfare or goodwill. The can include financial contributions or executive time in such areas as contributions to the arts, education, or the community (Carroll, 1991). Such actions are not generally required but often desired and contribute to the overall sense of ‘Corporate Citizenship’. Biedronka and the CSR Agenda While owned by the Portuguese holding company, with the Polish stores being under the charge of a Portuguese director, Biedronka stores are run by local managers with a certain amount of independence regarding administration and staff management. However, companies do have certain social responsibilities and this ideally has been pushed further and further into prominence because of Poland’s entry into the EU and her wish to follow the western European countries and adhere to EU employment rules. Biedronka is quite clear about its position on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), it promotes five areas of social responsibility for the company: Trustworthy Employer Trustworthy Member of Society Trustworthy Member of Environment Trustworthy Quality Food Retailer Trustworthy Business Partner (See Appendix 3 for further details) The company’s activities would certainly appear to follow Carroll’s CSR pyramid model quite well. The company is making a good profit (see Appendix 2), and it could be expected that they operate within the legal requirements of Poland and also the EU regulations now applying to Poland as a full member of the European Community. The company promotes itself as an ethical company with regards to treatment and working conditions of employees, environmental issues and wider social responsibilities. The company runs employee health care programmes, contributes to free summer holidays for employees’ families “in greatest need” and Christmas presents for all employees (see Appendix 3). Much of what the company does under CSR can be considered to be philanthropic activities and it would seem they have high ethical values and a strong sense of corporate responsibility. However, there are many question marks about their treatment of workers and suppliers. Primarily amongst these is the case of Bozena Lopacka (KARAT Coalition, 2008). Bozena Lopacka was a manager in one of the Biedronka supermarkets. She sued her employer for 35000zÅ‚ (zloty, about £6900) for failing to remunerate her for overtime. In 2004 the court accepted the claim and ordered the amount to be paid to her. JMD then appealed the ruling. At this time a non-governmental organisation stepped in – the Helsinki Foundation of Human Rights, which presented its independent opinion. Finally in 2007 Bożena Łopacka was granted 26000zÅ‚ as remuneration for the overtime hours (instead of 35000zÅ‚) because claims related to work relations are a subject to expiration after 3 years. Several issues were identified in this case: The hours worked were not reported properly. As a store manager Lopacka was forced by her employer to forge the time sheets so women for whom she was a supervisor would not be paid for overtime. Female employees had to transfer and pull loads exceeding the norms on hand-pulled carts instead of electric ones. Deliveries to stores were poorly organised and late, causing work overload for employees Since that time over 120 other similar cases against Biedronka supermarkets were brought to the court. So far, all of them have been won (Internal Commission of Jurists, 2010). The situation was so bad that an organisation was formed, the Association of the Harmed by Large Commercial Chains – ‘Biedronka’ (Stowarzyszenie Osób Poszkodowanych Przez Wielkie Scieci Handlowe ‘Biedronka’), which represented employees (and former employees) in their legal disputes with the chain (Czarzasty, 2009). It can be seen that the public face of the company has been in conflict with its actual activities at some stores. While on the whole this has been down to the action of individuals working at these stores there has to be association and blame on the directors of the company, specifically Mr. Pedro Soares Dos Santos. However, amongst the 112 persons fined by the State Labour Inspectorate only six were managers and two regional managers. No upper managers within the company were held to be responsible by the courts (Internal Commission of Jurists, 2010). It is clear than in many instances the company failed its basic legal requirements and despite its high profile CSR stance actually failed to provide proper employee care and working conditions. While there are legal issues that have been identified concerning Biedronka’s treatment of staff there are also the ethical concerns associated with this. To establish whether the conduct of Biedronka has been ethically acceptable or not it is necessary to apply certain theories to the situation and use such theories to support the conclusion. For this report the issue of forced overtime shall be discussed. The staff at Biedronka’s supermarkets were forced to take overtime (often unpaid) which has a direct affect on the individuals concerned but also a wider effect on families and friends of the employees concerned. This shows that it is not simply a case of employee versus employer in these situations but the effect on all those associated with or who have an interest in the situation. These stakeholders are “an individual or group which either: is harmed by, or benefits from, the corporation; or whose rights can be violated, or have to be respected by the corporation” (Crane and Matten, 2007. p.58). Such stakeholders include employees, suppliers, customers, competitors, shareholders and employee’s families, amongst others. A report by Allard E. Dembe (2008), entitled “Ethical Issues Relating to the Health Effects of Long Working Hours” investigated ethical considerations involve mandatory or unpaid overtime and the possibility of employer coercion. The report stated: “Considerable research evidence has accumulated indicating that there is an increased likelihood for illness and injury among employees working in long-hour schedules and schedules involving unconventional shift work (e.g., night and evening shifts). In addition, studies show that fatigue-related errors made by employees working in these kind of demanding schedules can have serious and adverse repercussions for public safety”. The Triple Bottom Line The Triple Bottom Line (3BL) was a phrase coined by John Elkington in 1994 and specifically in his 1998 book Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business. Elkington states: “In the simplest terms, the TBL agenda focuses corporations not just on the economic value that they add, but also on the environmental and social value that they add – or destroy”. Fig. 2. The Triple Bottom Line The main principle behind 3BL is that corporations should not only take into account the economic factors of business but should incorporate social and environmental factors as well. The ‘bottom line’ refers to the accounting term for the actual, real cost to the business. Elkington argues that a cost benefit can be measured for environmental and social activities that a company ought to engage in. 3BL also involves the promotion of sustainability; that is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Crane and Matten, 2007. p.22). While the emphasis of corporations has generally been on the economic factors the Triple Bottom Line attempts to create a balance between “people, planet and profit” (Elkington, 1994). Biedronka promote the ideas behind 3BL but in practice have failed to implement social value, specifically amongst its staff, as a goal. Social Justice does not just refer to concerns such as the impacts of business activities on indigenous communities in less developed countries and regions (Crane and Matten, 2007. p.27) but anywhere where there are stakeholders affected by the actions of corporations. Ethical Issues and Application of Normative Theories It is worth mentioning here the difference between Morals and Ethics: “Morality is concerned with the norms, values, and beliefs embedded in social pro­cesses which define right and wrong for an individual or a community”. “Ethics is concerned with the study of morality and the application of reason to elucidate specific rules and principles that determine right and wrong for a given situation. These rules and principles are called ethical theories” (Crane and Matten, 2007). It can be seen that ethics is open to interpretation and different people will have different opinions on what exactly is right and wrong, is it reasonable to apply some rules in certain situations but not in others? Can a ‘white lie’ be acceptable in certain situations where the truth may cause distress? The following discusses various ethical theories and applies them to the activities of Biedronka. Utilitarianism If we apply the moral principle of Utilitarianism that it should be “the greatest good for the greatest number of people” (Bradburn, 2001) to the example of the forced overtime mentioned before then it could be argued that this business decision was morally acceptable. A handful of people (per store) might experience some level of discomfort but they would remain employed and the customers of the supermarket would be able to buy their products with ease as staff would be on the shop floor rather than finished for the day. The company could employ more staff but this would increase overheads and affect profit. The following table identifies various stakeholders and the cost ( or pain) and benefit (or pleasure) of the activities to those involved: Stakeholder Cost Benefit Employer Bad publicity from legal action. Loss or reputation. Financial cost of legal action. High staff turnover. Cost savings, no need to employ more staff. Employee Poor morale. Adverse effects of working long hours. Retain job in the face of high unemployment. Customer Poor service through unhappy employees. Not wanting to be associated with a company following such practices. Long opening hours. Supplier Concerns about being associated with a company following such practices. Continued profits of company reduce risk of losing supply contracts Employee Family Family life disrupted due to long working hours. Continued income. Employees have stated that the local managers seem to delight in creating an atmosphere of intimidation which leads to unhappy workers and a high turnover of staff. Because Polish unemployment is high there will always be replacements but a low turnover of staff is good for business as it removes the time needed to find and train new employees. Therefore one might question the action of the company which provoke such a negative effect with comparatively small benefits. If we look at the basic principle of Utilitarianism that the few have to make sacrifices for the many then there are potentially far more customers satisfied with continuing cheap products than those worried about employee issues. Egoism From an egoism point of view one can understand this style of management culture. The egoist argues that the true test of a man is not what he has done for others but rather what he has made of himself (Nielsen, 1959) The managers’ primary concern when making decisions would be company profits and placing the company in a better position than before, regardless of the employees’ wellbeing. The directors of the company want their supermarket chain to be the top supermarket in Poland. Therefore, it is acceptable to do what needs to be done to maintain an edge over competitors. On the other hand, from the employees’ point of view and taking the same egoism stance, in the short-term it might be necessary to “follow orders” in order to get their wage but their longer term needs should be to find alternative employment and seek legal action through the courts if they feel the need. The fact that the turnover of staff in Biedronka is significantly high because of the poor working conditions seems to have been ignored by management. They continue to pressurise staff to work longer and longer hours with the stick of unemployment being waved in their faces on a regular basis. Whether this is in the long-term interests of the business is questionable and if the workers were more highly skilled one would say that it is not a good business decision to treat them in this way, but as the staff are not highly skilled and there are a sufficient number of candidates willing to take their places (at least temporarily) then one can understand the management’s policy of making the workers work hard for longer. Ethics of Duty Immanuel Kant in Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) declared three maxims that should be to determine the ethical correctness of a situation. For the actions to be considered ethically correct they must pass all three maxims: Consistency “Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law”. It is unlikely that Biedronka would consider that forced overtime as a ‘universal law, applied to everyone’ would be acceptable. This does not discount agreed overtime with pay and even time off in lieu with perhaps an agreed threshold for the maximum of hours overtime contractually required, over which additional hours should be on a voluntary basis. Human Dignity “Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only”. It is clear that the Biedronka management are indeed using its employees as a means to an end and they are not being treated equally in such a way as to benefit all. Universality “Act as though the maxim of your action were by your will to become a universal law of nature”. This maxim asks if you would like to have your actions universally known, the New York Times test (Trevino and Nelson, 2007). In other word would you be happy with your actions appearing on the front page of the New York Times (Fakt, Poland’s largest selling newspaper, in this case)? Clearly Biedronka would not, and indeed did not, like the publicity from the court cases in Poland and it is assumed that their treatment of staff on these occasions is something they would not wish to occur again or be made public. Overall is would seem that Biedronka fails all tests, let alone pass all three. However, it is difficult to apply Kant’s theories to real world situations and inevitably any conclusion is a subjective one with a natural bias on the side of the person judging the activities. The Rights Theory (Natural Law) The Ethics of Rights maintain that everyone has certain natural rights that they are entitled to (Locke, 1689). Those rights cover things such as justice, liberty, a right to life, etc. Its author, John Locke, believed that human nature was characterised by tolerance and reason. However, Locke also stated that humans had a right to self interest – they have the right to life and liberty – therefore shouldn’t a manager who wishes to progress in the company will do whatever it takes to be noticed by his superiors in order to enhance his career? And if what needs to be done requires hurting a few people along the way then let it be done. But I would strongly argue that Locke would consider Biedronka’s policies to go against his idea of most people’s natural rights and if the goal of this theory is fairness and there is such a wide division between the winners (management) and the losers (the employees) then the only way to resolve this situation can only be to seek to narrow the division between the two parties. With the enforced overtime, this ethical theory suggests that it is against a person’s rights to be forced to involuntarily work long hours. Such an action should be on a voluntary basis and should involve payment for extra hours worked. There should certainly be no punishment for refusing unreasonable overtime work. Therefore, this policy would be considered unethical. Virtue Ethics Virtue ethics looks entirely at the character of the person making a decision rather than the decision itself (Mellahi and Wood, 2003). Would a person of virtue come to the same decision? To apply this to Biedronka, we would need to look at their whole philosophy rather than these isolated incidents. On their website, they clearly state that they place heavy emphasis on ethical behaviour. To a visitor with no knowledge of the supermarket chain’s reputation, they seem to be a pioneer in terms of ethics in business but there is consistent evidence in the courts (Internal Commission of Jurists, 2010), from individuals and in the media that the company has serious failures in implementing its ethical stance. One could argue that these decisions are made on the basis of growing the business and opening more stores in order to provide increased employment not only in its stores but also for its suppliers and for improving customer choice; but surely there should be a limit on how far a company can go in terms of its decisions. If the paramount question when considering a company’s ethical standpoint is: “What would a decent, honest person do in this situation?” then I believe that Biedronka and its senior and junior management failed to ask themselves this question because of their wish for the company to improve financially and have entirely focused on profit to the detriment of their staff. Feminist Ethics Crane and Matten (2007) indicated that feminist theory emphasises harmony and empathy with one’s fellow human; particularly with those who might be vulnerable to the decisions that we make. In Poland, where unemployment is high and years of Communism led to great hardship, the culture is different to the US and the UK and so it could be argued that Poles have a different level of empathy – arguably they are twenty years behind Western Europe in terms of law and business (Lewicka-Strzalecka, 2006). To the managers most employees have a good job and are paid reasonably well, but I would say that the argument against this is much stronger – forcing staff to work unpaid overtime (or to not be compensated enough for it) was in direct conflict with the employees emotions and would inevitably lead to disenchantment and poor morale, not to mention fatigue. The reason for this forced overtime would appear to be mostly financial and did not seek to promote harmonious and healthy relationship amongst the workforce. Discourse Ethics Discourse ethics requires all parties in a conflict to reflect on the situation and come to a rational settlement that is suitable for all parties. If all parties were to include the customers of the supermarket, who have an indirect interest in this situation then there would be some difficulty in reaching a good decision. However, if by all parties we were to mean management and employees then this becomes more possible. The lack of trade unions within the Polish supermarket system would be an obstacle and obviously it would be difficult to include all employees in the meeting but discourse theory does seem the most sensible option to resolve this situation; although the management in the past has shown reluctance to listen to employees’ needs. There is also the risk that with the more powerful and articulate management in the room with a group of less powerful and inarticulate employees in fear of their jobs there is a strong likelihood that any decisions made will still be heavily in favour of those who run the organisation Postmodern Ethics Postmodern theory argues that those theories mentioned above are outdated in a world of complex human characters and businesses that cater to more and more specific needs (Crane and Matten, 2007). There cannot be one theory that fits for all eventualities and asks individuals to question practices such as those mentioned here and to go with their emotions and their gut feelings in these situations. My gut feeling in this case is in favour of the staff at the supermarket but it would be preferable to interview all those actors involved and spend some time there- indeed the only real way to could come to a conclusion would be to spend time working in the supermarket, both as a manager and a cashier. This option is unlikely to be open to anyone proposing such a study and so some time spent as a customer watching how staff acts in the supermarket might help more than being sat in an office trying to come to a conclusion. My initial instinct is that I would side with the supermarket staff, but as it would be unlikely to be able to see the management in action without arousing suspicion such a decision may be considered to be a little biased. It’s a question that should also have been raised by the individual shop managers – why didn’t they ask themselves why they were so slavishly following the senior management rather than making their conclusions on what was morally right? With the forced overtime, I suspect the policy would not have been followed if the postmodern theory was followed. Conclusion Poland was for many years under the rule of a communist regime and workers did not have the legal protection or the accepted rights to working conditions and benefits seen in the west. It is likely that it will still take time and a significant shift in attitudes for the country to fully adopt a western view of how to treat its workers and for this attitude to be accepted at all levels of society. As in the west and elsewhere there are many ethical questions regarding the rights of workers which can be answered in many different ways: an egoist may ask why should one person owe any sort of duty to another? But even here there are differences of opinion with Psychological (descriptive) egoism, Ethical egoism and Rational egoism all giving a different position on egoism itself (Shaver, 2002). However, the majority of normative theories would seem to allow us to come to roughly the same conclusions, that is that actions taken by the various managers of these supermarkets were unethical and the majority of people would consider that the decisions they made lacked empathy with their fellow human beings. PART B A Critical Appraisal of Traditional Ethical Theories Traditional ethical theories have powerful influence on our understanding of the relevance of business ethics but are often criticised for their limitation in business practices and lack of attention to human emotions. Crane and Matten (2007) separate traditional ethical theories into two types: Consequentialist – if the outcome of a situation is that that which is required then the method is ethically sound. If the outcome is one that was not desired then the method is ethically wrong. Egoism and Utilitarianism are examples of consequentialist theories. Non-consequentialist – based upon the method used and the underlying principles of the actor. In these cases it is the actual ethical value of the method used rather than the actual outcome (Crane and Matten, 2007. p.90). Ethics of Duty and Rights Theory are examples of non-consequentialist theories. Consequentialist theories tend to dismiss the damaging effects on people and the environment if the required outcome is achieved. The problem with this end justifies the means approach is that in many cases people are harmed and the environment is damaged. Where a large proportion of people would seem to benefit from The ethical practices of Biedronka, the largest supermarket chain in Poland

Week 8 Finale discussion question: Grand Canyon PSY-630

Week 8 Finale discussion question: Grand Canyon PSY-630. I don’t understand this Psychology question and need help to study.

This is my final discussion question for this week. The directions are below.
QUESTION: You are the executive director of a small publicly funded behavioral health agency that serves indigent clients. After 10 years of being able to serve all clients seeking help, your agency has just received a 20% funding cut and must prioritize which services to discontinue and which clients to turn away. The community has many suggestions: stop serving undocumented immigrants and their children; stop serving substance abuse clients; limit all clients to six sessions; discontinue providing expensive services like psychiatry; lay off professional counselors and hire non-licensed paraprofessionals; stop providing counseling and instead simply offer peer self-help groups and parenting classes; serve only the most seriously ill (or the least seriously ill); and serve only children. How would you approach the difficult task of cutting services by 20% in a manner that reflects your ethical obligations as a community health setting? How would you communicate this to your stakeholders? What are the ethical issues, privacy laws, HIPAA regulations, and boundaries to consider? How would you make a final decision about what to cut from your program?

Week 8 Finale discussion question: Grand Canyon PSY-630

BUS499 Strayer University Week 8 Amon Business Level Strategies Paper

BUS499 Strayer University Week 8 Amon Business Level Strategies Paper.

n this assignment, you are to use the same corporation you selected and focused on for Assignments 1 and 2.Research the company on its own website, the public filings on the Securities and Exchange Commission EDGAR database (,
in the University’s online databases, and any other sources you can
find. The annual report will often provide insights that can help
address some of these questions.Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you:Analyze the business-level strategies
for the corporation you chose to determine the business-level strategy
you think is most important to the long-term success of the firm and
whether or not you judge this to be a good choice. Justify your opinion.Analyze the corporate-level
strategies for the corporation you chose to determine the
corporate-level strategy you think is most important to the long-term
success of the firm and whether or not you judge this to be a good
choice. Justify your opinion.Analyze the competitive environment
to determine the corporation’s most significant competitor. Compare
their strategies at each level and evaluate which company you think is
most likely to be successful in the long term. Justify your choice.Determine whether your choice from Question 3 would differ in slow-cycle and fast-cycle markets.Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources.Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
BUS499 Strayer University Week 8 Amon Business Level Strategies Paper