The Study Of Forensic Entomology Biology Essay
The Study Of Forensic Entomology Biology Essay. The study of insects that inhabit decomposing human remains as it relates to the medicolegal investigation of death is commonly known as forensic entomology. (Byers) The diversity of the field, a general overview of common insect life cycles and habits, and the data collection methods of insects, weather information, and scene observations will all be covered. The interpretation and application of entomological data recovered from the death scene will aid the Medical Examiner in establishing an estimated time since death or postmortem interval. Forensic entomology is subdivided into: medicolegal, urban, and stored product pests. “The urban aspect involves insect infestation in homes, gardens, or other buildings that cause civil disputes among neighbors. The stored product pests’ division typically involves insect infestations that are founding food contamination cases. The medicolegal branch deals with the feeding insects that infest humans (dead or alive). Insect infestations on living humans may indicate neglect or abuse.” (Byrd) For the context of this paper the focus will be on the medicolegal branch of forensic entomology. Insect habits and life cycles play a significant role in forensic entomology. Knowledge of the insects that inhabit the human body postmortem is very important. Understanding the succession of blowflies, beetles, and other insects is crucial in establishing the postmortem interval. “The blowfly is the most common fly found all over the world even though it favors warm moist climates. The life cycle of the blowfly has been well observed and documented making this a great staple in forensic entomology.”(Byers) Adult blowflies begin feeding and laying eggs on a body within minutes of death.(Chang) “The eggs hatch into first instar (larva stage) between 6 and 48 hours depending on the temperature and begin feeding immediately. Each of the three instar phases is followed by a moulting (skin shedding) event in which the larva grow and gain another larger mouth opening and hook for feeding. The three instar phases can take anywhere from 3 to 10 days to complete. These stages remain fairly constant depending on the temperature. After the third moult the larva is done growing and migrates away from the body to the ground to pupate. Pupating can take 14 days or longer depending on the temperature. Once the adult fly emerges a few hours are needed to dry its wings before the process starts over again. Adult flies can live around 30 days. This cycle is typical of most species of flies only variable being the timing of stages.”(Byers) Beetles inhabit the body within two days of death. Some beetles consume flesh but most devour fly eggs and larvae. Rove beetles develop extremely fast.(Chang) “These beetles inhabit early to feed on fly larvae and to lay eggs of their own inside the corpse. The emerging beetle larvae also prey on fly larvae. Some species of beetles have extended egg development periods and their larvae can be found in later stages of decomposition. Beetle larvae differ from fly larvae by the presence of 3 pair of legs that fly maggots’ lack.”(Byrd) Dermestid beetles come during the final stages of decomposition to feed on the dried tendons and bones of the remains.(Chang) These are the only beetles that possess enzymes that break down the keratin protein components of hair. Wasps, ants, and bees come to the body to feed on the insects that are feeding on the cadaver. The problem is that they may consume vital information for establishing a postmortem interval. Moths are usually the last to arrive consuming any leftover hair. The collection of circumstantial information is very important. “Notes should be taken upon arrival at the scene. The proximity of the body to vegetation, general habitat, sunlight conditions, distance from open windows and doors (if found inside), localization of insects on the body, insect stages present, and any apparent scavenging from other animals should be thoroughly noted. The ground surface temperature, maggot mass temperature, temperature of air (from approximately chest height in the shade), temperature between the body and ground, and after the body is removed the temperature of the soil directly underneath the body should also be noted. Lastly, the maximum and minimum daily temperatures and rainfall for approximately two weeks before the person went missing to five days after recovery should be retrieved from a local weather station.”(Byrd) After notes are taken insect collection begins. Due to their ability to flee the scene adult flies and beetles should be collected first and placed in “killing jars” (jar of cotton balls soaked in ethyl acetate) to immobilize them. “Once immobilized, specimens should be placed in a solution of 75% ethyl alcohol for preservation. Samples of eggs, largest larvae seen, and up to 100 larvae should collected for preservation and live observation. Pupa casings are usually overlooked but should also be collected. They have a strong relevance to entomologist. Along with the insects, soil samples are collected for further testing. Immediately after each sample is collected the vial should be labeled with all of the following information: geographical location, case number, date and hour of collection, location on body recovered from, and the person who collected the specimen.”(Byrd) The knowledge from forensic entomology can assist the Medical Examiner with estimating the postmortem interval or time since death by giving an estimated “time since colonization”. “The process can be challenging you account for all the factors that play a role in insect maturation, activity, and succession. Analyzing insect maturation correctly can give you an approximate postmortem interval within 5 to 6 hours of death.” (Gannon) “A fly life cycle can span between 9 and 35 days depending on the species. Identifying larvae of a known species during a particular instar phase in conjunction with weather conditions can produce a fairly accurate postmortem interval. Succession is used to establish a wider postmortem interval than when using maturation. Flies arrive almost immediately to feed and lay eggs on the body followed by beetles to feed on fly larvae days to weeks later. As time passes beetles will outnumber flies as soft tissue supplies diminish. Some case studies have documented the importance of the fly to beetle ratio. “If only flies are present the postmortem interval is less than 3 days. When flies largely outnumber beetles the postmortem interval is between 3 and 13 days. When beetles and flies are almost equal the postmortem interval is 13 to 25 days. If beetles largely outnumber flies or are the only insect present studies show the postmortem interval is over 25 days. One problem with using insect succession to establish postmortem interval is that is can only be determined between a few days up to one year.”(Byers) Some insects are only active during specific seasons throughout the year, so the presence of an insect (dead or alive) can narrow down the postmortem interval to a specific season.” (Byers) Other major issues with using succession to estimate the postmortem interval is the reoccurrence of the same insects during later phases of decomposition, varying temperatures throw off balance the timings of life cycles, and the poor documentation of beetle life cycles.(Weiss) Forensic entomology can also reveal other circumstances surrounding the death. “Postmortem body movement can de determined if the insects recovered from the body are not indigenous to the region the body is located. The absence of insects can reveal that the body may have been frozen which would not make it a desirable place for egg laying, or that the body may have tightly sealed or buried deep underground making it inaccessible to insects. An unusual succession of insects to the body may also indicate freezing or wrapping of the body. Antemortem and postmortem circumstances of the crime may present themselves by the recovery of insect species that usually only attract to fecal and urine soaked clothing, which can indicates abuse, rape or some type of incapacitation. If these conditions were not present the insects would be absent. “(Byrd) Skeletonization of remains can happen quickly due to insect activity causing valuable body tissues and fluids needed for toxicological analysis to be lost. ” In spite of the loss of human tissues, toxicological analysis of the insect larvae that have fed on the body can be successful due to the larval tissues acquiring the toxins and drugs that were stored in the human body tissues before death.”(Byrd) Forensic entomology is a diverse field that can be used in many avenues of death investigation. A general knowledge of common insects found inhabiting decomposing remains is important in helping to establish an estimated postmortem interval. In order to come to any conclusion on postmortem intervals the data collected from the insects, weather, and environment have to be analyzed collectively. Forensic entomology also aids legal personnel in evaluating special circumstances involving a death in question. Even though forensic entomology has its positive and negative aspects it can be a useful alternative in estimating postmortem intervals if other resources and information on the body found is limited. RESOURCES: Byrd, Dr.J. H. Forensic Entomology. Ed. Dr.J. H. Byrd. N.p., 1998. Web. 6 July 2010. . Byers, Steven N. Introduction to Forensic Anthropology. Third ed. Boston, Massachusetts: AllynThe Study Of Forensic Entomology Biology Essay
BMCC Stronger Role for National Government Discussion
online assignment help BMCC Stronger Role for National Government Discussion.
I’m working on a history discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.
Who Favors a Stronger Role for National Government?
Both conservatives and liberals like government—they just like different aspects of government.
When it comes to most forms of intervention into the economy, social welfare, and regulation, liberals tend to prefer government action to nonaction.
When it comes to the role of government in terms of defense spending, crime, and social regulation (for example, abortion politics), conservatives are more likely to call for greater government spending and involvement.
Consider the politics surrounding homeland security.
Who is in favor of a stronger role for the national government? Who is opposed?
Why do you think the Department of Homeland Security has evoked opposition from both the left and the right?
Given the complexity of this question, what do you think explains the dominant view that “liberals want more government” and “conservatives want less government”?
Aside from the examples above, can you think of any other issues that run counter to this dominant view?
BMCC Stronger Role for National Government Discussion
Why Business Cycles Occur
This essay is about the detailed analysis of why business cycles occur. It outlines all factors which play a part in the occurrence of business cycles. The factors are, the fiscal policy where the government main controls two aspects, taxes and spending. The policy determines when it is necessary to reduce or increase taxes and when it is necessary to increase or reduce spending. Monetary policy, the role of the central banks in increasing the supply of money, when to reduce the supply and determining the interest rate of borrowing money. Aggregate demand and aggregate supply the effect they have in causing business cycles, the two establish the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).The shocks in the supply of products can have effect in demand hence affecting the GDP. Business cycles have different stages which are expansion, peak, contraction or recession and trough or boom. These are all explained in detail and what they stand for. Business cycles or economic cycles are the recurring and variable levels of economic doings that an economy experiences over a period of time. These fluctuations happen around a long-term growth trend, and involve changes over time between periods of comparatively rapid economic growth also known as boom or expansion, and periods of comparative stagnation also known as economic decline or contraction or commonly recession. Business cycles can be put into five stages which are growth (expansion), peak, recession (contraction), trough and recovery. While they are called cycles they do not specifically follow same pattern or a predictable cycle, they are measured by taking into account the growth rate of real gross domestic product this article looks into why these cycles occur. Economic growth is like the growth of a human being, it shows large initial rates of growth over 100 per cent for babies the first year. As they get older, the rate of growth gradually falls off. At the approach of maturity the, rate of growth finally reaches zero as argued by Dewey and Dakin (2010, p. 1). During an economic expansion there is significant growth until it reaches peak. Governments today have a duty to control the rate of growth of the economy through a fiscal policy. The Peak of the economy this is when employment and the production of goods and services begins to level off. This is a concern to the government as the graphs start showing that the economy is heading for a contraction. At this point the government reverses the actions of the fiscal policy on a growing economy, by reducing taxes and increasing the government spending, for example building roads. ”A decrease in taxes has the opposite effect on income, demand, and GDP. It will boost all three, which is why people cry out for a tax cut when the economy is sluggish. When the government decreases taxes, disposable income increases. That translates to higher demand (spending) and increased production (GDP). So, the fiscal policy prescription for a sluggish economy and high unemployment is lower taxes”. (Gorman, 2011). Recession or contraction is normally the slowdown in economic action. Indicators of Macroeconomics show that bankruptcies and the unemployment rate are on the rise, while employment, inflation, investment spending, household income, business profits, and GDP fall. Trough is a stage of the economy’s business cycle that determines the end of a period of failing business activity and the shift to expansion. Fiscal Policy, during the economic expansion we begin to see more people employed as companies start to sell more goods and services and require employing more people so they can keep up with the demand. As economic growth increase and more people are employed there will be more people spending their pay cheques which can cause prices to go up, something also called inflation. Because of this basis on price increase the government’s primary concern will generally be trying to maintain of keep prices constant and inflation in check without affecting economic growth. There is two major things they can do in regards to Fiscal Policy to try and keep prices in check and inflation at bay are: Raising taxes and reducing government spending, by raising taxes money is taken away from the consumer who now has a lesser amount of money to spend helping to counteract the demand that is pushing prices up and causing inflation. By raising or reducing taxes, the government significantly influence households’ level of disposable income. A tax raise will reduce disposable income, because it takes money away from households. Tax reduction will boost disposable income, because it gives households more money. Disposable income is the major aspect driving consumer demand, thereby accounting for two-thirds of entire demand. To reduce economic growth and inflationary pressure, usually government raises taxes and maintain spending constant, or reduce spending and maintain taxes constant. To inspire growth and cut unemployment, the government can reduce taxes and maintain spending constant or raise spending and keep taxes stable. The government can follow its fiscal policy purpose more forcefully by concurrently changing both taxes and spending. For example, in a slow economy, the government could reduce taxes and boost spending at the same time. Each could be changed either by little amounts, so that neither taxes nor spending are changed too drastically, or by big amounts to deliver a stronger measure of fiscal stimulus. Which is the same, in an overheated economy, the government can raise taxes and reduce spending, if it wanted to reduce growth. Monetary Policy is certainly one of the key elements which have a bearing in business cycles. Monetary policy is a process where monetary authority of any particular country has measures to control the money supply with particular focus on the interest rate to encourage economic expansion and stability. The main targets of monetary policy is to create a balance of three, stable prices, low unemployment and low inflation. The theory of monetary policy is centred on two aspects, expansionary and contractionary, which translate to a more rapid money supply and the slow money supply respectively. Expansionary policy is widely used to reduce unemployment during economic contraction or recession by lowering interest rate, which is a favourable move for business people as more lines of credit becomes available and at a low interest rate. Hence contractionary policy slows down the inflation to maintain the value of assets. Monetary policy focuses on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy, which means the price which money is borrowed and the total money supply. It is the monetary police which regulate the outcome of the economic growth, unemployment, rates of exchange with other countries and inflation. When the policy is termed contractionary it shrinks the size of the money supply or it increases it slowly it is also referred to contractionary if it raises interest rate. Expansionary policy decreases the interest rate or increase the money supply more rapidly. Monetary policies are described as , accommodative if the rate of interest set by the monetary authority is meant to create economic growth and neutral if it is intended neither to reduce inflation nor create growth or tight if it is meant to combat inflation ”The need for a framework that can help us understand the links between monetary policy and the aggregate performance on an economy seems self evidence. On the one hand, citizens of modern societies have a good reason to care about developments in inflation, employment and other economy wide variables, for those developments affect to an important degree people’s opportunities to maintain or improve their standard of living. On the other hand, monetary policy as conducted by central banks has an important role in shaping those macroeconomic developments, both at the national supranational levels. Changes in interest rates have a direct effect on the valuation of financial assets and their expected returns as well as on the consumption and investment decisions of households and firms. Those decisions can in turn have consequences for gross domestic product (GDP) growth, employment and inflation. It is thus not surprising that interest rate decisions made by the Federal Reserve System (Fed), the European Central Bank (ECB), or other prominent central banks around the world are given so much attention, not only by the market analysts and financial press but also by the general public. It would thus seem important to understand how those interest rate decisions ends up affecting the various measures of an economy s performance both nominal and real. A key goal of monetary theory is to provide us with an account of the mechanisms through which those effects arise. (Gali, 2008) Aggregate demand and aggregate supply are some of the factors influencing the occurrence of business cycles (AD and AS).Aggregate demand is the total economic demand for services and goods produced at a particular time and level of their price. It is the demand for a country’s gross domestic product(GDP). The aggregate demand is usually represented by a downward sloping curve in a graph. Where the lower point represents lower prices and increasing demand. Aggregate supply is the total goods and services that companies are planning on selling during a given time. It is the total amount of goods and services that firms are willing to sell at a given price level in an economy. “We interpret fluctuations in GNP and unemployment as due to two types of disturbances: disturbances that have a permanent effect on output and disturbances that do not. We interpret the first as supply disturbances, the second as demand disturbances. We find that demand disturbances have a hump shaped effect on both output and unemployment; the effect peaks after a year and vanishes after two to five years. Up to a scale factor, the dynamic effect on unemployment of demand disturbances is a mirror image of that on output. The effect of supply disturbances on output increases steadily over time, to reach a peak after two years and a plateau after five years. ‘Favorab1e supply disturbances may initially increase unemployment. This is followed by a decline in unemployment, with a slow return over time to its original value. While this dynamic characterization is fairly sharp, the data are not as specific as to the relative contributions of demand and supply disturbances to output fluctuations. We find that the time series of demand-determined output fluctuations has peaks and troughs which coincide with most of the NBER troughs and peaks. But variance decompositions of output at various horizons giving the respective contributions of supply and demand disturbances are not precisely estimated. For instance, at a forecast horizon of four quarters, we find that, under alternative assumptions, the contribution of demand disturbances ranges from 40 to over 95 per cent” (Blanchard
Cell/Molecular Bio DQ 8
Cell/Molecular Bio DQ 8.
hi I have a assignment for biology that I HAVE MOST OF the answers too but I need someone to REFLECT at my friends answers and to use the other attachment in order to reword everything in ur own words. SOME OF THE QUESTIONS ARE DIFFERENT AND SOME ARE NOT INCLUDED SO MAKE SURE TO READ EACH ONE I cannot have any plagerism I had someone do this for me and all they did was reword the words in each sentence and that won’t work, also the drawings to rewdrawreflect to the work that’s completed to see how much to writeAGAIN DO NOT COPY WHAT IS WRITTEN BECAUSE THAT IS WORK THAT HAS ALREADY BEEN SUBMITTED!!!!!NOOOO PLAGERISSMMMM
Cell/Molecular Bio DQ 8