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Helen Palsgraf, Respondent essay help Literature

To the eye of ordinary vigilance, the bundle is abandoned waste, which may be kicked or trod on with impunity. Is a passenger at the other end of the platform protected by the law against the unsuspected hazard concealed beneath the waste? If not, is the result to be any different, so far as the distant passenger is oncerned, when the guard stumbles over a valise [*343] which a truckman or a porter has left upon the walk? The passenger far away, if the victim of a wrong at all, has a cause of action, not derivative, but original and primary.

His claim to be protected against invasion of his bodily security is neither greater nor less because the act resulting in the invasion is a wrong to another far removed. In this case, the rights that are said to have been violated, the interests said to have been invaded, are not even of the same order. The man was not injured in his person nor even put in danger. The purpose of the act, as well as its effect, was to make his person safe. If there was a wrong to him at all, which may very well be doubted, it was a wrong to a property interest only, the safety of his package.

Out of this wrong to property, which threatened injury to nothing else, there has passed, we are told, to the plaintiff by derivation or succession a right of action for the invasion of an interest of another order, the right to bodily security. The diversity of interests emphasizes the futility of the effort to build the plaintiffs right upon the basis of a wrong to some one else. The gain is one of emphasis, for a like result would follow if the interests were the same. Even then, the orbit of the danger as disclosed to the eye of reasonable vigilance would be the orbit of the duty.

One who Jostles one’s neighbor in a crowd does not invade the rights of others standing at the outer fringe when the unintended contact casts a Domo upon tne ground. I ne wrongdoer as to tnem Is tne man wno carrles tne bomb, not the one who explodes it without suspicion of the danger. Life will have to be made over, and human nature transformed, before prevision so extravagant can e accepted as the norm of conduct, the customary standard to which behavior must conform. The argument for the plaintiff is built upon the shifting meanings of such words as “wrong” and “wrongful,” and shares their instability.

What the plaintiff must [*344] show is “a wrong” to herself, i. e. , a violation of her own right, and not merely a wrong to some one else, nor conduct “wrongful” because unsocial, but not “a wrong” to any one. We are told that one who drives at reckless speed through a crowded city street is guilty of a negligent act and, therefore, of a wrongful one irrespective of the onsequences. Negligent the act is, and wrongful in the sense that it is unsocial, but wrongful and unsocial in relation to other travelers, only because the eye of vigilance perceives the risk of damage.

Law Enforcement Scandal Paper

Law Enforcement Scandal Paper.

Paper details TEXT BOOK: Cox, S. M., Marchionna, S., & Fitch, B. D. (2017).

Introduction to policing (3rd ed.) Submit a 6-8 page research addressing a recent police department scandal. It is expected that at least three outside sources in addition to the textbook will be utilized. Some good examples would be the Rampart Scandal, Boston Police cocaine trafficking or the Bay Area Sex Scandal. You must have a title and reference pages which do not count toward the 6-8 page requirement. You will need to address the following: A summary of the incident Identify the major players involved in the scandal Provide at least two ways the scandal affected law enforcement’s relationship with the community Explain how the use of police discretion contributed the scandal Identify the changes that were made in the department because of the scandal Make sure to incorporate any feedback you received on your Week 3 Law Enforcement Scandal Paper Outline. The paper will be typed double spaced in Arial using 12-point font with 1” margins in APA format.

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