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Health Promotion: Post Natal Depression

The issues of health and health promotion initiatives have gained much significance in the recent past. Stephens (2008:5) comments that from a social perspective health are understood as much more than a matter for individual experience and responsibility; health behaviour is seen in terms of relationship with others and health is structured by society.” World HealthOrganisation(WHO) constitution of 1948, defines health as a state of complete, physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. It also adds that health has been considered less as an abstract state and more as a means to an end which can be expressed in functional terms as a resource which permits people to lead an individually, socially and economically productive life, with respect to health promotion. (WHO, Geneva, 1986). WHO recognizes the spiritual dimension of health and regards health as a fundamental human right and states that the basic resources for health should be accessible for all people. According to WHO, health promotion represents a comprehensive social and political process, which not only embraces actions aimed at strengthening the skills and capabilities of individuals, but also acts toward changing social, environmental and economic conditions so as to alleviate their impact on public and individual health. It’s also the process of enabling people to increase control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health (WHO official website) The concept of social determinants of health needs to be considered while discussing health and health promotion initiatives. According to a study conducted by Bambra, the wider social determinants of health were listed out as water and sanitation, agriculture and food, health and social care services, unemployment and welfare, working conditions, housing and community, education and transport. The term health promotion has variously been used to refer to a social movement, an ideology, a discipline, a strategy, a profession, and a strategy or field of practice delineated by commitment to key values(Keith and Tones, 2010).According to O’Donnell (2009), health promotion is the art and science of discovering the synergies between their core passions and optimal health enhancing their motivation to strive for optimal health and supporting them in changing their life style to move toward a state of optimal health, which is a dynamic balance of emotional, social, spiritual and intellectual health. Tones and Tilford (2009) is of the opinion that health promotion as a quasi-political movement and professional activity can be described as militant wing of public health. At a general level health promotion has come to represent a unifying concept for those who recognize the need for change in the ways and conditions of living to promote health (Fleming and Parker, 2006). Post natal depression Postnatal depression is one of the most discussed topics in health today. This assignment discusses postnatal depression in detail, considering the significance it has and the risks associated with Postnatal depression, among the women in the United Kingdom. There has been a growing international recognition of postnatal depression as a major public health concern (Oates, 2004). The government policy (Department of Health, 2004) recognises that the mental disorders during pregnancy and the post natal period can have serious consequences for individual women, their partners, babies and other children. Perinatal psychiatric disorder is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and is the leading cause of maternal mortality in the UK (Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths, 2001).NICE (2007) observes that the mental disorders which occur during pregnancy and the postnatal period can seriously affect the health and wellbeing of a mother and her baby, as well as for her partner and other family members. This condition is a form of maternal morbidity that affects about one in eight women from diverse cultures and is a leading cause of maternal mortality(Dennis, 2009).Dennis(2009) also comments that postnatal depression can also have serious consequences for the health and well being of the family as the infants and children are particularly vulnerable to it – impaired maternal-infant interactions can have an impact on the cognitive, social ,emotional and behavioural development of the children. According to the latest reports it is estimated that approximately 75000 women within the United Kingdom are affected by postnatal depression (Hanley and Hanley, 2009).Craig (2008) comments that postnatal depression has been various defined as non-psychotic depression occurring during the first six months, the first four weeks and the first three months post partum; but recently three months postpartum was suggested in the United Kingdom. There have been many views by various authors about postnatal depression. Wheatley (2006) comments that postnatal depression affects between 10 and 20 percent of women who have had babies, and it causes distress at a time when there is every reason for happiness. Wheatley (2006) adds that the symptoms vary from person to person as for some symptoms can be mild and for other women, it can lead to serious consequences including bouts of depression. However, the case of postnatal depression which is serious enough to warrant treatment percentage is between 7% and 35%. Dalton and Holton (2001) defines that postnatal depression is one of the symptoms of a serious mental condition known as postnatal illness. They opine that postnatal illness covers a range of afflictions which range from sadness to infanticide which start after child birth. The disorders associated with postnatal illness are blues, postnatal depression, puerperal psychosis and infanticide or homicide. Dalton and Holton (2001, p.3) defines postnatal depression as the first occurrence of psychiatric symptoms severe enough to require medical help occurring after childbirth and before the return of menstruation’. They add that it does not include the blues, and excludes the condition of those who have previously sought psychiatric help because of other psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, manic depression, depression or drug abuse. Feeney (2001) is of the view that although the symptom of postnatal depression is dysphoric (depressed) mood, this state is also accompanied by other symptoms like extreme fatigue, strong feelings of guilt, disturbance of sleep and loss of appetite. Hanzak (2005) attributes the occurrence of postnatal depression to three factors; biological, psychological and social causes. She lists out some of the possible reasons for postnatal depression as history of disturbed early life, loss of own mother, current marital or family conflicts, infertility and investigations for four or more years , loss of a previous pregnancy, adoption or fostering, high medical anxieties over the pregnancy, admission to hospital for longer than one week over the last three months of pregnancy ,major upheavals or stress over the last three months, emergency Caesarean section, neonatal illnesses, hormonal changes and personal or family history of depression Walsh (2009) comments that the occurrence of postnatal depression is linked with birth experience. Parker (2009) had earlier opined that if the birth was traumatic, there are high chances for postnatal depression. Epidemiological factors of poverty, social class and low income influence the chances of postnatal depression (Gale and Harlow, 2003). Walsh (2009) puts forward a view that postnatal depression can affect fathers and children and hence it’s important to maintain communication and interaction between family members. Cox and Holden (2001) are of the opinion that the consequences of maternal depression are costly not only on a personal level, but also in terms of money and personnel level as well. They put forward an interesting point that when there is contact between professionals and mothers is high detection of postnatal depression is very low and that the failure to diagnose depression may be attributed to short appointments, a physical orientation of care and an emphasis on the baby’s rather than the mother’s well being. Most cases of postnatal depression can be dealt with at primary care level with monitoring by the family doctor and interventions by primary care staff (Cox and Holden, 2001). Health promotion models and approaches Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991) had proposed that the factors which influence health are multidimensional and suggests a model which illustrates the wider determinants of health. The main factors according to them are general socioeconomic, cultural and environmental conditions, living and working conditions, social and community influences, individual lifestyle factors, age, sex and hereditary factors. The model depicts individuals as central characters, who are influenced by various other determinants, which play a major role in influencing their health factors. Source: Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991) Another model which is widely discussed with relation to health promotion is the stages of change model. Bunton proposes that the transtheoretical or stages of change model has greatly influenced health promotion practices in the United States of America, Australia and the United Kingdom since the late 1980s.The stages of change model was focused on encouraging change for people with addictive behaviour. People go through several stages when trying to change behaviour (Naidoo and Wills, 2000). Fertman (2010) asserts that behaviour change occurs in stages and that a person moving through these stages in a very specific sequence constitutes the change. According to this model, there are five stages of change, which are listed as pre contemplation, contemplation, preparing for change, making the change and maintenance. The health belief important model is a well known theoretical model, which emphasises the role of beliefs in decision making. This model which was proposed by Rosenstock(1966) and modified by Brecker(1974) proposes that whether or not people change their behaviour will be influenced by an evaluation of its feasibilities and the comparisons of its benefits weighted against the costs. Evans (2005) comments that the major three health promotion approaches are the behaviour change approach, the self-empowerment approach and the collective action or community development approach. They add that these approaches have different goals and adopt different ways to achieve their goals and propose different criteria for their evaluation, though they have a common aim to promote good health and to prevent the effects of ill health. Each of these approaches has a unique understanding of the origins of health and health behaviour and subsequently of their objectives in health promotion and these three approaches are mutually complimentary. (Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, 2004). NICE (2007) defines behaviour change as “the product of individual or collective human actions, seen within and influenced by their structural, social and economic context””. Resnicow and Waughan (2006) comment that the study of health behaviour change has historically been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. The models such as social cognitive theory, the health belief model, the transtheoretical model have viewed behavioral change as an interaction of factors such as knowledge, attitude, belief etc (Rimer and Lewis, 2002; Baranowski, 2003).It has been suggested by the evidences that behavior change occurs in stages or steps and that movement through these stages is cyclical involving a pattern of adoption, maintenance, relapse and readoption over time. It has been suggested by the evidences that behavior change occurs in stages or steps and that movement through these stages is cyclical involving a pattern of adoption, maintenance, relapse and re adoption over time(Di paitro and Hughes, 2003).. According to NICE (2007) the attempts to promote or support behaviour change take a number of forms, which are activities which can be delivered at a number of levels, ranging from local, one to one interactions with individuals to national campaigns. NICE(2007) divides interventions into four main categories as policy-such as legislation ,education or communication-such as one to one advice, group teaching or media campaigns, technologies-such as the use of seat belts, breathalyses , resources-such as leisure centre entry, free condoms or free nicotine replacement therapy. According to the Victorian Health foundation (2004) the behavioural approach focuses on implementing interventions to change or remove behavioural health risk factors. Interventions from this perspective are targeted at a particular behavioural risk factor associated with a particular negative health outcome, and they target a population performing the behavioural risk factor and endeavour to promote health through various strategies. However, Craig (2008) adds that behaviour change interventions are generally complex to design, deliver and evaluate.Michie (2008) states that more investment in developing the scientific methods for behavioural change studies is essential. Behavioural science is relevant to all phases of the process of implementing evidence-based health care; development of evidence through the primary studies, synthesizing the findings in systematic reviews, translation of evidence into guidelines and practice recommendations and implementing these recommendations in practice(Michie,2008). Dunn (2006) proposes that Item Response modeling (IRM) can be used to improve the psychometric methods in health education and health behaviour research and practice. They add that IRM is already being adopted to improve and revise quality of life questionnaires. However Masse (2006) comments that a number of issues seem to stunt the application of IRM methods, as they list out the following issues (i) Lack of IRM applications in the context of health education and health behavior research; (ii) lack of awareness as to what IRM can do beyond assessing the psychometric properties of a scale; (iii) lack of trained psychometricians trained in our field. It is to be noted that the behaviour change approach came under criticism from various quarters. The major criticisms pointed out by Marks were the inabilities to target the major socio-economic causes of ill health, possible incompatibilities of the top-down recommendations with community norms, values and practices, the assumption of a direct link between knowledge attitudes and behaviour and the assumption of homogeneity among the receivers of health promotion messages. Post natal depression-Current significance and ethical considerations Post natal depression is a matter of serious concern in the current age, as many women are being affected by it. Almond (2010) comment that post natal depression can be deemed a public health problem as the effects of it are known to go beyond the mother and it also affects the partner and the child. He adds that it can lead to infanticide as well as maternal death by suicide and according to evidences, all countries are faced with the challenge of postnatal depression, and the most affected countries are the low and middle income countries. The NICE guidelines for the clinical management of antenatal and postnatal mental health (2007) have observed the risks associated with postnatal depression. Ramchandani (2005) concurs to it and observes that the postnatal depression in fathers can have long-term consequences for the development of their child, on behavioural and emotional aspects. A study entitled “The children of the 90’s “by Bristol University in 2008, had found that post natal depression in fathers can have long lasting psychological effects on their children. A notable observation in this study was that the boys born to depressed fathers are twice as likely as other boys to have chances of developing behavioural problems by the age of three and a half. It is essential to look into the long term consequences posed by the problem. Ramchandani (2008) points out that the conduct problems at the age of three to four years are strongly predictive of serious conduct problems in the future, increased criminality and significantly increased societal costs. The quotes by Ramchandani points out the threats posed by the depression among the fathers of new born babies. The impact of postnatal depression can be highly detrimental to a society, as proved by the recent unfortunate happening of a depressed teacher killing her baby in Exeter, as a result of the depression. Policy drivers There have been lots of developments over the last few years in policy on the mental health and women’s services (NICE, 2007). NSF for Child Health and Maternity was published in 2004 and is a 10 year programme that is aimed at the long term and sustained improvement in children’s health. Setting standards for health and social services for children, young people and pregnant women, the NSF aims to ensure fair, high quality and integrated health and social care from pregnancy to adulthood (NHS, 2007). NICE(2007) lists out the four main strands of policy relevant to antenatal and postnatal mental health as National service frameworks(NSFs), (particularly the mental health NSF,NSF for children young people and maternity services),policy to ensure equal access to responsive mental health services( especially services that meet needs of women, people from minority ethnic groups), public health policy and policy on commissioning and delivering health care and social care services in the community and the policy concerned with strategies for improving mental health services. The screening for postnatal depression is highly talked about in the field of psychology and medicine today. Currie and Radematcher (2004) argues that pediatric providers are aware of the prevalence of postnatal depression and its effect on new born babies. However, there have been arguments for and against screening for postnatal depression and hence the practitioners should consider them carefully (Coyne, 2000). The view proposed by Chauldron (2007) is that from the legal and ethical standpoints and the perspective of feasibility, the benefits of screening outweigh the risks. However, they add that, the implementation must be seen as an iterative process, and implementing the screening for post natal depression in a systematic and comprehensive approach is critical to the ultimate well-being of children and families.Basten (2009) proposes that more studies in the field of psychotherapeutic research and psychological areas are required. This is in conformance with the observation by De Tychey ,Briancon, 2008) that the diagnostic techniques need to be improved for both caregivers and sufferers through education and the communication should be promoted, focusing on the fostering of parenting skills as a preventive measure against Post Natal Depression.(de Tychey, Briançon et al. 2008). One of the recent studies by Norman (2010) has found out that exercise can help women in combating postnatal depression and that the specialised routines could help new mothers decrease the chances of depression by upto 50 percent. Partnership working Partnership working is a very important term in the current health and social care system in the United Kingdom. Partnership working can be defined as a system where two or more disciples work collaboratively to deliver optimal care to an individual (NHS, 2007). In the context of post natal depression partnership working refers to working in partnership with the team involved in the mother and the newborn baby, which includes pediatricians and obstetricians(Byrom,2009) .Douglas(2008) points out that partnership working is recognised as the most effective way of improving social care services. Department of Health (2006) had stressed that the action to improve health and care services will be underpinned through working in partnerships between individuals, communities, business, voluntary organizations, public services and government.Butt(2008) argues that partnerships have international appeal as a means to integrate health and social services in response to the realisation that both sectors serve populations whose complex needs cannot be met adequately through segmented approaches. Partnership working with women having mental health problems can be a challenging task (Department of health, 2008). According to NICE (2007) the impact of partnership working is a function of a number of features of joint working and it is possible to categorise partnerships along a number of descriptive variables such as membership, structures, leadership, agendas and organisational cultures. Previous studies have shown that the working of people involved in the care of women with post natal depression, a trusting partnership can be developed between carers, patients and professionals, which will be beneficial to all. Feeney (2001) had proposed that working in partnerships with families is an essential component of effective programming in the early developmental stages of children. Hence partnership working holds a very important role in the post natal period as, it would be able to relieve the emotional stress which many women go through. It was observed by NICE (2007) that developing trust and accommodating relationships within facilitating partnerships is imperative to the attainment of partnership goals, and issues of process are highly important building blocks to success.Sorin (2002) comments that there are many reasons to establish partnerships and asserts that the family is the most significant influence on the mother’s post natal health as well as the child’s development and well being. Sorin( 2002) adds that partnerships that develop to address fear and other emotions can work towards understanding appropriate expression of these emotions, which include learning words to describe the emotion using forms like music ,talking to others . A report on safety in maternity services published by King’s fund (2008) emphasises the significance of team work and collaboration in ensuring the safety of mothers and babies and points out that effective team work can increase safety, whereas poor teamwork can be detrimental to the safety. The report proposes several solutions to resolve the difficulties in team work. The main suggestions include ensuring clarity about the objectives of the team and roles and that there is effective leadership among the group and clarity in procedures for communication is present (Byrom, 2009). It is important to look into the barriers which affect the concept of partnership working. Lester comments that there are barriers to closer working in partnerships, which include cultural differences, the time factor which is required to create and maintain relationships and recognition of the advantages of remaining a small and autonomous organisation. Conclusion This essay has critically analysed the effect of the behavioural change approach intervention of postnatal depression to address the needs of women who are more at risk in the United Kingdom. Various factors which lead to postnatal depression have been explained in the essay. It can be concluded that postnatal depression is to be seriously taken care of, and that the impact of postnatal depression can have serious consequences for society. The various health promotion models have portrayed the linkages between beliefs and behavioral changes. The essay has pointed out the importance of partnership working in improving the conditions of mothers and newborn babies. Effective working in partnerships can go a long way in alleviating the concerns of the mothers and improving the mental health of the new born babies, as they play a very important role in framing the future characteristics of the new born babies. A recent study by the University of Leicester has found out that women are less likely to become depressed in the year after childbirth if they have an NHS health visitor who has undergone additional mental health training. These findings point out the fact that postnatal depression can be effectively tackled with external help. The studies about postnatal depression and the concept of partnership working have been very effective in improving the health care system in the United Kingdom and hence serve as an interesting topic for future researches in the field.
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Providing Access to Healthcare for Rural North Carolina Abstract The debate over basic healthcare has become what many consider to be either a privilege or a right, but regardless of the debate, basic healthcare it is truly a need. The rising cost and lack of access have a negative impact on the health of rural North Carolina communities. The SAVE Act is a reasonable solution to a portion of the healthcare problem that would provide increased access to affordable care for those living in rural communities. It would also provide significant cost-saving solutions for the state and the facilities servicing rural North Carolina areas by allowing Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRN) to practice to the full extent of their training and scope of practice, without requiring a physician supervision agreement. Fully utilizing APRNs in the delivery of quality health care will perpetuate the health and well-being of communities, as well as help support local economies by producing jobs. The purpose of this paper is to identify the North Carolina SAVE Act as reasonable option that would increase access and provide affordable quality healthcare to the underserved communities of rural North Carolina. This option allows the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) to provide care to the community utilizing the current full scope of practice granted by the North Carolina General Assembly, the North Carolina Board of Nursing and the North Carolina Medical Board only without a physician supervision agreement. Review of Literature Issue The discussion of healthcare reform is an arduous topic in our federal and local government, national and local media as well as the living rooms of America. The rising cost and lack of access have a tremendously negative impact on the health of rural North Carolina. By allowing APRNs to practice to the full extent of their training and scope of practice, without requiring a physician supervision, the underserved population in rural communities would have access to prudent and affordable healthcare. Historical and Background of Issue Trained nurse practitioners have been providing care to North Carolina since 1970. Their scope of practice was expanded and as of 1975 they were granted the authority to treat, diagnose and prescribe under the supervision of a physician. Since then, the North Carolina Nurse Practice Act, regarding the practice of the APRN, has not been modified despite substantial research that supports the impact of the ARPN to provide prudent cost-effective care to the undeserved communities of North Carolina. (Pollitt, 2017) The North Carolina General Assembly has been presented with the SAVE Act, a reasonable solution to a portion of the healthcare problem with a significant saving impact for the state of North Carolina but more importantly for the underserved communities of rural North Carolina and the facilities that serve them. During the last forty years over a dozen studies have proven the care APRNs deliver as equal to or better than care provided by a physician treating similar cases and The Institute of Medicine endorsed Full Practice Authority with its report, Future of Nursing, almost ten years ago. (Cowperthwaite, C., 2019) Current Trends Basic healthcare has become what many consider to be either a privilege or a right, but it is truly a basic need. The rural communities utilize the local hospital emergency department as their primary care option. This practice leads to costly and unaffordable expenses that ultimately drive up the cost of healthcare. By 2020, local as well as national studies have predicted that a there will be significantly fewer primary care and specialty physicians providing healthcare. Physicians are drawn to metropolitan cities and larger communities for the financial benefits thus leaving the rural communities with little to no healthcare options. As the APRN has become a vital part of the healthcare delivery system, they have also become another source of income for the “supervising” physician. The APRN must have a supervising physician agreement in order to practice and those physicians charge significant fees to the APRN for that supervision agreement which, when drilled down, consists of a couple meeting and $24,000. If more than one APRN is a part of the practice, an additional amount is charged by the supervising physician for each APRN in the group, that amount can be upwards of $500 per APRN per month. (Havlak, 2019) Significance of Issue The significance of modernizing the North Carolina Nurse Practice Act with the passing of the SAVE Act is important to the nursing profession, to professional nursing practice but more significantly, it is important to the public and vital in providing adequate healthcare to the underserved communities. Dr. Chris Conover from the Duke University Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research conducted a study in 2015 that indicated North Carolina could save between $433 million and $4.3 billion per year and generate more than 3,800 jobs with legislation like the SAVE Act. (Cowperthwaite, C., 2019) Influences to Nursing Practice The APRN is crucial to the delivery of high-quality prudent cost-effective healthcare to communities that are underserved by physicians. The passage of SAVE Act would alleviate those shortcomings. APRNs could afford to care and serve the rural communities and grow their practice as they continue to provide the same high-quality prudent care only more cost-effeciently. Controversies Physicians claim APRNs need supervision to maintain the safety of public health. “Scary anecdotes and hypotheticals may make for good political theater, but they are a terrible way to shape healthcare policy. Quality healthcare depends on evidence-based practice and the evidence overwhelmingly supports this legislation,” said NCNA President Elaine Scherer, MAEd, BSN, RN. (Cowperthwaite, C., 2019) In 22 states as well as the District of Columbia and our federal government facilities, Nurse Practitioners can practice without physician supervision and safety has not been an issue. (Sofer, 2017) Strategies The SAVE Act is an immediate solution to an ongoing issue that has and will continue to have long term negative effects on the heath of North Carolinians if changes are not instituted. The public needs to continue to request from their representatives this change for the benefit of their community. North Carolina nurses should continue to advocate for their patients, the facilities that serve them and the community they care for by supporting organizations that lobby for this legislation. My Position APRNs have the educational background directly out of graduate programs to continue to deliver consistently safe prudent cost-effective healthcare. The SAVE Act is a simple step toward alleviating an extremely complicated issue. Conclusion The direct impact of allowing APRNs to practice to the fullest extent of their training and scope of practice without supervision is vastly beneficial to not only patients of rural communities in North Carolina but also to the economic growth of those communities. The benefits add to a heathier community and with job growth that cycles back to a thriving local economy. (Conover
Campbellsville University Variable Costing and Cost Volume Profit Discussion.

1. Variable costing is often suggested as a solution to the incentive to overproduce inherent in absorption costing. How does variable costing differ from absorption costing? What are the advantages of variable costing? What are the potential problems with variable costing?2. Cost-volume-profit [CVP] analysis is a widely-used, basic business model. Discuss the underlying assumptions made in the application of the model and whether or not these limit the usefulness of the model. Would you rely on the model?Each discussion in 350 words, APA format and atleast 2 references for each discussion
Campbellsville University Variable Costing and Cost Volume Profit Discussion

EDU 558 Strayer Changing A School District to Learning Organization Research Paper

EDU 558 Strayer Changing A School District to Learning Organization Research Paper.

Reform Proposal: Changing a School District to a Learning OrganizationPreparationStudents, parents, teachers, principals, central office staff, superintendents, and school board members all play important roles in school systems. Use the Internet to research a school district in your area and use the information you locate to complete this assignment. Imagine that you are a teacher leader and you have been asked to supply ideas to the selected school district to help it transform into a learning organization with more effective leadership practices. You will research one reform policy to assist in changing your district into learning organization. Write a proposal to change your district into learning organization.InstructionsWrite a 4–6 page paper in which you:Briefly (one paragraph) describe the size and setting of the school district. Propose a new model to reform your chosen school. Describe the model and how the school would be transformed into a learning organization.Evaluate the relationship of the selected policy to traditional methods of adopting school reform policies. How could you modify this policy to help create a learning organization?Propose and describe three or four best practices of effective leadership in the learning organization.Propose the modifications that you would like to make to the existing school reform policy. Determine three ways to implement the desired changes and lead the change of the policy.Provide one suggestion that will help to transition each of the stakeholders listed below from their current roles to their roles in a learning organization. Then pick five of the seven stakeholders and discuss how each supports the transition from a traditional bureaucratic model to a learning organization.Students.Parents.Teachers.Principals.Central office staff.Superintendent.School board.Describe the learning organization and model’s impact on students and staff. Then describe how the school would work for students and staff using the proposed model.Include at least three references, at least one of which is a peer-reviewed journal. Note: Make sure references are no more than five years old and from material outside the textbook.
EDU 558 Strayer Changing A School District to Learning Organization Research Paper

ENGL 124 Grossmont College Watchmen Novel Discussion

essay help online free ENGL 124 Grossmont College Watchmen Novel Discussion.

Before submitting your Introduction & Outline of Essay #2, please review the following resources: 1) Review the Guidelines for Essay #2 and make sure you fully understand your target audience and the key question you are supposed to answer in your thesis. 2) Consider using what you wrote for CR #5 and CR #6 for one of your body paragraph topics, but take any feedback I left you into consideration. You might also want to review the MLA Formatting Basics, and ensure your paper is properly formatted before submitting. In order to receive 5 points, your outline must adhere to the following criteria:Your document must be properly MLA formatted and should include a word count as the 5th line in the heading. (Only include the main text of your paper in this word count (do not include the heading or title in this number.).Your document must include a working title. Aim for something creative, but make it clear what your task is (A Rhetorical Analysis of Watchmen).Your document must include a developed introduction paragraph which begins with an engaging hook, contextualizes the graphic novel for an audience that has already read it, and ends with a thesis.Your document must include a thesis statement that answers the key question of Guidelines for Essay #2clearly and specifically. This thesis should be highlighted yellow.Your document must include 4-6 bullet points (body paragraph topics) which clearly indicate which rhetorical strategy or device you will discuss for that paragraph. Ideally, you can craft a topic sentence for each of these bullet points.Please do not submit a rough draft or fully drafted paragraphs. You will have a chance to submit a rough draft next week. This outline is meant to quickly indicate to me whether you are on the right track, overall.
ENGL 124 Grossmont College Watchmen Novel Discussion

Philosophy And Development Of Greek And Chinese Mathematics Philosophy Essay

At a glance, Greek mathematics would appear to possess the most influence on modern mathematics from methods of integration (developed from Eudoxus’ method of exhaustion) to the rigid logic adhered to in modern mathematics and would thus explain this thesis’ choice of comparing Greek mathematics. On the other hand, ancient Chinese mathematics appears to have differed largely from Greek mathematics in terms of development and for that reason was chosen for comparison in order to explore the possibilities of philosophical influence in mathematical development. Not only will this thesis explore the differences in the development of the respective mathematics and the factors involved in these differences, it will also explore the possible relevance of such findings to mathematicians in the further development of modern mathematics. However, given the rich history of each respective culture’s mathematics, it would be next to impossible to explore their developments in vivid detail and as a result, only a basic overview of the characteristics of the mathematics prior to their interaction (when Matteo Ricci – western missionary began introducing western concepts of mathematics to the Chinese) would be explored. Greek Mathematics? Easily identified by its focus on generalized mathematical theories and proofs, the Greeks seemed to have an idealized perception towards mathematics where instead of grounding them in reality, it was a goal to make mathematical concepts even more abstract. At the foundation of Greek mathematics were basic assumptions known as axioms. These axioms could neither be proven correct or wrong, and are considered self-evident. New theorems were derived from these axioms, and this happened in a process where conclusions were drawn from premises through the use of logic, otherwise known as deductive reasoning. An example of such use of deductive reasoning would be the 10 postulates (similar to axioms) seen in Euclid’s Elements which were used by Euclid to prove his various geometric theorems. Such a method of proving and deriving theorems deductively could be effectively seen as a form of abstraction, where abstracted theorems could be applied in any case related to the theorem. For instance, (Pythagorean Theorem) would be true for all cases of right angled triangles regardless of the numbers substituted into the theorem. Pythagoras was thus attributed to be one of the first men to grasp numbers as abstract entities. [1] With the prevalence of the use of deductive reasoning in the ancient mathematical schools of thought from the Sophist School to the Platonic School, it could be generalized that ancient Greek mathematics was characterized by abstract theories and generalized proofs. Chinese mathematics? The concept that the Chinese had of mathematics was radically different from the way the Greeks handled math. Instead of an axiomatic approach to mathematics (developing mathematics based on assumed axioms), the Chinese developed a far more practical approach. Science was valued for its many practical applications and astronomers in ancient China were also mathematicians who calculated planetary movements through the applied use of mathematics. Applying mathematics was seen even in the Jiuzhang Suanshu (considered one of the most important mathematical manuals in China to be written) which was in essence a collection of problems and rules that was applied practically. For instance the second chapter (Su Mi) of the book dealt with percentages and “proportions for exchange of cereals, millet, or rice” and helped in the production and management of grain. Chapter 6 (Jun Shu) allowed the calculation of proper distribution of grain and labour and dealt mainly with the problems of taxation of the people. [2] This problem-based approach revolved around the idea of applying the solutions of one problem to another in such a manner that would allow the other problem to be solved. For instance, the Jiuzhang Suanshu or Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art is in reality a collection of mathematical problems and their solutions. Mathematicians were then expected to extrapolate from these solutions other solutions to other problems. In the words of the Zhoubi Suanjing (one of the oldest complete mathematical manuals found in China), “a person gains knowledge by analogy, that is, after understanding a particular line of argument they can infer various kinds of similar reasoning”. [3] Given that the majority of the mathematical manuals discovered in China possessed the attribute of problem-based approaches (Jiuzhang Suanshu, Xu Shang Suanshu, Suan shu shu) are just some examples), we can easily conclude that the ways in which the Chinese approached mathematics was radically different from that of the Greeks. Greek and Chinese Philosophies Having understood the differences between the mathematics of both cultures, we must now begin to explore the possible causes of such a difference, and we first take a look at the philosophy that has guided the respective cultures. Greek Philosophy? Although it is commonly agreed that Socrates, Aristotle and Plato were one of the few greatest philosophers originating from the Greeks, the father of deductive mathematics – Thales, contributed to ancient Greek philosophy even before the great philosophers and with his close association with the origins of Greek mathematics, it would be a mistake not to consider Thales’ contributions to the philosophy. Thales belonged to a school of thought called the Milesian school and these philosophers believed that all things were defined by their quintessential substance, which Thales thought was water. [4] Regardless of what Thales or any other philosophers from the pre-Socrates period of philosophy thought, it was clear that from the beginning the Greeks had already begun to seek out a basic form or substance that all things would be defined by. We thus begin to see similarities between their goals of having a unifying substance that would define all things in philosophy and in mathematics, where they sought abstracted theorems and mathematical proofs that would have applied to all cases of any related problems. Even Plato, in Book VII of The Republic, argued for the existence of Forms in his allegory of the caves. He believed that what we thought to be real were simply shadows cast by actual Forms that we could not really see. Plato argued that these non-material abstract Forms did not exist in time and space, and were not the material world that we perceived with our senses. Plato even suggested that only through the study of these Forms were we able to attain genuine knowledge. Through these ideas of abstract forms and substances that Greek philosophy seemed to follow, we begin to see that there is a general direction in which both philosophy and mathematics went: abstraction. Chinese Philosophy? When compared, it is clear that the philosophies of the Chinese differed greatly from that of the Greeks. Where the Greeks asked questions about the possible existence of a monotheistic deity, the Chinese were more concerned about the development of philosophy as an ethical and practical guide. Confucius was a philosopher who taught the importance of virtue and moral perfection. He explored ideas of humanity, loyalty, piety and the characteristics of a gentleman (a perfect man) in his teachings. The most fundamental of which, humanity and righteousness have since been argued to form the basis of morality. [5] In the Analects of Confucius, he explores these concepts of moral perfection and explains the importance of individuals of authority possessing these attributes. Confucius’s philosophy possessed dimensions of practicality which was seen from that fact that his teachings about piety were essentially descriptions of specific duties that an individual had according to his relationship with another. For instance, Confucius believed that a child should have respect for his parents and that parents should in turn love and care for their children. Being one of the main schools of thought in Chinese philosophy, Confucianism is thought to have had tremendous influence on the culture and history of China. [6] Additionally, in other Chinese philosophies such as Buddhism and Taoism teachings we see a form of instruction on a practical level (Buddhism instructed on how one should live in order to attain enlightenment). Although a lack of credible literature fails to either prove or disprove the influences of Chinese philosophy on their mathematics, one might argue that the general direction in which Chinese philosophy has taken appears to be similar to that of their mathematics. Other factors influencing mathematics? Although little is found regarding the history of the Greeks that could have affected the development of Greek mathematics, aspects of Chinese history might suggest the problem-based approach towards mathematics that was developed. Plato believed and explained in Book VII of The Republic that mathematics was important in understanding and attaining the idea of good which is the ultimate objective of philosophy. Plato believed that arithmetic and geometry allowed the mind to reflect and thus come closer to the truth, and also that “the true use of arithmetic” is in “compelling the soul to reason about abstract number and repelling against the introduction of visible or tangible objects into the argument.” [7] It has thus been argued that Plato believed that the ultimate aim of philosophy was to “help the mind to understand and acquire the idea of good” and that mathematics was a tool that helped to achieve that end. On the other hand, the Chinese clearly believed in the practical value of mathematics and a quick study of Chinese history revealed that mathematics was developed with practicality in mind. One clear example would be the earlier mentioned chapters of the Jiuzhang Suanshu on grain growing and taxation – with the Chinese placing great emphasis on the importance of proper governance, mathematics was developed in order to calculate optimal methods of fair governance. The fact that the Chinese wrote mathematics with characters instead of alphabets would have also explained the need for them to discover the decimal system before other civilizations. [8] As mathematics was written with characters, the decimal system was invented to prevent the memorization of countless characters in order to recognize large numbers such as the date. With a decimal system, Chinese mathematics was thus able to gain an advantage over other civilizations in terms of the development of mathematics. Furthermore, during the period of Chinese mathematical development before 100 BC, the Chinese were interested in the areas of astrology and had a need to construct the calendar. As a result, many of the works produced in that time were related to astrology such as the Zhoubi Suanjing which provided instructions on measuring the positions of heavenly bodies using shadow gauges termed gnomons. [9] With the need to measure heights and distances that could not be measured directly (heights of structures or the distance of an island away from the mainland), the Chinese also developed their own variation of the Pythagoras theorem, which Liu Hui demonstrated in his Haidao Suanjing. As a result of some of the problems that the Chinese faced, we see the development of mathematics in China as a solution to some of these problems. Taking into consideration these other factors, there is clearly a relationship between the physical and cultural factors affecting China and their development of mathematics. On the other hand, while geometry had its practical uses for the Greeks, their main purpose for the study of mathematics was for instruction and loftier ideals of perfecting their souls. Concluding on the Extent of Influence on Mathematics Having considered the factors both philosophical and practical that might have affected the development of mathematics, one can see the distinct similarities between the culture’s respective philosophy and how it has caused mathematics to develop. Ancient Greek mathematics developed in a manner that sought to separate concept from object, as could be inferred from their development of generalized mathematical theories in geometry (concept) discerned from postulates (object) since these postulates were observable truths such as “All right angles are congruent”. At the same time, the philosophy of the Greeks had similar objectives as could be seen from the above mentioned Forms and quintessential substances that the Greeks believed in. On the other hand, Chinese mathematics followed similar trends to that of their philosophy. With a focus on concrete examples and using analogies to solve other problems, the Chinese were clearly more concerned with matters of reality and had a pragmatic approach towards mathematics. Philosophically, there is a similar trend of practicality with the Chinese exploring the duties and proper etiquette of what they believed to be the “perfect man”. Again, the lack of credible literature seemingly undermines the entire relationship, yet it would be foolish to simply discount the fact that both philosophy and mathematics take on a similar direction in terms of development. Thus in conclusion, one could easily argue that the method by which philosophy was approached has been similar to that of the way mathematics was developed. Relevance to Modern Mathematicians? Truth and Mathematical Certainty? Having affirmed the relationship between philosophy and mathematics, we begin to question the relevance of such a relationship to modern mathematicians. One of the greatest questions of mathematics is its relevance to truth, and how mathematical inquiry may lead to certainty and truth. Before we begin to explore the question of which mathematics (Greek or Chinese) was closer to mathematical certainty and thus truth, we must keep in mind that Greek and Chinese mathematics were radically different in terms of method as was previously shown. Based on those methods, we can categorize the mathematics according to the theories of truth that they appear to abide by. The Chinese appeared to base their system on the modern theory of truth that is pragmatism. According to the theory in a simplified form, a concept may be considered true if it is directly relevant to reality. This meant that a concept would be true if it had any practical consequence and was thus judged based on its practical value. Pragmatism is thus highly pertinent to the method of Chinese mathematics, which was in essence a study of the practical effects of theories of mathematics. On the other hand, the Greek method appears to follow the theory of coherentism, which in simple terms was the theory that the truth of a system of beliefs could be determined based on how well it coheres with other systems of belief. This seems to be applicable to the Greek method of approaching mathematics, where axioms were the basic beliefs and entire systems (theorems) would be developed from these axioms. The truth of these systems would then be appraised according to how well they cohered with the basic sets of beliefs. One might argue that foundationalism would have been a more applicable theory to the Greek method, yet the Greeks did not simply base their theorems on noninferential knowledge such as axioms, and instead used postulates (inferential knowledge) in geometry. As a result, the axiomatic method of the Greeks would have appertained to the theory of coherentism. It is important to note that despite these theories of truth being modern, the concept behind method of mathematics and theory of truth appear to be similar, and would thus be applicable in the exploration of mathematical certainty. Who was more Certain? Having ascribed to Greek and Chinese mathematics coherentism and pragmatism respectively, the question of who was closer to mathematical certainty becomes apparent. Both schools clearly had their strengths and weaknesses in such a comparison, with the Chinese being directly relevant to reality and thus closer to certainty in terms of practicality. On the other hand, the Greeks would have believed that they were aspiring towards certainty through the separation of concept from object (abstraction), where truth in the complete discovery of all Forms would have been certainty. Given the extent of influence on modern mathematics that Greek mathematics has, one would easily consider the adopted Greek mathematics as “more certain”. Yet the idea of complete mathematical certainty seems to be impossible, as proved by Kurt Godel with his theorems that “a system is either complete or consistent” and thus “impossible…to fully “prove” any proposition.” [10] The ramifications thus being that certainty is impossible to achieve, and that in terms of the axiomatic method, mathematical certainty can never be fully arrived at. Furthermore, the existence of various theories of truth might already suggest that there is a lack of existence of complete certainty, and this thus suggests the probability of the quest for mathematical certainty being futile.

Starbucks Supplier Value Chain Analysis

Starbucks Supplier Value Chain Analysis. Introduction: Starbucks is not afraid of innovation and change, in fact the company encourages it. From the beans to the barista sprinkling cinnamon, Starbucks intently monitors what it is doing well, where improvements need to occur, and areas for innovation or expansion. It has come a long way from a single cafe in Oregon to become a multinational titan. Starting with production, to technology, and operations, Starbucks has organized itself to maximise effectiveness of its supplier value chain through monitoring and keeping tight control of results. Production: Production begins with the farmers and the beans. There are clear rules and regulations for suppliers, to the point that Starbucks has created its own certification program for them. After distributing the green coffee beans to plants for roasting and mixing flavors, the company ships their product to their restaurants and stores. In 2010 James Cooke explains how Starbucks is continually seeking sustainability and beneficial processes for not only profit margin, but for employees. Keeping efficiency in mind, the company sought to keep manufacturing in the area that the end product is sold by opening a fourth manufacturing plant. Now the product spent less time in transit, which not only diminished distribution costs, but also carbon emission of transportation while assuring a fresher product. In addition to the environmental impact of distribution time, carbon emissions were further reduced by going to a five day a week operational plan. As one might imagine, the reduced work week had a positive affect on employee job satisfaction and reported work-life balance. Technology: Technology is essential to branding and marketing. Starbucks has a strong presence on social media. It should be noted that most content that is shared is from consumers, not from the company itself. For example, on Twitter there is almost no content that originates from the company. Twitter is used mainly to monitor consumer experience- and to quell any dissatisfaction with alacrity. Travis Huff explains that Twitter and hashtags are monitored throughout the day and the representatives encourage “dissatisfied customers to get in touch with the company for follow-up using a Twitter-specific email address.” (2014) Taking a less is more approach to their own postings on Facebook, Instagram, and Pinterest, the company allows the consumer to be interactive and brings more attention to the posts they do update- for their rarity. What the company does share is geared towards humanizing the production process. On its own website and across Starbucks third party platforms the company introduces the everyday consumer to individual farmers and scientists working to improve the company’s supply chain and reduce negative environmental impact. Launched only this past week on January 23, 2019, “Starbucks Stories” combines previously separate platforms of Starbucks News, The former Starbucks Channel, and 1912 Pike. While, as discussed above, Starbucks is very present on third party technological platforms, this website appears to be a proprietary conglomeration of a blogging platform, Facebook, and YouTube. As the website toutes: “A quick tour across the top navigation will guide you to the stories you’re looking for in the areas that we care deeply about: Coffee, because we are a premium coffee company; Community, because humanity is at our core; Social Impact, because we believe in our responsibility as a different kind of for-profit company; and News – because we will be on top of the Starbucks stories that are breaking, that matter, that are relevant in your life today.” (2019) A third aspect of technology bridges production and operations. Starbucks drafted a universal and unified logistics system to support its comprehensive global market. In order to reduce delivery costs and streamline administration, Peter Gibbons created a global map of all transportation costs. (Cooke, 2010) Technology allows for streamlined communication across all levels of the corporation and is wielded effectively from CEO Howard Schultz to individual store management. Operations: The matrix organizational structure that Starbucks employs is a strong component of their success. According to The Fundamentals of Management by Robbins, Coulture, and DeCenzio, “The primary strength of the matrix is that it can facilitate coordination of a multiple set of complex and interdependent projects while still retaining the economies that result from keeping functional specialists grouped together.” (2017, P 179) There are four segments to the Starbucks matrix: their functional hierarchy, geographic divisions, product-based divisions, and teams. The functional portion of the hierarchy separates management segments into business functions such as human resources, finances, marketing, and so forth. Next, since the company is so extensive, many functional managerial positions need to have unique divisions in each locality. Product based divisions specialize in commodity branding and teams are the employees of any particular store location. The store teams interact the closest with customers. For the Starbucks brand to remain at its current pinnacle, frontline employees have to evince a consistent high level of customer service. In a case study posted in the Journal of International Management Studies, Andrew Mason, Tracy Cole, and Nina Goza posit that “By providing education for its employees and investing in its human capital, Starbucks has gained a competitive advantage in attracting and retaining qualified, productive, motivated employees.” (2017, p 46) Starbucks can therefore assume that day to day operations will have a customary level of excellence stemming from their investment in human capital. Supplier Value Chain: Value chain management is an externally motivated process that takes into consideration ingoing materials and outward bound services and products. Also known as VCM, value chain management has an aim of resulting in the paramount benefit for consumers. This results in the customer having predominance over defining the terms of and assessing the success of VCM. This process is an aggregation of the various participant teams of a company or organization. Each segment must interact seamlessly to add elements of value to the process. In the end, the more effective the teams are, the more value is created for the consumers, and the more benefit is filtered back along the chain. Starbucks is an exemplary model of effective value chain management. Two of the business benefits of VCM are an improved process to acquire goods and improved process of systemization. The company propagates and roasts superlative coffee beans, operating in more than 24,000 stores across 75 markets (Starbucks Coffee International Company Information, 2019). To look at the Starbucks’ mode of product acquisition, it becomes clear that the company considers the benefits to be one and the same. “Starbucks exerts management influence over the quality of its raw materials … processing… and retail operations because of a well-executed integration strategy. The management strategy of vertical integration allows Starbucks greater control over the value created by its production chain.” (Mason, Cole,Starbucks Supplier Value Chain Analysis