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Health and Safety Regulation in Hospitality Industry

Health and Safety Regulation in Hospitality Industry. POLICY DEVELOPMENT IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY Question 1: In the context of the CDM Regulations and the refurbishment of a floor of bedrooms in a multi storey hotel, critically outline the purpose and content of the ‘Health and Safety Plan’ and ‘Health and Safety File’. Discuss the relationship between the two components and how the Health and Safety File will be of benefit to contractors in the future. Critically assess the merits of the Building Regulations application process and construction technique utilised for Mcdonalds modular drive through restaurants. The following will evaluate the best way of refurbishing a floor of bedrooms in a multi storey hotel so that the renovated building complies with all relevant health and safety legislation and regulations. The requirement to meet all the relevant health and safety legislation and standards means that the designers and the builders of renovations are as legally responsible as the hotel owners for all breeches of those requirements. Failure to meet regulatory standards could leave the constructors liable for civil prosecution or prone to litigation by the hotel owners, the hotel staff besides the hotel guests. Prosecution or litigation that could take years after the original renovation was actually completed (Youell, 2003 p. 99). The best way to develop a renovation plan that will receive planning permission from the appropriate local authority is to know exactly which health and safety regulations the proposed renovation needs to fully comply with. If the hotel is exempt from any of the health and safety regulations or the hotel owners believe that it is exempt from those standards it is always best to double check. Besides ignorance of the law is not an excuse for breaking it, and it will not protect contractors from legal action been taken against them. Of more immediate concern for contractors tasked with renovations a failure to abide to all building or health and safety regulations could result in the refusal of planning permission. After all it will only cause delays if the renovation plans are refused planning permission or if such breeches of the health and safety standards are missed at that stage and leave the design firm as well as the hotel owners liable to prosecution or litigation. Renovation work that does not reach the required health and safety standards might not be good enough to last over the long-term without the need to be repaired or eventually replaced due to its low quality (Youell, 2003 p. 99). Therefore to ensure that the renovation proposals receive planning permission and are legally sound a Health and Safety Plan as well as a Health and Safety File are necessarily developed and maintained to safeguard the building contractors and the hotel owners from both accidents and legal proceedings. The purpose of the health and safety plan is to ensure that the hotel will be fully compliant with the health and safety regulations that it is required to meet so as to function legally as a hotel. To make a fully functioning health and safety plan not only needs a strong knowledge of relevant regulations; it also requires the blueprints or plans for the hotel itself. An understanding of the hotel’s layout is essential with regard to making the health and safety plan practical and well designed. The objective of the health and safety plan is to make sure all the safety measures within the hotel are clearly accessible thus allowing both hotel staff and all hotel guests to remain safe in any emergency situation. The content of the health and safety plan would include the design layout and the exact location of fire fighting equipment, first exits, fire alarms, and any available first aid facilities. The plan should also include where hotel employees and guests meet, should the hotel have to be evacuated, especially in the event of a fire taking hold of the premises. Consideration should also be given to the fitting of smoke alarms, fire alarms, and sprinkler systems (Youell, 2003 p. 99). Besides considering fire safety procedures, and first aid measures the health and safety plan should include measures to maintain hygiene standards in the kitchens, toilets, dining areas, and the guest bedrooms. Good hygiene standards are needed to ensure that the hotel remains clean, tidy, and free of dirt, allowing the hotel staff and all guests to avoid food poisoning or infection. The plan needs take into account the location of the kitchens, rubbish bins, and toilets in relation to the bedrooms used by guests. Poor hygiene standards and food poisoning could prove to be very bad for the future of the hotel, as it may bring it to the attention of environmental health officers that have the power to close it down until the hotel meets the minimum required regulatory standards (Bloomsbury, 2005 p.124). Another factor for maintaining the good hygiene of the hotel is the straightforward one of guests not wishing to return to dirty and unclean accommodation (Bloomsbury, 2005 p. 155). The purpose of the Health And Safety File is to record how the hotel complies with all relevant regulations before, during, and after the proposed renovations. The file is meant to ensure that the hotel sticks to the measures it set out in the Health and Safety Plan. The file should record the health and safety performance of the hotel with regard to the maintenance of equipment, facilities, as well as all the procedures that enhance safety standards or good hygiene. The Health and Safety File should also keep a note of all the training that the staff at the hotel is given in respect of maintaining and implementing safety measures and all hygiene standards. The hotel staff should ideally be given training to use fire fighting equipment when it is safe to do so, to provide first aid when needed, and carry out practice fire safety drills. When necessary staff will need to be given extra training should they not perform their duties to a high enough level to comply with the standards set out in regulations. The Health and Safety File should also ensure that all hotel guests have access to information about the location of fire safety equipment, first aid facilities, and the assembly point in case of the hotel being evacuated (Youell, 2003 p. 99). There should be a strong relationship between the Health and Safety Plan and the Health and Safety File. The two items should compliment each other, as together they provide the means to plan and implement safety and hygiene standards at the hotel. The Health and Safety Plan sets out how the safety and hygiene standards will be achieved, whilst the Health and Safety File is intended to record what is actually happening at the hotel in terms of complying with regulations. The Health and Safety File by itself could be very useful to any contractors that need to carry out any building or renovation work at the hotel, as a means of checking the record of the hotel in meeting regulatory requirements. Contractors would be able to consult the Health and Safety File if they have any queries regarding the equipment, facilities, as well as the safety and hygiene procedures used by the staff at the hotel. If the Health and Safety File has been kept up to date consulting it will allow the contractors to know whether or not the hotel has been adhering to the regulations it is legally supposed to do at all times. Knowing if the hotel is not complying with regulation would give the contractor the opportunity to suggest building alterations or changes in safety and hygiene procedures that if implemented mean the hotel does comply with all relevant regulations (Bloomsbury, 2005 p. 155). There are ways of ensuring that a company only has to pay minimal attention to completing Health and Safety Plans and Files without breaking the regulations or ignoring the spirit of the law. The fast food company MacDonalds has probably devised the best way of minimising the planning permission required whilst adhering to the statutory safety and hygiene standards set out in regulations and legislation. As a company MacDonalds has made its fortune and its reputation by the mass standardisation of its restaurants, equipment, staff training, marketing image, and finally but by no means least its food products. People know what they are going to get when they go into a MacDonalds anywhere in the world, and more of them like it than dislike it (www.LHC.ORG.UK). MacDonalds believe that the standardisation process is definitely a successful strategy when it comes down to gaining rapid planning permission and complying with safety and hygiene standards. Planning authorities will be made aware by the company that their restaurants are pr-designed to pass safety and hygiene standards, whilst all new staff will be fully trained to make sure that standards are always adhered to (Mason, 2005 p.44). The senior management are well aware of the benefits of standardisation, if one design passes safety and hygiene standards it is adopting that design for all its restaurants as that makes financial, marketing, and practical sense to do so (www.LHC.ORG.UK). MacDonalds have developed modular drive through restaurants as a method of constructing new outlets quickly at the same time as passing the Building Regulations application process. As a company MacDonalds has always set out to have all its ordinary and drive through restaurants designed to look exactly the same as each other as well as also having the same features and equipment. For MacDonalds having restaurants that look the same everywhere they are constructed has been a highly successful branding strategy and exercise that has allowed the firm to expand impressively across the globe. To be more precise it is a global franchise which, has expanded due to its high profits and relatively low capital costs (Mason, 2005 p. 44). However the merits of using modular designs go beyond marketing ploys and serve pragmatic purposes. When MacDonalds set out to design its modular drive through restaurants it certainly took the Building Regulation application process into account. The modular drive through restaurant was designed to meet safety and hygiene standards in as many countries as possible, so that they could be constructed in as many places as the company would like. The low cost of construction when combined with the ease of gaining planning at the same time as being able to pass all safety and hygiene standards makes buying into the MacDonalds franchise a good investment. The prefabricated structures have the advantage of not requiring a high degree of planning permission than buildings wholly constructed on site (www.LHC.ORG.UK). MacDonalds have found that with experience that prefabricated designs that already fully meet planning requirements and regulations will undoubtedly gain full building permission quickly wherever the proposed restaurant is located. The rapid gaining of building permission allows MacDonalds to have all its new drive through restaurants trading sooner rather than later. The new drive through restaurants thus quickly re-coup their modest construction costs and go into profit. Profits are not only made quickly; they are also made over a long-term basis as well. The use of prefabricated designs and materials therefore allows MacDonalds to expand its total number of restaurants at a much lower capital cost than many of its competitors. The beauty of the modular drive through restaurant design is that it is cheap and durable, yet it could also be quickly modified if it needed to be (Mason, 2005 p. 44). The modular design allows for standardised equipment to be fitted, equipment that could be easily updated modified or completely replaced should building regulations alter, or if the company purchases improved equipment. The modular design is meant to be really simple to construct, maintain and keep clean. The simplicity of the kitchen areas is intended to make it easier to train staff to cook and prepare food as well as cleaning areas to maintain hygiene standards. The training of staff does not take long as all processes and procedures, as well as equipment and food is standardised. The simplicity of the whole operation means that food is prepared, cooked, and served faster (Bloomsbury, 2005 p. 117). Simplicity and standardisation keep costs low, product prices highly competitive, and the company’s profits high. Providing that all staff are trained and keep to the procedures they are taught the company should always be able to maintain safety and hygiene standards whilst never having to wait long for planning permission (www.LHC.ORG.UK). Question 2: Explain how the analysis of a local authority Development Plan can help the senior management team of a national hotel chain identify a suitable site for a new budget hotel in a particular locality? The majority of local authorities in Britain will have development plans to control where and whether new businesses or retail units would be constructed within the areas they control the planning for. Local authorities make up Development Plans as a means of generating wealth, creating jobs and regenerating run down districts and would wish to include such firms within their Development Plan. Development Plan would include the precise locations of where the new offices, hotels, and retail units would be sited. The Development Plan provides further useful information for the senior management to consider besides the proposed or the approved locations of other companies. For instance, every Development Plan should give the location of roads, motorways, railways, and rivers near or within the locality controlled by the local authority concerned. Other information that could be relevant to the locating of the new budget hotel could include local tourist attractions or places that would make hotels less attractive for potential guests, like waste ground, factories, or prisons. If the new budget hotel could be located near the most attractive features of the town or city it is a bonus in terms of marketing the hotel before it opens and expanding the number guests once it has opened. If the company has to locate the hotel in a less attractive site the company could consider pulling out of its construction or consider different ways of marketing it if it is actually built. The company would however wish to avoid being located in areas where it could not guarantee the safety of their guests and their staff, as more would have to be spent on security measures such as fencing or patrolled car parks. The company could find it useful to contact local people and possibly the Police to find out which parts of the town or city they need to avoid when picking the locality of their new budget hotel. Local authorities will make the Development Plan available for the public and businesses to examine which allows any firms that wish to open premises within the area to apply for a place within that plan. For the Senior Management of a budget hotel chain that would want to open a new hotel inside a particular locality being able to analyse the local authority’s Development Plan would offer definite advantages when it comes to making the new budget hotel a long-term success (www.LHC.ORG.UK). The exact location of any new budget hotel could make all the difference between it being a successful part of the firm or it being a loss making failure. From a study of the Development Plan the Senior Management should be aware of the alternative sites available for the location of the proposed new hotel, as well as the placing of other new businesses within the development area. Senior Management should have a strong knowledge of the best places and the worst places to locate new budget hotels when it comes down to maximising the number of guests that stay there. Analysing the Development Plan would make Senior Management fully aware of the local authority intentions of which firms to allocate land to, for the construction of their new outlets, offices, or hotels. The most prestigious firms will want to locate in the most prime positions possible to fit in with their corporate image, whilst a low budget hotel firm might not need to do the same. A low budget hotel does not have to obtain a prestigious land site, it does however have to be based if at all possible on land that is near to town or city centres, and ideally is easily accessible for as many potential guests as possible. The senior management would find it useful to locate the new budget hotel near the main roads, the railway, close to local businesses, and preferably with free secure car parking spaces available. Such a location would be a good selling point to business travellers and tourists a like. If they could gain an accurate analysis of the Development Plan then it increases the chances of securing a good locality for the new budget hotel (www.LHC.ORG.UK). The hotel company could benefit from examining the Development Plan as it would allow them to know if they could use prefabricated designs that permit the construction to be finished earlier and thus earning revenue sooner. If the hotel chain already uses prefabricated designs and construction techniques then it will them greater flexibility when it comes down to the precise locality of the new budget hotel. Flexibility that stems from the savings in construction costs being able to provide a bit of leeway if the price of being in a better location is higher than first anticipated. A sound understanding of the development plan would enable senior management to have the locality and the rapid construction of the new budget hotel finalised as soon as possible. Such an understanding would thus grant the company more time to advertise the opening of the new hotel at an early stage to maximise the number of guests upon its opening. The evaluation of the Development Plan would also give senior management a precise idea of the number of hotels within the town or city that are already built and those hotels that are planned. Knowledge of the hotels within the district gives senior management invaluable information when it comes down to the marketing, and pricing strategy for the new budget hotel which could make all the difference between success and failure. Knowing the nature, location, as well as the strengths and the weaknesses of all its rivals within the locality could certainly prove very beneficial to the senior management in selling the merits of the new budget hotel in relation to its competitors. Senior management could also take advantage of the company’s brand name and its reputation. Marketing for the new budget hotel should emphasis that the locality will soon be able to benefit from the arrival of a low cost hotel that happens to provide high quality service (www.LHC.ORG.UK). Bibliography Bloomsbury Reference, (2005) Dictionary of Leisure, Travel, and Tourism – 3rd edition, Bloomsbury, London Mason P (2005) Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management, Elsvier, London www.LHC.ORG.UK Youell R, (2003) Complete A-Z TravelHealth and Safety Regulation in Hospitality Industry
Experiment about Evaluating the impact of solid waste on underground water quality.

This question is about writing a short brief introduction about how to develop the research proposal into practice. This introduction is only about 200-400 words. I will upload the research propsal once you working on my question. For this assignment, you needed to show me how you intend to graph your results. The sources are good and well-researched. Make sure you have access to pH testing strips. What aspect of area will you measure? What I mean is, will you measure based on proximity to a possible waste source? Or just random locations?
Experiment about Evaluating the impact of solid waste on underground water quality

ADAPT, ORDER or DEAL. Paper details Pick one or more of the following; ADAPT, ORDER or DEAL concepts from chapter 1. Write a one-page (double spaced) paper discussing and describing the concept or concepts of your choice. You may use definitions or scenarios in your writing. The goal of this paper is to gain a level of understanding of the concepts (ADAPT, ORDER, and DEAL)ADAPT, ORDER or DEAL

The Issue of Privacy Report

Privacy is the concern of many Americans. In his article “Privacy Is Overrated”, David Plotz presents his vision of the issue of privacy in the American society. The author starts with listing the aspects about his private life which cannot be hidden and can be checked by any company or person. However, Plotz belongs to the minority of people who perceive this fact as normal and do not suffer from the ‘privacy paranoia’ (Plotz). The author is not preoccupied with the aspect of privacy in contrast to many other people who care about the intrusion into privacy. Plotz focuses on several ways in relation to which authorities and companies can realize intrusion into privacy. The author pays attention to the Defense Department’s Office of Total Information Awareness which intends to record the confidential data to prevent terroristic acts. People are against the procedure. However, Plotz states that this concern is based on hypocrisy paranoia when people protect their personal data, but they also want to know personal information about the others. Thus, the author lists several flaws of privacy focusing on benefits of lack of privacy. Companies really do not care about people’s personal life but they are ignorant. Moreover, crimes can be fought. Plotz concludes that lack of privacy leads to openness, but not to intrusion into privacy (Plotz). It is possible to agree with the position of the author on the issue of privacy because the lack of confidentiality and privacy is the characteristic feature of the modern world and it is rather difficult to oppose to the well-developed system of recording the personal data at the governmental level with references to privacy protection movements. The next reason to support the idea presented by Plotz is the fact that a lot of recorded and stored data are used by many companies to make the everyday routine activities of the Americans easier and make the life more convenient. Furthermore, one more point is the fact that the lack of privacy in the form of using street cameras, computer search programs, and available credit histories is significant for the effective work of police or other law enforcement agencies. People’s complaints about the lack of privacy became typical today. However, many persons begin to understand the advantages of the situation. That is why, it is rather irrational to oppose the tendency which became the modern reality, especially when the lack of privacy provides a lot of benefits for the development of the American society. Moreover, referring to Plotz’s idea that many people want to check the personal data and story of their baby-sitters, it is possible to state that the Americans accepted the possibility to check the data related to the other people, and they are ready to use the advantages of this opportunity, but people are rather hypocritical in relation to their own private information. Plotz also develops the idea of openness as the concept opposite to privacy (Plotz). From this perspective, openness cannot be threatening for people, but it can contribute to uniting the society. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Every day millions of Americans buy different goods and products using markets and online resources. It is rather easier when companies propose their customers goods according to their personal preferences and can save their time and money proposing appropriate variants. These services are possible if a lot of private information is gathered and analyzed in order to respond to the customers’ expectations. The lack of privacy is the necessary stage in the development of modern consumerist society. From this point, people’s everyday routine activities become less time-consuming and more effective. In reality, companies are oriented to using the stored data for their business purposes (Goshgarian). Thus, companies do not develop strategies to intrude into the lives of clients to do harm. Moreover, such companies can prevent doing any harm to the persons’ finances when the unusual financial activities are observed. The next advantage of availability of information which was discussed as confidential earlier is its role for police and other law enforcement agencies. To find a criminal, policemen investigate the volumes of personal information and identify personalities of criminals. Moreover, the systems which are used to gather and store personal information can also work to contribute to the legal procedures. Thus, the new approach when personal data should be available to law enforcement agencies can be discussed as advantageous to fight terrorism and crime. In spite of the fact a lot of people state that the usage of the recorded private data can be discussed as intrusion into privacy and the violation of definite laws on confidentiality, these people are ready to agree with the actions of authorities when the access to private information is necessary for them to assist in overcoming definite problems. Looking at the issue from the other perspective, it is possible to agree that authorities and law enforcement agencies gather the private data not to limit and control people, but to regulate the order and protect the society. Works Cited Goshgarian, Gary. What Matters in America. New York: Longman, 2010. Print. Plotz, David. “Privacy Is Overrated”. GQ: Gentlemen’s Quarterly 71.9 (2001): 224-225. Print. We will write a custom Report on The Issue of Privacy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

USD Mark to Market Option Contracts Pricing of OCT Souza Contract Worksheet

essay writer free USD Mark to Market Option Contracts Pricing of OCT Souza Contract Worksheet.

hello, I have attached a couple of files that provides instructions:- The main assignment instructions are in the attachment labeled “Option contracts – mark to market instructions”- in order to complete the following I have attached the two contracts you would need: A) my contract which is under the file called (otc last) and a fellow students contract which is (Souza)- I have also attached an example of the previous mark to market that was submitted previously for you to have a better understanding of what the professor is looking for (mark to market)
USD Mark to Market Option Contracts Pricing of OCT Souza Contract Worksheet

Anthropology homework help

Anthropology homework help. This is a paper that requires the student to assess the socio-cultural factors of race gender and age. The paper also provides additional information to use in writing this assignment paper as per guidelines.,Assess the socio-cultural factors of race gender and age,Focus of the assignment,This essay is intended to assess your ability to critically apply what you know about the relevant socio-cultural factors of race, gender, age and class. Also, the ways they intersect with each other, to a particular case study.,You can tackle this question in a variety of ways – there is no one correct approach. For example, some students may choose to deal with the four socio-cultural factors one after the other. Then discuss the ways how these factors intersect with each other (intersectionality) in a separate section. A different approach would be to weave in intersectionality issues where appropriate throughout the essay when discussing the different socio-cultural factors. Both of these approaches could be equally successful. You should consider how you plan to accommodate the different aspects of the assignment task when choosing the structure of your assignment.,Assess the socio-cultural factors of race gender and age,Regardless of the structure chosen, it is important that you attempt to cover both the socio-cultural factors of race, gender, age and class. Also, the ways they intersect with each other in the presented case study.,Command words,The main command word used in the essay title is ‘critically discuss’. This means that you should not just describe the socio-cultural factors and their intersection. But your essay should also contain critical evaluation of the research and theories introduced. You can achieve that by showing an awareness of the ,strengths and weaknesses of the research, that you introduce in your essay. Or by questioning assumptions presented in the material.,Tips for writing,You are asked for this assignment to identify and select those theories. Also, research from Block 2 that are relevant to his case. It is important to note that the writing should be focused on the case provided. How the socio-cultural factors may play out and intersect in this case, rather than the socio-cultural factors in general.,Try to signpost to the reader in your introduction section how you are going to tackle the assignment. Also remember to signpost where you are up to at various points throughout your writing so that the reader is clear on what arguments you are making as your assignment progresses.,Given the word limit (1500 words) it is pivotal that you stay tightly focused on the assignment task and write concisely – these are key academic skills for this assignment.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Anthropology homework help

HACCP Plan For Fresh Canned Mushrooms

This project is based on the development of a generic model of a HACCP plan for fresh canned mushrooms by the usage of Canadian Food Inspection Agency’s Food Safety Enhancement Program. The goal of this program is to indicate bare minimum requirements for an effective food safety management system. It is based on the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. FSEP has created 10 specific forms that can be used for the documentation of a HACCP plan. The 10 FSEP-HACCP Plan forms are: HACCP is an acronym for the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, which is identical with food safety management. Basically it is “a system which identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards which are significant for food safety.” It gives confidence that food safety is being administered efficiently. The method looks for hazards, or anything that could go wrong regarding product safety, and implements controls subsequently to ensure that the product will not cause harm to the consumer. HACCP was developed originally as a microbiological safety system in the early days (1960s) of the US manned space programme, as it was vital to ensure the safety of food for astronauts. The Pillsbury Company working alongside the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the US Army Laboratories developed the original system (International trade centre December, 2002). PRINCIPLES OF HACCP:- “There are seven discrete activities that are necessary to establish, implement and maintain a HACCP plan, and these are referred to as the ‘seven principles’ in the Codex Guideline (1997). The seven principles are: Principle 1:- Conduct a hazard analysis. Identify hazards and assess the risks associated with them at each step in the commodity system. Describe possible control measures. Principle 2:- Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs) A critical control point is a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard, or reduce it to an acceptable level. The determination of a CCP can be facilitated by the application of a decision tree, such as the one given in Appendix IV. Principle 3:- Establish critical limits. Each control measure associated with a CCP must have an associated critical limit which separates the acceptable from the unacceptable control parameter. Principle 4:- Establish a monitoring system Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or observation at a CCP to assess whether the step is under control, i.e. within the critical limit(s) specified in Principle 3. Principle 5:- Establish a procedure for corrective action, when monitoring at a CCP indicates a deviation from an established critical limit. Principle 6:- Establish procedures for verification to confirm the effectiveness of the HACCP plan. Such procedures include auditing of the HACCP plan to review deviations and product dispositions, and random sampling and checking to validate the whole plan. Principle 7:- Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application” (Food and Agricuture Organization 2003) BASIC TERMINOLOGY INVOLVED IN HACCP:- Corrective Action: – Detection and eradication of the causes of a problem, thus preventing their recurrence. Critical Control Point: – A point, step, or procedure at which control can be applied and as a result, a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels. Critical Limits:- The maximum or minimum value to which a physical biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of the identified food safety hazard. Deviation: – Failure to meet a critical limit. HACCP Plan: – The written document that is based upon the principles of HACCP and delineates the procedures to be followed to ensure the control of a specific process or procedure. HACCP System: – The HACCP plan in operation, including the HACCP plans itself. Hazard: – Any biological, chemical, or physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption. Hazard Analysis:- The identification of any hazardous biological, chemical, or physical properties in raw materials and processing steps, and an assessment of their likely occurrence and potential to cause food to be unsafe for consumption. Preventive Measure: – Physical, chemical, or other means that can be used to control an identified food health hazard. Process:- A method consisting of any number of separate, distinct, and ordered operations that are directly under control of the establishment employed in the manufacture of a specific product, or a group of two or more products wherein all CCP’s, such as packaging, may be applied to one or more of those products within the group. DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT SPECIFIC HACCP PLAN:- Some preliminary steps are required before development of a plant specific HACCP plan. These includes assembling of HACCP team, describing the food and its method of distribution, identifying the intended use and the consumers of the food, developing the flow diagram that describes the process and finally verifying the flow diagram. The following steps are all a part of developing your plant-specific plan. Description of the Product: The primary step in the development of the model for your process. To help you to progress through the remainder of your model development, it will assist you in describing your product. Process Flow Diagram: After completing product description, this form should be completed. This step consists of the course of the process as the product moves from receiving to finished products shipping. It is helpful to complete this portion of your plan while actually walking through your plant and following the production steps involved in the particular product or process. Hazard Analysis: This is a crucial step in the development of a plant specific HACCP plan. This portion must take into consideration the risk or likelihood of incident, and the rigorousness of each hazard. In order to be considered, an identified hazard must be “of such a nature that its prevention, elimination, or reduction to an acceptable level is essential to the production of a safe food.” Hazards that are not significant or not likely to occur will not require further consideration. According to its frequency, risk, and severity, the potential significance of each hazard should be assessed. “Risk is an estimate of the likely occurrence of a hazard. The estimate of risk is usually based on a combination of experience, epidemiological data, and information in the technical literature.” Pathogenic microorganisms of public health significance should be identified as a biological hazard with preventive measures to preclude their growth and propagation. In your hazard analysis there are three categories of hazards to considered: chemical, biological, and physical. Each process step will be evaluated to determine if significant hazards from one or more of these categories are present. The hazards will be listed at each process step along with the specific preventive measures that can control the hazard. Identify the processing steps that present significant hazards and any preventive measures on the Hazard Analysis/Preventive Measures Form. These will be derived from the process steps on your flow diagram. Critical Control Point (CCP) Determination: Detection and explanation of the CCP for each identified hazard is the next step in plan development. For the completion of this form we need the CCP determination and the information and data you recorded on the Hazard Analysis/Preventive Measures form. HACCP Plan Development: To ensure that your process is under control and adequate to produce a safe product, this portion of the plan development will be used to delegate the specific activities, frequencies, critical limits, and corrective actions. In addition, the HACCP plan will include specification of critical limits. These limits will be specified after the identification of the CCP’s for the process and will be listed in the HACCP Plan. The critical limit must, at a minimum, meet the regulatory requirement for that specific process step if one exists. An equivalent limit based on a process or technology proven to render the product unadulterated may also be used. The following will be identified or described in the HACCP plan: the establishment monitoring procedure or device to be used; the corrective action to be taken if the limit is exceeded; the individual responsible for taking corrective action; the records that will be generated and maintained for each CCP; and the establishment verification activities and the frequency at which they will be conducted. (United States Department of Agriculture April, 1997) MODEL PLAN FOR FRESH CANNED MUSHROOMS:- Hazard Analysis: – The foremost critical step in the effective development and implementation of the plant specific HACCP plan is conducting an analysis of the physical, chemical, and biological hazards associated with a process. The information gathered for the biological, chemical, or physical hazard will aid in determining where a hazard might happen in the process, what may possibly cause the hazard, how it can be prevented, and actions to be taken if conditions which could result in a hazard occur. Information on physical hazards may be more general and may consist simply of items found in foods that are injurious to human health such as glass, metal, broken needles, etc. The evaluation of physical hazards should include the suppliers utilized and their ability to provide products, ingredients, or materials that meet the food safety requirements of the plant. Past incidents of physical contamination occurring in the plant should also be a consideration when determining the significance of a hazard and the likely occurrence of a similar or related deviation. If specific chemical hazards exist that are associated with the process, these should also be considered at this point. Contamination from chemicals used for cleaning, equipment maintenance or upkeep is also of concern (United States Department of Agriculture April, 1997). Critical Control Point Decision Tree:- (http://www.fda.gov/ucm/groups/fdagov-public/documents/image/ucm054476.gif). PREPARING YOUR HACCP PLAN:- Assemble the HACCP team: – Your HACCP team should be composed of a HACCP trained individual and/or other member(s) who are familiar with the product and the process as it is conducted in your plant. There is no set number of participants. This will be determined by each individual establishment. All team members should receive at least a basic introduction to HACCP. Training can be formal classroom training, correspondence, on-the-job training, information from college courses, and/or books or manuals. Product Description Form:- Form 1 Product Name(s) Canned mushrooms Important Product Characteristics (aw, pH, Salt, Preservatives,…) pH 4.6 to 6.5 (low-acid) aw >0.85 (high moisture) How it is to be used Normally heated before serving or sometimes served unheated (salads, appetizers, etc) and can also be used for dressing Pizza etc. Packaging Hermetically sealed metal container Shelf Life Exactly Two years plus from the date of purchase, at normal retail shelf temperatures Where it will be sold Retail outlets, institutions, food service, and general public Labeling Instructions As per the ingredients added. Special Distribution Control No physical damage, excess humidity or temperature extremes Date: Approved by: (Canadian Food Inspection Agency 2009) List of Product Ingredient and Incoming Material:- This form is only needed if there is more than one ingredient. Form 2 Raw Material Mushrooms Packaging Materials Cans Ends Dry Ingredients Salt Ascorbic acid Citric acid Other Water Date: Approved by: (Canadian Food Inspection Agency 2009) Process Flow Diagram:- Plant Schematic:- A plant schematic should be prepared for the products or process groups covered by the HACCP plan. Plant schematic provides a basis for calculating prospective regions of cross-contamination. Plant schematic shall be clear, accurate and sufficiently detailed. Plant schematic shall at least include: the flow of raw products, ingredients and finished products, flow of packaging materials, employee traffic pattern throughout the establishment including change rooms, washrooms and lunchrooms, flow of the waste, inedible products and other non-food products that could cause cross-contamination and finally the hand/boot washing and sanitizing installations. The overall evaluation of potential areas of cross-contamination at the establishment should include any other plant schematic from other HACCP plans. The HACCP team shall verify the accuracy and completeness of the plant schematic by on-site checking. (Canadian Food Inspection Agency 2009). Biological Hazard Identification:- Form 5 – Biological Hazards List all Biological Hazards related to Ingredients, Incoming Material, Processing, Product Flow, etc. Identified Biological Hazards (Bacteria, Parasites, Viruses…) Incoming Materials Mushrooms: Could contain C. botulinum or other pathogenic bacteria, yeasts and moulds Could contain heat-stable staphylococcal enterotoxin from improper grower handling Empty cans/ends Cans could arrive with serious double seam, side seam, metal plate defects or physical damage which could result in leakage causing post-process contamination Ends could arrive with compound skips, metal plate defects, or damage, which could result in leakage causing post-process contamination Dry ingredients Could contain bacterial spores Could contain filth from insects, animals or the environment Water Could contain pathogens Process Steps Receiving Empty cans/ends received from suppliers without valid contract specifications could have serious defects or damage Dry ingredients received from suppliers without valid contract specifications could be contaminated with bacterial spores or filth from insects, animals or the environment Mushrooms (Raw) Storing Improper storage temperature