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HCA 521 BU Health IT Standards in the Health Care Industry Discussion

HCA 521 BU Health IT Standards in the Health Care Industry Discussion.

Discussion: The response to the facilitator’s original post should be a minimum of 250 words and must be supported by at least four scholarly sources from google scholar. References should include a scholarly source outside your textbook. References and citations are required for your initial and response posts. 1 What is the main reason for standards in the Health Care Industry? What is the greatest value of a network in the health care environment? Complete: For this assignment, write a narrative essay (minimum 1500 words) in which you address and discuss the questions and statements listed below. Use at least four scholarly sources and remember to demonstrate a thorough understanding of the READ and ATTEND sections in your essay. Cite your sources in APA format. Assume the position of a health information technologist. Identify and discuss two ways for sending information securely over the Internet. Compare and contrast the two methods. Be sure to use at least four APA formatted references.
HCA 521 BU Health IT Standards in the Health Care Industry Discussion

Beginning a Literature Review. Paper details Why is a literature review important to the research process? How can knowing the process of writing a literature review make you a better social worker? A literature review provides a general overview of a topic and/or problem and the basic rationale for your research. When writing a literature review, the articles you find should be up-to-date, and you should demonstrate a thorough command of the topic you are studying. Writing a literature review can be confusing for students because there are many different approaches one could take. Despite this, know that persisting will help you to become both a better writer and more knowledgeable about the topic you are exploring. In this Discussion, you explore the purpose and process of writing the literature review. Required Readings: Monette, D. R., Sullivan, T. J., DeJong, C. R.,Beginning a Literature Review
Phenylthiocarbamide taste perception in type 2 diabetics and healthy subjects: A case-control study ABSTRACT Objectives: We conducted this study to find out any epistatic relationship between expression of PTC gene and the genes controlling T2D development through comparing the relative frequency of PTC taste perception among T2D patients and healthy subjects. Methods: It was a case-control study conducted in diabetes clinics / centers located at various teaching hospitals in Lahore city. A total of 270 (135 diabetics and 135 healthy) subjects were tested for PTC taste perception by pouring a drop of PTC solutions of 0.0125%, 0.125% and 0.25% concentrations to determine super-tasters, tasters and non-tasters. The proportion of tasters and non-tasters was compared in two study groups with the help of Chi Square test and a p value of 0.05 or less was considered significant and to reject the null hypothesis. Results: Mean age of T2D patients and healthy subjects was 34.21±5.74 and 32.90±7.44 years respectively. Male to female ratio among T2D patients and healthy subjects was 1:14 and 1:1 respectively. Only 22 (16.29%) of T2D patients and 40 (30.37%) of healthy subjects were super-tasters which was significant difference (p = 0.009) and Odds ratio (OR) was 0.4624. A total of 39 (28.89%) of T2D patients and 25 (18.51%) of healthy controls were non-tasters which was also significant difference (p = 0.04513) and OR was 1.788. Conclusions: Supertasters and tasters of PTC have odds ratios of 0.4624 and 1.788 to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Key words: Phenylthiocarbamide, taste perception, type 2 diabetes mellitus Introduction Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste perception is a genetically controlled trail.(1) Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a widely occurring multifactorial disease with complex multigenic inheritance playing an important role in its pathogenesis.(2, 3) Interaction of genes conferring inheritance of T2D, pre-diabetes and obesity and those causing PTC taste perception has not been studied in detail though some investigators have highlighted that a possible link exists between the phenotypic expressions of these gene complexes.(4-6) We conducted this study to find out any epistatic relationship between expression of PTC gene and the genes controlling T2D development through comparing the relative frequency of PTC taste perception among T2D patients and healthy subjects. Methods It was a case-control study conducted in three diabetes clinics located at various teaching hospitals in Lahore city i.e. Jinnah A Diabetes and Endocrinology at Jinnah Hospital Lahore, Diabetes Management Center, Services Hospital Lahore and a diabetes clinic at Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore. A sample of 270 (135 diabetics and 135 healthy) subjects was taken by simple random sampling technique with the help of lucky-draw method among the patients attending these clinics and their attendant/relatives who were non-diabetic. The confirmation of non-diabetic status of the control group participants was obtained by their random serum glucose < 140 mg/dl and by the fasting serum glucose <110 mg/dl if the random glucose was between 140 and 199 mg/dl. Informed consent was taken and participants were asked to spit the solution of PTC as soon as the taste perception was noticed. All participants were tested for PTC taste perception by pouring one drop of PTC solutions of 0.0125%, 0.125% and 0.25% concentrations to determine their taste perception as super-tasters, tasters and non-tasters for PTC compound. The proportion of tasters and non-tasters was compared in two study groups with the help of Chi Square test and Fisher Exact test. P value of 0.05 or less was considered significant and to reject the null hypothesis. Results Mean age of T2D patients and healthy subjects was 34.21±5.74 and 32.90±7.44 years respectively and there was no significant difference of age distribution among two study groups as shown in Table 1. Table 1. Age distribution of the study population Age groups Type-2 diabetics Controls 18 – 25 14 (10.4%) 29 (21.5%) 26 – 35 33 (24.4%) 41 (30.4%) 36 – 45 27 (20%) 31 (23%) 46 – 55 36 (26.7%) 24 (17.8%) 56 and above 25 (18.5%) 10 (7.4%) Mean and SD 34.21±5.74 32.90±7.44 Seventy (51.8%) of the T2D were males and 65 (48.2%) were females. Thus male to female ratio among T2D patients was near to 1:1. About half (n=67, 49.6%) of healthy subjects were males and 68 (50.4%) were females. Thus male to female ratio among healthy subjects was 1:1 as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Gender ratio among study groups Only 22 (16.29%) of T2D patients and 40 (30.37%) of healthy subjects were super-tasters which was significant difference (p = 0.009) and Odds ratio (OR) was 0.4624. Seventy-one (52.6%) of T2D and 73 (54.1%) of healthy controls were tasters which was not significantly different (p=0.141) and calculated OR for tasters as compared to non-tasters was 1.556. A total of 39 (28.89%) of T2D patients and 25 (18.51%) of healthy controls were non-tasters which was also significant difference (p = 0.04513) and OR was 1.788 as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Frequency of super-tasters, tasters and non-tasters in T2D and controls Discussion Perception of bitter taste is a variable trait both within the same population and between different human populations.(7) Bitter taste perception is encoded by a family of 25 TAS2R taste receptors.(8) Whereas, the two most studied genes are TAS2R38, the one associated with the ability to taste PTC (phenylthiocarbamide) and PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil).(9) Approximately 75% of the world’s population are considered ‘‘tasters’’, and perceive these substances as moderately to intensely bitter. These compounds are weak or tasteless for the remaining 25% of the population, who are considered ‘‘non tasters’’.(10) Another study revealed that tasters can be further divided into two sub-groups: “ tasters”, who perceived moderate intensity from PTC/PROP, and “supertasters” who perceived these compounds as extremely bitter. Thus, the population distribution of non tasters, tasters and super tasters is nearly 25%, 50% and 25% respectively.(11) In current study, the distribution of PTC taste perception for non-tasters, tasters and super-tasters was 25 (18.5%), 71(52.6%), 39 (28.9%) among the healthy controls which is quite comparable to the findings of Bartoshuk et al.(11) A study from American population showed that 71.2% of their study population was taster and 28.8% was nontaster.(12) A study from a neighboring Asian country reported that taste perception to PTC compounds was present (tasters) in 67% and absent (non-tasters) in 33%.(13) Another study from same Asian country reported that 66.38% of the study population was taster and 33.62% was non-taster to PTC.(14) However, a study from a Pakistani population of young healthy adults revealed the distribution of PTC tasters and non-tasters as 73.75% and 26.25% respectively.(15) Similarly, another group of investigators from Pakistan reported that 81.33% of the healthy adults were tasters and 18.6% were non-tasters.(16) Our observations are comparable to both the studies especially prevalence of non-tasters in our study is approximately the same as reported by Iqbal et al.(16) The second point of discussion in current study is the phenotypic association between the genes encoding for PTC taste perception and diabetes which has been studied by the procedures and methods mentioned earlier. Why the authors did conduct this study? A simple answer is the compelling and enormous links between diabetes and taste perception proposed in the recent literature.(17-19) A study has revealed that increased serum glucose levels induce a concentration-dependent impairment of taste perception in T2D patients as the result of an adaptation of the sensory cell to elevated circulating concentrations of glucose.(5) A study from an Asian population revealed a significant difference in taste sensitivity to PTC between the diabetics and non-diabetics, the former being less sensitive than the latter (16.7 vs. 6.8%).(20) A decrease in palatability of the glucose solutions induced by the glucose load (negative alliaesthesia) has been reported between PTC tasters and non-tasters where tasters showed higher hedonic ratings (Mean 4-25), as compared to non-tasters (Mean 3-70) and this difference was more evident after the glucose load in non-tasters.(21) More recently, genetic analysis of bitter tasters and non-tasters have shown that a polymorphism in TAS2R38 is associated with differences in ingestive behavior of the two groups, which may in turn be linked to the development of pre-diabetes and T2D.(22) However, by far the most delectable observations have been reported by Wang et al., who observed significant differences in plasma levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin-like growth factors-1 between tasters and non-tasters to PTC.(4) They also found a positive correlation between plasma levels of glucose and body mass index (BMI) exclusively in non-tasters which indicate that besides the regulation of food consumption, taste perception also appears to be snugly linked to the circulating metabolic hormones. It is proposed by the previous investigators and supported by the authors of current study that people with different taste sensitivity may respond differently to the nutrient stimulation. More robust investigations probing into the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolic control could potentially lead to the development of novel therapies for obesity or Type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Supertasters are less whereas tasters and non-tasters are more likely to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further work is encouraged to unveil the link between taste perception to PTC and T2D. Acknowledgements We acknowledge the participating institutions, their staff members, patients and healthy volunteers for their cooperation. We are thankful to Prof. Dr. Tehseen Iqbal, Professor of Physiology at Dera Ghazi Khan Medical College, DG Khan, Pakistan for his critical, analytic and logistic help without that this research would have never been completed. References 1.Kim UK, Jorgenson E, Coon H, Leppert M, Risch N, Drayna D. Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide. Science. 2003 Feb 21;299(5610):1221-5. 2.Schmidt B, Dragano N, Scherag A, Pechlivanis S, Hoffmann P, Nothen MM, et al. Exploring genetic variants predisposing to diabetes mellitus and their association with indicators of socioeconomic status. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:609. 3.Banerjee M, Saxena M. Genetic polymorphisms of cytokine genes in type 2 diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes. 2014 Aug 15;5(4):493-504. 4.Wang R, van Keeken NM, Siddiqui S, Dijksman LM, Maudsley S, Derval D, et al. Higher TNF-alpha, IGF-1, and Leptin Levels are Found in Tasters than Non-Tasters. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014;5:125. 5.Bustos-Saldana R, Alfaro-Rodriguez M, Solis-Ruiz Mde L, Trujillo-Hernandez B, Pacheco-Carrasco M, Vazquez-Jimenez C, et al. [Taste sensitivity diminution in hyperglycemic type 2 diabetics patients]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2009 Sep-Oct;47(5):483-8. 6.Hajnal A, Covasa M, Bello NT. Altered taste sensitivity in obese, prediabetic OLETF rats lacking CCK-1 receptors. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Dec;289(6):R1675-86. 7.Robino A, Mezzavilla M, Pirastu N, Dognini M, Tepper BJ, Gasparini P. A Population-Based Approach to Study the Impact of PROP Perception on Food Liking in Populations along the Silk Road. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(3):e91716. 8.Behrens M, Meyerhof W. Bitter taste receptors and human bitter taste perception. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Jul;63(13):1501-9. 9.Behrens M, Bartelt J, Reichling C, Winnig M, Kuhn C, Meyerhof W. Members of RTP and REEP gene families influence functional bitter taste receptor expression. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 21;281(29):20650-9. 10.Guo SW, Reed DR. The genetics of phenylthiocarbamide perception. Ann Hum Biol. 2001 Mar-Apr;28(2):111-42. 11.Bartoshuk LM, Duffy VB, Miller IJ. PTC/PROP tasting: anatomy, psychophysics, and sex effects. Physiol Behav. 1994 Dec;56(6):1165-71. 12.Keller KL, Reid A, MacDougall MC, Cassano H, Song JL, Deng L, et al. Sex differences in the effects of inherited bitter thiourea sensitivity on body weight in 4-6-year-old children. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jun;18(6):1194-200. 13.Saraswathi YS, Najafi M, Vineeth VS, Kavitha P, Malini SS. Association of phenylthiocarbamide taste blindness trait with early onset of childhood obesity in Mysore. Journal of Paramedical Sciences. 2011;2(4):6-11. 14.Hussain R, Shah A, Afzal M. Distribution of sensory taste thresholds for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste ability in North Indian Muslim populations. The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. 2013;14:367-74. 15.Raziq MA, Farog A, Iqbal T, Ahmed A. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Taste Sensitivity and Blood Groups in Students at Bahawalpur. Journal of Sheikh Zayed Medical College. 2011;2(1):152-4. 16.Iqbal T, Ali A, Atique S. Prevalence of Taste Blindness to Phenylthiocarbamide in Punjab. Pakistan Journal of Physiology. 2006;2(2):35-7. 17.Yu JH, Shin MS, Lee JR, Choi JH, Koh EH, Lee WJ, et al. Decreased sucrose preference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 May;104(2):214-9. 18.Wasalathanthri S, Hettiarachchi P, Prathapan S. Sweet taste sensitivity in pre-diabetics, diabetics and normoglycemic controls: a comparative cross sectional study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2014;14:67. 19.Gascon C, Santaolalla F, Martinez A, Sanchez Del Rey A. Usefulness of the BAST-24 smell and taste test in the study of diabetic patients: a new approach to the determination of renal function. Acta Otolaryngol. 2013 Apr;133(4):400-4. 20.Ali SG, Azad Khan AK, Mahtab H, Khan AR, Muhibullah M. Association of phenylthiocarbamide taste sensitivity with diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh. Hum Hered. 1994 Jan-Feb;44(1):14-7. 21.Bhatia S, Sharma KN. Taste impairment for glucose in diabetic PTC tasters and non-tasters. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1991 Jul;12(3):193-9. 22.Dotson CD, Shaw HL, Mitchell BD, Munger SD, Steinle NI. Variation in the gene TAS2R38 is associated with the eating behavior disinhibition in Old Order Amish women. Appetite. 2010 Feb;54(1):93-9.
American Public University Life and Death Perspectives Reflective Essays.

Please write at least 250 words on the following prompt:Think about death from the perspective of the resurrection traditions. Do these ancient answers still hold relevance, in your view? Or do people today tend to seek new meanings and concepts about the afterlife? How so?Please write at least 250 words on the following prompt:”Reflect on the variety of beliefs concerning life after death that you’ve read about in this module. What do you believe happens just before, during and shortly after the moment of death? Where do your beliefs come from? How is your life impacted by your beliefs about the afterlife?”
American Public University Life and Death Perspectives Reflective Essays

Northwestern State University Influence of Finance Course on Me Essay

Northwestern State University Influence of Finance Course on Me Essay.

About me My name is osama Alqadhib. I am from Saudi Arabia specifically in north side. Since my high school I wanted to study in a medical field to help people to get their needs. I started my first year in college on 2014 with health services administration major at university of Evansville.in the beginning, it was a little hard and I was trying to be in a good track so I can finish and start my master degree. My college life in my bachelor degree was interesting and had a lot of challenges. My goal each semester was how to get a good GPA so my government would allow me to upgrade my scholarship to master degree, there were requirements to get it upgrade. I got some dean lists in couple semesters but I couldn’t get my scholarship upgraded after graduation because the government has changed their rules on 2016 and I graduated on 2017. After my graduation on 2017 and finished my bachelor degree I came back to Saudi Arabia to get my health license and look for jobs. I have done 3 or 4 interviews and in the end, I got the offer contract at king Saudi medical city in Riyadh city which is the capital of Saudi Arabia. I started my job as an operation room coordinator and after 6 months I gout promotion to be and advisor for the OR department and it was really motivated to me, after one year and a half I got another promotion to be the head of the unit which help me so much to apply to my head to get a scholarship in master and they approved it .
Northwestern State University Influence of Finance Course on Me Essay

The Macroeconomics Learning Portfolio

best assignment help The Macroeconomics Learning Portfolio. I’m studying for my Economics class and need an explanation.

Chapter 2:
Chapter 2 shows and discusses the gains from trade that can result when individuals, firms, or countries specialize in producing goods for which they have the comparative advantage, and trade those goods with others.
Gains from specialization and exchange can be seen in many situations. For example, most people that we pay to do things for us (e.g. grow our food, cut our hair, tutor us, etc.) perform the task for a lower opportunity cost than we would bear if we were to do it ourselves. This is where the gain from trade that benefits both parties comes from, and is why it is rational for you to pay for the service.
To show that you understand how comparative advantage works in the modern economy, please discuss a good or service you recently purchased and address the following prompts:

What is the item or service, and how much did you pay for it?
What is a reasonable estimate of how long it would take you to make the item or perform the service at the same quality level of the one your purchased, if you had been unable to buy it? You need to come up with a number of hours or days or years, or whatever time measurement you want, for how long it would take you. Don’t try to avoid this. If you can’t figure it out, pick another good or service.
Who worked to get the money to pay for the item, and how long did they have to work to get the money? If your money came from the government, see the how the government gets money page.
Based on your answers to 2 and 3 above, was it rational to buy the good? Explain. Make sure you compare the time it would take you to make the good or perform the service (mentioned in part 2) and the amount of time that had to be worked to get the money (mentioned in part 3). It is only rational to buy something if you give up less resources working to earn money to pay, than you would have if you made the good or perform the service yourself. If it turned out to be irrational, why did you buy it?

If you want to see an example, check out the “great work” linked above. But do not copy the example or even the wording. There are many ways to express these ideas if you understand the material. Please find your own words or face the consequences of academic dishonesty.
Chapter 3:
In chapter 3 we learn that the supply and demand for a good or service can shift in response to changes in certain variables, and about how supply and demand interact to determine the market equilibrium price.

Please identify a price change you have observed in the last few years. Do not choose gasoline or smart/cell phones, please pick something else.
Use the supply and demand model to explain the price change you identified in A) above. You should be talking about what happened with supply and demand curves, so please be sure you talk about both of these. You don’t need to search the internet for information about this, because I don’t care if you are correct. I just want to see if you can use the model to explain price changes, so if your explanation would create the change you observed, that is all I’m looking for.
Summarize your explanation with one sentence that mentions what you think has happened to both supply and demand, and how this interaction has resulted in the price change you observed. If both curves are moving, you will need to comment on the relative size of each shift to justify the price change you observed.

Please do not try to explain price changes in gasoline or cell phones. Please pick something else.
Helpful tip: be sure you discuss both supply AND demand, as they both play a role in determining the price.
Chapter 4a:
In our everyday lives as consumers we purchase many goods and services, and we derive consumers’ surplus for most of them. With that in mind, please:
Identify 3 goods or services you have purchased in the last year, and estimate the amount of consumer surplus you enjoy from those purchases. For each good, please state specifically:

The highest amount you would have been willing to pay.
The price you actually paid.
The amount of consumers’ surplus you received from each item.

You should have 3 short paragraphs, one for each good. Do not use a chart, please use words.
Helpful tips: Be sure to state exactly the highest price you would have been willing to pay, the price you actually paid, and what your consumer’s surplus is. There are many different phrases you can use to communicate the highest price you were willing to pay, but note that the following are incorrect:

The price you were willing to pay. Just because you were willing to pay $20 for a good, doesn’t mean this is the highest you were willing to pay.
The price you expected to pay. Again, this is not necessarily the highest price you were willing to pay.

Chapter 8, 9, and 10:
We have begun our exploration of the macroeconomic statistics that describe total output (and the business cycle), unemployment, and inflation in our economy. In recent times we have seen significant variation in output and employment due to the “great recession” of 2008/9 and the recovery that has followed. In this assignment we will use interactive maps on the internet to visualize these variations, and see if we can identify any relationships between changes in output and changes in employment.

We are going to start by looking at growth rates of GDP. This link goes to the International Monetary Fund’s data mapping website
(Links to an external site.)
.

There is a bar at the top of the page that says “Datasets”. Click on Datasets, then select “World Economic Outlook” on the upper left part of the screen. On the World Economic Outlook page, scroll down and select “Gross Domestic Product”, then select “Real GDP Growth” on the page that pops up. You will now be taken to a page that will give you the data on GDP growth rates for different countries and groups of countries.
On the GDP growth rates page, you will see 4 panels. On the upper right panel, scroll down and select United States (by double clicking on it) so that you will be able to see our GDP growth rates. You should see United States added to the lower right panel. To make the graphs more readable, I suggest deleting anything else besides the United States in this panel.
Now in the lower left panel, drag the sliding selector thingy to the left, and notice that the number next to United States in the right lower panel is changing. This number is the value for the real GDP growth rate for the year currently selected. Please write down the annual rates of real GDP growth for the United States for the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011.
Next we will now look at changes in the unemployment rate over this same time period. We can make this change by going back to the “World Economic Outlook” data set, and selecting the “People” subject, then “Unemployment Rate”. You will then be taken back to the “data mapper page” you were on when we looked at real GDP growth rates, but now we have data on the unemployment rate. Please use the same approach described above, and write down the unemployment rates for the United States for the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011.

Please tell me the numbers that you collected. I don’t care if you do this in a table or not.
Compare the data on GDP growth rates and unemployment you have gathered for the years in question. What phase of the business cycle were we in during 2009? Note that “trough” is not a phase of the business cycle –it is a moment in time.
Unemployment is something economists call a “lagging indicator”, which means that it lags behind changes in productivity (firms wait to hire and fire people until they are sure they need to). Do you notice a relationship between the GDP growth rates and the unemployment rate (hint: you should)? What is the relationship?
Do you think there is a causal (meaning changes in one variable cause changes in the other variable) relationship between GDP growth and unemployment rates? If so, please explain exactly how the mechanism of causality works… i.e. Why does a change in one variable cause the change in the other? Think hard here, for yourself, and absolutely DO NOT search the internet for help. Think deeply about the real activities that each variable is measuring and summarizing, and how these activities are related to each other.

Chapter 11:
We have described economic growth as a function of increased worker productivity, and have argued that worker productivity has risen due to increased levels of capital and technology. We have argued that the more capital a country has, the more it will be able to produce. This is true on a macro level, but also on a micro level –that is, our individual productivity also increases when we acquire machines that help us be productive.

What machine(s) do you use in your daily life that help(s) you be more productive? Please be specific.
Without this/these machine(s), what would you be unable to produce or do? Would you have to give up some leisure activities?
Can you think of any machines that you could buy (thereby accumulating more capital), that would help you produce more? Would you be likely to experience diminishing returns? Why or why not?

Chapter 12:
Whenever the economy goes into recession (as occurred most recently in 2008), consumption in the United States decreases.

If the economy went into a recession, but you were not directly affected, do you think you might change your consumption patterns/choices? Do you remember if you or your family changed your spending habits at all during or after the 2008 recession? That recession was over a decade ago, so you might want to ask someone (a family member, friend, or whomever) about their recollections and decisions if you don’t remember what happened. Feel free to discuss any of these.
Following the recession of 2008, the rate of savings in the United States doubled. Why do you think this is? How do you think the increase in savings affected overall consumption? Since, on average, 70% economic activity in the United States is based on consumers (just like you) purchasing goods and services for consumption, how do you think the increase in savings affected aggregate expenditure? Please respond to these questions using your understanding of the aggregate expenditure model.

Chapter 14:
Keeping your money in a bank seems like a good idea. However, from time to time, depositors lose confidence in banks. In chapter 14 we learned that when many people lose confidence in a bank at the same time it is called a “bank run”, and when this happens to many banks at the same time it is called a “bank panic.” Runs and panics typically occur following the realization that banks may have made bad loans, and may be unable to provide depositors with access to their funds. So it’s clear that there is some risk in keeping your money at a bank.

If your bank was experiencing a run, would you join in, or would you be confident that the FDIC would be there to insure your account?
Since the European Union does not have a unified banking system (and possibly other reasons) there is no deposit insurance at most European banks. If you had a bank account in Europe, would you be more, less, or equally as likely to participate in a bank run?
If it was a panic instead of a run, would you feel safe? Why or why not?

Chapter 15:
Choose your own monetary policy adventure!

Imagine that either the economy is in an expansion or a recession. In the next few prompts you will talk about responding to this situation, so choose wisely. This choice is yours to make, so please now state what is going on with the economy you are pretending to observe.
Would you use expansionary or contractionary policy to help the economy?
Why would you use the policy you mentioned in 2 above (i.e. what are you trying to affect or prevent)?
What changes could you make to reserve requirements, the discount rate, and in open market operations that could help you pursue the policy that is appropriate for the situation the economy is in?
How will the changes mentioned in 4 actually help the economy? In other words, how will the changes you want to make translate into real people making different decisions that will ultimately help the overall economy? You probably want to mention how the market for money is affected, how the interest rate might change, how people respond to changes in the interest rate, and how this behavioral change in many people can change the overall economy.Chapter 2:Chapter 2 shows and discusses the gains from trade that can result when individuals, firms, or countries specialize in producing goods for which they have the comparative advantage, and trade those goods with others.Gains from specialization and exchange can be seen in many situations. For example, most people that we pay to do things for us (e.g. grow our food, cut our hair, tutor us, etc.) perform the task for a lower opportunity cost than we would bear if we were to do it ourselves. This is where the gain from trade that benefits both parties comes from, and is why it is rational for you to pay for the service. To show that you understand how comparative advantage works in the modern economy, please discuss a good or service you recently purchased and address the following prompts:

What is the item or service, and how much did you pay for it?
What is a reasonable estimate of how long it would take you to make the item or perform the service at the same quality level of the one your purchased, if you had been unable to buy it? You need to come up with a number of hours or days or years, or whatever time measurement you want, for how long it would take you. Don’t try to avoid this. If you can’t figure it out, pick another good or service.
Who worked to get the money to pay for the item, and how long did they have to work to get the money? If your money came from the government, see the how the government gets money page.
Based on your answers to 2 and 3 above, was it rational to buy the good? Explain. Make sure you compare the time it would take you to make the good or perform the service (mentioned in part 2) and the amount of time that had to be worked to get the money (mentioned in part 3). It is only rational to buy something if you give up less resources working to earn money to pay, than you would have if you made the good or perform the service yourself. If it turned out to be irrational, why did you buy it?

If you want to see an example, check out the “great work” linked above. But do not copy the example or even the wording. There are many ways to express these ideas if you understand the material. Please find your own words or face the consequences of academic dishonesty.Chapter 3:In chapter 3 we learn that the supply and demand for a good or service can shift in response to changes in certain variables, and about how supply and demand interact to determine the market equilibrium price.

Please identify a price change you have observed in the last few years. Do not choose gasoline or smart/cell phones, please pick something else.
Use the supply and demand model to explain the price change you identified in A) above. You should be talking about what happened with supply and demand curves, so please be sure you talk about both of these. You don’t need to search the internet for information about this, because I don’t care if you are correct. I just want to see if you can use the model to explain price changes, so if your explanation would create the change you observed, that is all I’m looking for.
Summarize your explanation with one sentence that mentions what you think has happened to both supply and demand, and how this interaction has resulted in the price change you observed. If both curves are moving, you will need to comment on the relative size of each shift to justify the price change you observed.
Please do not try to explain price changes in gasoline or cell phones. Please pick something else.Helpful tip: be sure you discuss both supply AND demand, as they both play a role in determining the price.Chapter 4a:In our everyday lives as consumers we purchase many goods and services, and we derive consumers’ surplus for most of them. With that in mind, please:Identify 3 goods or services you have purchased in the last year, and estimate the amount of consumer surplus you enjoy from those purchases. For each good, please state specifically:

The highest amount you would have been willing to pay.
The price you actually paid.
The amount of consumers’ surplus you received from each item.
You should have 3 short paragraphs, one for each good. Do not use a chart, please use words.Helpful tips: Be sure to state exactly the highest price you would have been willing to pay, the price you actually paid, and what your consumer’s surplus is. There are many different phrases you can use to communicate the highest price you were willing to pay, but note that the following are incorrect:

The price you were willing to pay. Just because you were willing to pay $20 for a good, doesn’t mean this is the highest you were willing to pay.
The price you expected to pay. Again, this is not necessarily the highest price you were willing to pay.
Chapter 8, 9, and 10:We have begun our exploration of the macroeconomic statistics that describe total output (and the business cycle), unemployment, and inflation in our economy. In recent times we have seen significant variation in output and employment due to the “great recession” of 2008/9 and the recovery that has followed. In this assignment we will use interactive maps on the internet to visualize these variations, and see if we can identify any relationships between changes in output and changes in employment.

We are going to start by looking at growth rates of GDP. This link goes to the International Monetary Fund’s data mapping website
(Links to an external site.)
.
There is a bar at the top of the page that says “Datasets”. Click on Datasets, then select “World Economic Outlook” on the upper left part of the screen. On the World Economic Outlook page, scroll down and select “Gross Domestic Product”, then select “Real GDP Growth” on the page that pops up. You will now be taken to a page that will give you the data on GDP growth rates for different countries and groups of countries.On the GDP growth rates page, you will see 4 panels. On the upper right panel, scroll down and select United States (by double clicking on it) so that you will be able to see our GDP growth rates. You should see United States added to the lower right panel. To make the graphs more readable, I suggest deleting anything else besides the United States in this panel. Now in the lower left panel, drag the sliding selector thingy to the left, and notice that the number next to United States in the right lower panel is changing. This number is the value for the real GDP growth rate for the year currently selected. Please write down the annual rates of real GDP growth for the United States for the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Next we will now look at changes in the unemployment rate over this same time period. We can make this change by going back to the “World Economic Outlook” data set, and selecting the “People” subject, then “Unemployment Rate”. You will then be taken back to the “data mapper page” you were on when we looked at real GDP growth rates, but now we have data on the unemployment rate. Please use the same approach described above, and write down the unemployment rates for the United States for the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011.

Please tell me the numbers that you collected. I don’t care if you do this in a table or not.
Compare the data on GDP growth rates and unemployment you have gathered for the years in question. What phase of the business cycle were we in during 2009? Note that “trough” is not a phase of the business cycle –it is a moment in time.
Unemployment is something economists call a “lagging indicator”, which means that it lags behind changes in productivity (firms wait to hire and fire people until they are sure they need to). Do you notice a relationship between the GDP growth rates and the unemployment rate (hint: you should)? What is the relationship?
Do you think there is a causal (meaning changes in one variable cause changes in the other variable) relationship between GDP growth and unemployment rates? If so, please explain exactly how the mechanism of causality works… i.e. Why does a change in one variable cause the change in the other? Think hard here, for yourself, and absolutely DO NOT search the internet for help. Think deeply about the real activities that each variable is measuring and summarizing, and how these activities are related to each other.
Chapter 11:We have described economic growth as a function of increased worker productivity, and have argued that worker productivity has risen due to increased levels of capital and technology. We have argued that the more capital a country has, the more it will be able to produce. This is true on a macro level, but also on a micro level –that is, our individual productivity also increases when we acquire machines that help us be productive.

What machine(s) do you use in your daily life that help(s) you be more productive? Please be specific.
Without this/these machine(s), what would you be unable to produce or do? Would you have to give up some leisure activities?
Can you think of any machines that you could buy (thereby accumulating more capital), that would help you produce more? Would you be likely to experience diminishing returns? Why or why not?
Chapter 12: Whenever the economy goes into recession (as occurred most recently in 2008), consumption in the United States decreases.

If the economy went into a recession, but you were not directly affected, do you think you might change your consumption patterns/choices? Do you remember if you or your family changed your spending habits at all during or after the 2008 recession? That recession was over a decade ago, so you might want to ask someone (a family member, friend, or whomever) about their recollections and decisions if you don’t remember what happened. Feel free to discuss any of these.
Following the recession of 2008, the rate of savings in the United States doubled. Why do you think this is? How do you think the increase in savings affected overall consumption? Since, on average, 70% economic activity in the United States is based on consumers (just like you) purchasing goods and services for consumption, how do you think the increase in savings affected aggregate expenditure? Please respond to these questions using your understanding of the aggregate expenditure model.
Chapter 14:Keeping your money in a bank seems like a good idea. However, from time to time, depositors lose confidence in banks. In chapter 14 we learned that when many people lose confidence in a bank at the same time it is called a “bank run”, and when this happens to many banks at the same time it is called a “bank panic.” Runs and panics typically occur following the realization that banks may have made bad loans, and may be unable to provide depositors with access to their funds. So it’s clear that there is some risk in keeping your money at a bank.

If your bank was experiencing a run, would you join in, or would you be confident that the FDIC would be there to insure your account?
Since the European Union does not have a unified banking system (and possibly other reasons) there is no deposit insurance at most European banks. If you had a bank account in Europe, would you be more, less, or equally as likely to participate in a bank run?
If it was a panic instead of a run, would you feel safe? Why or why not?
Chapter 15:Choose your own monetary policy adventure!

Imagine that either the economy is in an expansion or a recession. In the next few prompts you will talk about responding to this situation, so choose wisely. This choice is yours to make, so please now state what is going on with the economy you are pretending to observe.
Would you use expansionary or contractionary policy to help the economy?
Why would you use the policy you mentioned in 2 above (i.e. what are you trying to affect or prevent)?
What changes could you make to reserve requirements, the discount rate, and in open market operations that could help you pursue the policy that is appropriate for the situation the economy is in?
How will the changes mentioned in 4 actually help the economy? In other words, how will the changes you want to make translate into real people making different decisions that will ultimately help the overall economy? You probably want to mention how the market for money is affected, how the interest rate might change, how people respond to changes in the interest rate, and how this behavioral change in many people can change the overall economy.

The Macroeconomics Learning Portfolio

English Language and Literature homework help

English Language and Literature homework help. This is a paper that is requiring the student to write a poetry explication of a poem from a selection. The paper also provides additional information to use in the writing of the assignment paper. Below is the assessment description to follow:,Write a poetry explication of a poem from a selection,Write a poetry explication of a poem you choose from the selection of poems found in our Textbook or in the learning web. You pick. Do not research or go to other sources to learn about your poem. It is just between you and the poem. Trust your own brain, and do not let others think for you. You are expected to display “reflective thinking” in your explication, use the language of poetic analysis, and also use quotes from the poem as you explicate. It is due in MLA Format and following ,MLA Documentation Style,. You must have a coversheet AND works cited page. Essays that show clear signs of the writer accessing outside research on their poem will lose -50 points.,1.Firstly, analyze the poem in two ways: First, begin your analysis by identifying and describing the speaking voice or voices (persona), the conflicts or ideas, and the language used in the poem. Then, examine the poem closely according to its poetic elements.,2. Secondly, analyze the large issues: Determine the basic design of the poem by considering the who, what, when, where, and why of the dramatic situation.,– What is being dramatized? What conflicts or themes does the poem present, address, or question?,– Who is the speaker? Define and also describe the speaker and his/her voice. What does the speaker say? Who is the audience? Are other characters involved?,– Additionally, what happens in the poem? Consider the plot or basic design of the action. How are the dramatized conflicts or themes introduced, sustained, resolved, etc.?,– When does the action occur? What is the date and/or time of the day?,– Where is the speaker? Describe the physical location of the dramatic moment.,– Why does the speaker feel compelled to speak at this moment? What is his/her motivation?,3. Thirdly, analyze your poem in terms of the elements of poetry: To analyze the poem, we must focus on the poem’s parts or elements, namely how the poem dramatizes conflicts or ideas in language. By concentrating on the parts, we develop our understanding of the poem’s structure, and we gather to support and also evidence for our interpretations. As you analyze the poem line by line, examine it closely in terms of each element of poetry, looking for certain patterns and connections to develop which provide insight into the overall meaning or interpretation of the poem.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,English Language and Literature homework help

Six Sigma and Deming’s Theory

Six Sigma and Deming’s Theory. Paper details   Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, read Chapter 13 of your course text, the A Learning Process Model to Achieve Continuous Improvement and Innovation article, and watch the Lean Six Sigma Explained – Animation Discuss the purpose and applications of Six Sigma. Compare Six Sigma with lean manufacturing by completing the following: What are the similarities and differences? Can these processes be used together to form a single business philosophy? What were W. Edwards Deming’s theoretical contributions to the development of Six Sigma and lean manufacturing, and how could these principles be deployed in your place of employment? Analyze quality management practices in your organization and the impact on its organizational effectiveness.Six Sigma and Deming’s Theory

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