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Has managerial enterprise contributed to the success of leading economies

The business literature is overflowing with concepts. Some of these, usually only a few, manage to stay ‘in the spotlight’ for longer; Chandler’s (1962; 1990) ‘managerial enterprise’ is among them. His theory links strategic decisions, internal structures and corporate performance and despite its criticism, it is still used to explain corporate success (and failure) of the late19th, 20th and even the 21st century (Gospel, 1988:105). In contrast to the contingency approach, Chandler (1990) advocates the American way of organisation as the ‘one best way’ for all countries [1] . Yet, can one size fit all? We shall refer to different country examples, industries and time periods to find out. Chandler argued that large managerial enterprises have managed to prosper through the years due to a basic economic logic, which he named ‘three-pronged strategy’ [2] (Chandler, 1995). According to this concept, firms should invest heavily in both their production and distribution functions in order to fully exploit economies of scale and scope at a national and international level (Chandler, 1990; 1995). This can only happen when the firm relies on the accurate judgment of skilful professional management. The aim was to create organisational capabilities and benefit from first-mover advantages via ‘related diversification’ (Chandler, 1995; Whittington et al., 1999). The implemented structure can best be described, using the author’s own words, as ‘centralised and functionally-departmentalised’ (Lash and Urry, 1987: 43). Countries that ignored the logic [3] were doomed to moderate performance and low competitiveness (Chandler, 1995). Hence, Chandler’s thesis was twofold: first, he stressed the relative economic consequences of the multi-divisional structure and second, he argued that the strategies and thus structures of advanced economies are converging towards those adopted in the US of the early 19th century (Whittington et al., 1999). COUNTRY % M-Form TIME US 86% 1979 JAPAN 50% 1980 EUROPE 70-90% Early 1990’s (Data obtained from Whittington and Mayer, 2004: 1057) Chandler (March/April 1990) claims that the success stories of the pre-WWI core industries (chemicals, electrical and machinery/ i.e. Standard Oil, Bayer
Earth Sciences homework help. 2 Parrot PalaceParrot Palace works with TV and movie producers who need birds that can perform special tricks, such as playing dead, reciting poetry, ladder climbs, and various other tricks. Parrot Palace has about 50 birds and a list of 20 tricks from which to choose. Each bird can perform one or more tricks, and many tricks can be performed by more than one bird. When a bird learns a new trick, the trainer assigns a skill level. Some customers insist on using birds that score a 10, which is the highest skill level. As an IT consultant, you have been asked to suggest 3NF table designs. You are fairly certain that a M:N relationship exists between birds and tricks.TasksDraw an ERD for the Parrot Palace information system.Indicate cardinality.Identify all fields you plan to include in the birds and tricks tables. For example, in the bird table, you might want species, size, age, name, and so on. In the tricks table, you might want the trick name and description. You will need to assign a primary key in each table.ÿHint:ÿBefore you begin, review some database design samples in this chapter. You might spot a similar situation that requires an associative entity that you can use as a pattern. In addition, remember that numeric values work well in primary key fields.Create 3NF table designs.Chapter 9:ÿPg. 395 – Apply Your Knowledge – Assignment 2 – Parrot Place Tasks1 – 4**** You should use MS Visio to create an ER diagram and cardinalities for questions 1 and 2. For question 3 you will create fields (attributes) for both the Birds and Tricks tables (entities) as stated in the directions. Don?t forget to assign primary keys! Please note that you may type relational schemas for question 4 to show each entity along with its attributes in 3NF or create dependency diagrams. You may use MS Word for question 4.Earth Sciences homework help
Anxiety experiences different in everyone in different times, it’s a normal response to actual danger, promoting the body through stimulating of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system will be helpful action. (Springhouse, 2007). Anxiety affects our whole being. It affects how we feel, how e behave and has very real physical symptoms. It feels a bit like fear but whereas we know what we are frightened of, we often don’t know what we are anxious about. Mild anxiety is vague and unsetting-severe anxiety can be extremely debilitating (Medical News Today, 2010). Acute pain it is not good sign about tissue damage, (Gulanick et al., 2010). 1- How can you manage Evert’s pain? As a nurse, the following can be done to manage Evert’s pain: Anticipate need for pain relief: early analgesic intervention helps to decrease pain. We have to respond to pain complain as soon as possible: early respond to patient’s complaining of pain its help to decrease anxiety and on other side its help to make a trust relationship. Trying to eliminate the addition of stressor or comfort as we can: help patient to tolerate the pain either these elements from environment, intrapersonal, or intrapschic factors. Make an good atmosphere of comfort, relaxation, and sleep: we have to help patient to be in good atmosphere to take a rest and sleep comfortably because some patient’s experiences of pain may will put them in fatigue condition, so we have to put him in darkroom and disconnected his phone (Gulanick et al., 2010). 2- What can you do to alleviate Evert’s anxiety? The following interventions can be done to alleviate Evert’s anxiety: Anticipate need for pain relief: early analgesic intervention helps to decrease pain. We have to respond to pain complain as soon as possible: early respond to patient’s complaining of pain its help to decrease anxiety and on other side its help to make a trust relationship. Some of cognitive behavioral strategies as follows: Images: if patient use his mental images its help to distract stress and pain with using all his five senses. Distraction techniques: heighten one’s concentration upon nonpainful stimuli to decrease one’s awareness and experiences of pain and reduce stress such as nerve stimulation and breathing modifications. Use the relaxation exercises: it’s important for patient to decrease attention and pain. Use breathing exercises. Using Music Therapy in treatment: the music therapy works well on patients. Its apart of treatment team (Mount

Discussion (Decision making using models) around 300 words

Discussion (Decision making using models) around 300 words.

Decision making using system modeling. The author briefly mentions an open source software tool, EMA Workbench, that can perform EMA and ESDMA modeling. Find EMA Workbench online and go to their main website (not the GitHub download site). Then do the following:1) Under documentation, go to the Tutorials page.2) Read through the Simple Model (in your chosen environment), and the Mexican Flu example. 3) Decide how you could use this software to create a model to help in developing a policy for a Smart City. To complete this assignment, you must do the following:A) As indicated above, explain how you could use the EMA Workbench software to develop a model to help create a policy for a Smart City. Explain what policy you are trying to create (i.e. traffic light placement, surveillance camera coverage, taxi licenses issued, etc.), and what key features you would use in your model. Then, explain how EMA Workbench would help you. NOTE: keep your models and features simple. You don’t really need more than 2 or 3 features to make your point here.
Discussion (Decision making using models) around 300 words

Concept Map

help me with my homework Rheumatoid Arthritis: Explaining the Concept Map An extremely common autoimmune disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis is usually activated by an unknown trigger. While the exact cause of Rheumatoid Arthritis is unclear, it is believed that a number of factors contribute to it. One factor is that it is a genetic trait and that certain genes are associated with the disease, however, it is not known why some individuals have the genes and yet the disease never develops. Environmental factors such as infections and chemicals may also play a role in the onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis but the exact role is unknown. What is clear is that an unknown trigger affects the immune system so that it begins attacking itself, and specifically, the joints of the body. This begins with an increased number of white blood cells congregating in the blood vessels surrounding the synovial fluid. The white blood cells are exchanged for T-cells and B-cells. The T-cells release cytokines which increase inflammation and stimulate the B-cells to produce more antibodies. These antibodies then destroy what it recognizes as a foreign body, in this case the joints. As the process continues the inflammatory process begins in the synovial fluid. Eventually the synovium begins to leak excessive amounts of synovial fluid which contributes to more inflammation within the joint. This continued inflammation causes thickening of the synovial fluid which ultimately leads to the formation of pannus. The cytokines released by the T-cells stimulate the pannus to then produce destructive enzymes that destroy cartilage. This further irritates the area leading to more accumulation of white blood cells and continues to contribute to the inflammatory process. A diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis can sometimes be difficult as the symptoms of this disease are similar to other conditions. Tests that can assist in diagnosis are a Complete Blood Count to measure the amount of each blood cell. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, which indicates how much inflammation there is in the body. Rheumatoid Factor, which tests for specific antibodies in the synovium that can indicate the likelihood of Rheumatoid Arthritis, and X-Rays, which can assist in determining if any joint damage has occurred. The inflammation causes symptoms of tender, red, warm, swollen joints, fatigue, fever, and general malaise. Complications of this disease are infections, usually due to the effects of immunosupressing medications, heart disease caused by inflammation in the body, periodontal disease, also due to inflammation, cancer, linked to some Rheumatoid Arthritis treatments, and osteoporosis. While not fatal, Rheumatoid Arthritis can sometimes shorten one’s life-span. References Find All the Information You Need to Understand Rheumatoid Arthritis. (2009, April 1). Healthcentral.com – Trusted, Reliable and Up To Date Health Information. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://www.healthcentral.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/understanding-rheumatoid-arthritis.html?ic=4018 Ignatavicius, D. D.,

Introduction to Research Methods: Signature Assignment

Introduction to Research Methods: Signature Assignment.

Throughout this course, you explored different methodologies, designs, and data collection strategies. Using those experiences and feedback, you will develop a final proposal for a hypothetical study. Specifically, for this assignment, you are asked to develop an expanded proposal that incorporates the feedback you have received as well as your own supported reflections on the readings. This is not meant to be a milestone document nor will it be approved as such, but the proposal should provide an opportunity to test out a possible idea and to get feedback that would be useful as you consider possible topics and research designs for your dissertation work. Remember to use APA formatting and check for grammatical errors. Be sure to use scholarly sources to support all assertions and research decisions. It is also vital that you ensure there is alignment between the components of your paper; you should use Krathwohl’s Chain of Reasoning to assist.The proposal needs to include:A statement as to the problem the research study will address as well as justification and evidence to verify that the problem exists.. Remember the problem statement should reflect your degree type (applied or theoretical)A purpose statement that outlines how you will address the problem.A list of the research questions, including hypotheses if a quantitative or mixed study. A description of the research methodology you have chosen (i.e., quantitative, qualitative, or mixed) and a justification as to why this approach is best suited to address the problem and answer the specific research questions.A discussion on the research design you have proposed (e.g., case study, quasi-experimental, etc.) and a justification as to why this design is the best choice and aligns with other aspects of the study.A description of the data collection process, with justifications, to include a discussion of the following:Overview of the population and sampling technique,Instruments used (e.g., survey, interview protocol), andOverview of process for collection and any challenges you envision.A brief discussion of the proposed analysis techniques with justification on alignment of techniques with problem, purpose, and questions.A brief discussion of how reliability and validity (or trustworthiness) will be maintained.A brief discussion of the limitations and ethical considerations, including how limitations, biases, and ethical considerations will be addressed.Length: 12-15 pages, not including title and reference pagesGrading RubricCriteriaContent (150 points)Points1Problem statement is appropriate for a doctoral dissertation 302Purpose statement and research questions are clear and align to the problem statement (includes hypotheses if quantitative)303Justified methodology and design used304Described and justified the data collection and data analysis processes305Discussed reliability, validity, ethics, limitations, and biases and how they will be addressed in the proposal.30Organization (50 points)6Organized and presented in a clear manner. Included a minimum of five scholarly references, with appropriate APA formatting applied to citations and paraphrasing.50Total200Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.
Introduction to Research Methods: Signature Assignment

Analysing the Internal Environment Of Ryanair

Ryanair entered the airline market in 1985 and since then has enjoyed success not only in the European market but also globally as well. Ryanair revolutionised the airline industry by offering passenger the lowest fares thereby positioning itself as a dominant player by gaining a huge market and becoming an intensive competitor for traditional airlines like British Airways, Lufthansa etc. (Eleanor O’Higgins,2007) Strengths The cost reduction strategy adopted by Ryanair can be regarded as a key factor for it success and distinguishing itself in the industry. According to (Lawton, 2002, cited in FrederikBoesk, 2005) analysis of Ryanair the company adopts a low cost model to curb their expenses e.g. it reduces catering and cleaning costs by adopting the no frills . Opting to land in secondary airports helps in paying low landing charges and cheaper parking due to less presence of traffic. (Barrett 2004 cited in Fredrick 2005, p8).By providing online ticket purchase and check in facilities Ryanair eliminates the need for staff and travel desks thereby investing the funds on marketing and promotion (Eleanor O’Higgins, 2007). Ryanair beats its competitors with regard to passenger service .Apart from provides cheap fares and fewer lost bags Ryanair flights are punctual (88% flights arrive on time) and the company received fewer complaints and response to 99% of the complaints within a period of 7 days. The company was also recognised as Europe’s greenest, cleanest airline. This explains the reason that Ryanair is the world’s favourite airline and why over 73m passenger choose to fly them. (Ryanair Annual Report 2010) Ryanair has a very strong operational capacity it’s currently operating 1400 flights per day from 44 bases and 1100 plus low fare routes across 27 countries. It shows why customers choose Ryanair making it the largest and most successful European airline (Ryanair 2010) Weaknesses One of the weakness of Ryanair is bad publicity.IN 2006 a documentary called ‘Ryanair caught napping’ highlighted issues like aircraft unhygienic ways, poor staff moral and not conducting security procedures properly. The Guardian.co.uk (2010) cites that Ryanair plans to introduce coin operated toilets and standing area for passengers on its flight but safety officials say it will not come into effect for at least two years. With majority of customers being price sensitive the above issues taken up by Ryanair will cause concern and affect their customers buying decisions and losing them to other competitors or full service airlines. Relationship between the staff and the airline has also experienced sore notes. According to ft.com (2010) Michael O’Leary plans to cut expenses by removing co-pilots since “the computer does most of the flying now”. This resulted in employers approaching the media and challenging the company to replace Michael O’Leary by junior flight attendant to save more cost. The axing of co-pilots has raised safety concerns among travellers. Value Chain Analysis Of Ryanair Michael Porter’s Value Chain helps in analysing the primary and supporting activities along with Ryanair’s operational strategy which are responsible for creating and delivering its services. With reference to the Value Chain Analysis at Appendix A conducted shows that the company is able to create robust revenues despite selling low cost fares this is attributed to Ryanair ability to sustain its costs to a minimum level such as online and ticketless bookings, flying to secondary airports, usage of only Airbus 737-800s resulting in investing less in staff training and maintenance costs. It can be clear identified that the company’s main core competences is efficient cost management. Financial Analysis Of Ryanair with Aer Lingus The financial performance of Ryanair was able to generate revenues despite the financial crisis that had a severe impact on other airline carriers leading to closures or declaring bankruptcy. The company reported a Net Profit of Euro 318.8M for 2010 which was an increase of 280% from 2009’s Euro 104.9M .With Ryanair’s cost efficient ways ,increase passenger traffic and operating new routes along with competitive prices Ryanair is able to maintain its position as the Number one carrier in the world. In order to analysis the financial strength of Ryanair a comparison has been made between Aer Lingus in which Ryanair owns 26.2% shares. Financial Analysis – Ryanair Vs Aer Lingus Key Performance Indicators 1) Return On Capital Employed ryanair-logo aer lingus With growth of net profitability of Ryanair dropping from 16.2% to -6.1% from 2008-09 as a result of high fuel prices which affected 45% operating profit and due to collapse of Aer Lingus shares that written down Ryanair investment to Euro 79.7M in 2009.This resulted in Ryanair ROCE dropping from 11.3% to 1.9%. In 2010 ROCE rose to 6.7% with increasing operations however with the termination of Ryanair’s contract with Boeing the capital expenditure is likely to decrease in further since Ryanair plans not to invest in aircraft for the next 3 years. Ryanair also has strong capital employed ranging from Euro 4770.6M to Euro 6013.8M indication the company’s high level of operations. The net profitability of Air Lingus reduced from 9.7% to -12.9% for 2007-2009.Air Lingus experienced operating loss of Euro93M due to cancellation in flights, restricting costs etc. Capital employed by the company ranges from Euro 1364M to Euro 1272 indicating small operations to Ryanair. 2) Current Ratio aer lingusryanair-logo Ryanair is more liquid is comparison to Aer Lingus thus enabling the company to fund capital expenditure as well as pay shareholders with the strong cash flow Ryanair generates from revenues and company’s operations. The company’s current assets are more than current liabilities thereby proving Ryanair has strong financial strength. 3) Interest Coverage ryanair-logoaer lingus Ryanair interest coverage is sufficient since the company is able to generate revenue to satisfy interest expense .In 2009 due to Air Lingus share drop ( Ryanair having 29.8% share )revenues was affected greatly to a huge extend thereby effecting its ability to pay its debtors in 2009.Aer Lingus performance over the past years suffered losses which resulted in the company having insufficient funds for their interest expense. Primary Activities Inbound logistics Ryanair has a contract agreement since 1998 with Boeing which provides large aircrafts such as the Boeing 737-800s and have a seating capacity of 189 passengers and is able to fly for longer hours without refuelling and is equipped with the latest aviation technology. The new aircraft is complaisant with the 2002 EU regulation Chapter 3 noise reduction requirements. But in 2009 news.bbc.co.uk (2009) reported that Ryanair ended its contracted with Boeing over the purchase of 200 aircrafts .The company plans to increase its cash flow by not investing into aircraft purchases and use its existing aircraft till 2015.Inorder to escape from the high fuel prices Ryanair has entered into fuel hedging to escape the rising fuel charges. By doing so Ryanair is able not to impose these charges onto the passengers travel fares. Operations