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Harvard University Blockchain and Consumer Preferences Discussion

Harvard University Blockchain and Consumer Preferences Discussion.

Question 1 Reflection (R2)Submit a 5 page paper (APA style) creating a market strategy using Blockchain technology to increase knowledge about consumer preferences and developing branding for your company.Reflection Two (R2) is an essay assignment. R2 is due by Saturdaybefore 11:59 PM.Question 2DQ: How will Blockchain increase knowledge relative to consumer preferences?Type your initial post and peer replies in this Discussion Forum based on the assigned readings for the week. The initial post should contain a minimum of 500 words and it should be submitted no later than Wednesday before 11:59 pm EST. Also, two peer replies should contain a minimum of 200 words each and should be submitted no later than Saturday before 11:59 pm EST. The initial post is worth 20 points and the peer replies are worth 5 points each (10 points). The initial post should contain your summary of the assigned readings for this unit of study and the peer replies should be substantive responses to your classmates’ writings. Also, please look to the syllabus regarding the guidelines for initial posts and peer replies. Question 3Unit 2 Article ReviewFrom the coursepack, please review the article, “How Blockchain is Changing Finance” by Alex Tapscott and Don Tapscott. In 2-3 pages, discuss the article and explain how blockchain has impacted the financial world. What immediate changes have been made? What is yet to come? Is this change a good thing for the profession? Explain.
Harvard University Blockchain and Consumer Preferences Discussion

John Rawls Philosophical Reasoning Discussion.

I’m working on a philosophy test / quiz prep and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

I need someone who knowns about John Rawls’s philosophy or is willing to read his Theory of Justice to learn. I need someone who is also familiar with cultural relativism or is willing to research. They should also be able to talk about modern political issues like abortion, immigration policy, or environmental ethics. This needs to be about a six page paper double-spaced with proper MLA in text citations, grammar, and a bibliography.
John Rawls Philosophical Reasoning Discussion

Myosin: A Superfamily of Motor Proteins. Myosin: A Superfamily of Motor Proteins Introduction Every movement, from moving one’s fingers to looking around, is powered by myosin; myosin is one of only three proteins which are responsible for converting chemical energy into kinetic and mechanical work.1. It consists of a large family of motor proteins which are renowned for their various roles in muscle contraction. Along with that, the myosin family has an extensive range of functions in motility of eukaryotes. Overall, myosin uses chemical energy for motion. Myosin captures a molecule of ATP and breaks it, using the energy from ATP to perform the “power stroke” which will be further discussed along with the structure and mechanism. Myosin is the most important protein for muscle contraction and without it, our body’s biomechanics will fail to execute movement. At the same time, deficient functionality of myosin may resuIt in both biomechanical issues and cellular complications. Myosin was first discovered in 1859, but 200 years ago its entire mechanical function was unknown. 80 years later, it was discovered that myosin consistently works with another protein, actin. The main discoveries were that myosin and actin consist of two different thin and thick filaments and that a muscle cell contraction takes place by a “sliding-like” motion of these filaments past one another. Today, the function of myosin can be further understood due to recent technology discoveries such as in-vitro assays and X-ray which; these methods introduce new insights into the way in which generic myosin motors convert chemical energy of ATP into the myosin’s mechanical work.2 In this paper, the importance of myosin contractile and cell division will be discussed. Also, there will be a focus on the protein superfamily components, key evolutionary residues, and the myosin-actin interactions with surrounding elements such as ATP and Pi. Lastly, the power stroke mechanism will be broken down to small details including the organic chemistry of ATP catalysis. Biological Function Together with actin, myosin is responsible for many different types of cell movements. Actin is a protein that alongside myosin forms contractile in muscle cell filaments and is involved in motion within other cells; structures and mechanisms of actin are less understood and therefore will not be further discussed in detail.3 Myosin is an example of a molecular motor, which is a protein that utilizes chemical energy in the form of ATP into mechanical energy which produces movement. The relevant movement to humans is muscle contraction. Besides muscle contraction, myosin plays a role in a variety of movements of non-muscle cells; such activities include cell division. In conclusion, myosin’s role in cell biology is vital. First to be discussed are myosins responsible for the contraction of muscles. The unique specialty in the structure and function of muscle has made the muscle the main factor when studying movement at the molecular and cellular level. In vertebrates, there are three different types of muscle: skeletal muscle (responsible for all voluntary work), cardiac muscle (delivers blood from the heart) and smooth muscle (responsible for all involuntary movements of organs). Although they are not discussed in detail, it is essential to understand that the skeletal and cardiac muscles’ unique pattern in the cytoskeleton is what led to a profound examination of myosin. Skeletal muscles are bundles of muscle fibers. Muscle fibers are large cells, often single, which are approximately 50 μm in diameter and usually a few centimeters long.4 Muscle fibers are formed by the fusion of groups of individual cells during cell development. Most of our cytoplasm is composed of myofibrils (cylindrical shaped bundles) of the myosin and actin filaments; myosin is a thick filament (~15 nm diameter), and actin is a thinner filament (~7 nm diameter). Each one of the myofibrils is uniquely organized as a long chain of contractile units, called sarcomere, which is responsible for the paralleled shape of the skeletal and cardiac muscle. To draw the connection, sarcomeres (~2.3 μm long) consist of several regions which are observable by electron microscopy, allowing the in-depth investigation into the mechanism of myosin. To understand the idea of muscle contraction (which is driven by myosin), a unique contraction model must be explained: the sliding filament model. During muscle contraction, myosin filament slides past an actin filament so that the actin filament will move to another region (from region A to region H). Thus, muscle contraction occurs since myosin filament generates movement which is relative to the movement of actin. The basis to the movement in the molecular level is the interaction and binding of myosin with actin, thus allowing myosin to function as the single motor which drives the sliding of these filaments. The type of myosin that is present in the muscle is myosin II. Myosin II has two identical heavy chains which consists of two “heads”. Each one of the heads is composed of spherical region and a long tail with an α-helical shape. The α-helical tails twirl around each other in a coiled structure and form a dimer. Besides the two heavy chains, myosin II has two lighter chains which associate with the neck region (between the head and the tail) and complete the myosin II molecular structure.5 Besides binding to actin, myosin heads bind and hydrolyze ATP which generate the necessary energy for filament sliding. The conventional molecular mechanism suggests that filament sliding consists of a cycle which begins with ATP-absent myosin which is tightly bound to actin. Then, ATP binding disrupts the myosin attachment to actin and hydrolysis of ATP generates a conformational change in the myosin positioning. This change affects the neck region which is bound to the light chain and therefore displaces the myosin head by approximately 5 nm. ADP and Pi, which are the products of the hydrolysis of ATP are bound to the myosin head in the “pre-stroke” position. Then, the myosin head binds again at a new position on the actin and releases the ADP and Pi and essentially triggers the “power stroke,” in which the myosin head returns to its initial position, sliding the actin filament to another region of the sarcomere (chemical mechanism will be further discussed).6 Figure one illustrates the generic structure of myosin in both the pre-stroke position and its return the initial position, the rigor state. The power-stroke cycle mechanism will be further addressed, discussed, and illustrated. The next group is a group of myosins responsible for contraction of non-muscle cells. Similar to muscle contraction, actin filaments possess a unique relationship with myosin II which generate the sliding-like motion which was previously discussed. The best example for a non-muscle cell myosin involvement is found in cytokinesis, which is the cell division into two mitosis. In animal cells, toward the end of mitosis, a “contractile ring” consisting of myosin II and actin is placed underneath the plasma membrane. The contraction of the ring pulls the plasma membrane inward, an action which narrows and pressures the center of the cell and pinching it in two. To clarify, following the nuclear division (mitosis), the contractile ring is the one pinching and dividing the cell in two. Figure two illustrates the cell division pinching pattern which takes place in cell division. Besides myosin II, several other myosins are found in non-muscle cells. Opposed to myosin II, the other myosins (“unconventional”) are not involved in contraction. Some of them, however, can be related to different types of cell movements, such as transport of membrane vesicles and organelles (via the actin filaments). The most notoriously studied unconventional myosin is myosin I. Myosin I proteins, similarly to myosin II, contain a spherical head group which acts as a motor. The components of myosin I, however, are substantially smaller and lack the long tail of myosin organelles and structures such as membrane vesicles. An important function of myosin I include the formation of lateral arms that attach actin filaments to plasma membranes and move the plasma membrane toward the end of microvillus (actin-base bulge of the plasma membrane, common in absorption cells). Another role of myosin I is the transportation of vesicles and organelles via the actin filament and the movement of the plasma membrane during the uptake of large particles by a cell. Other than Myosin I and II, there are 12 other classes of unconventional myosins (III through XIV).6 Some are similar to myosin II in their structure (two heads), and others are more similar to myosin I. Although most of the function of myosins III-XIV is undetermined, it is clear that myosins V and VI play a vital role in organelle movement and myosin III, VI, and VII play a role in sensory functions such as vision and hearing. Structure, Mechanism, and Chemistry of Function Myosins are a superfamily which binds to actin and serves as molecular motors which consists of at least thirteen myosin classes. The conserved residues of the motor domain are positioned in the framework which was provided by recent crystal structures of N-terminus (the free amine group at the end of a polypeptide); the usage of crystal structures helps to define the residues involved in binding the actin and ATP, hydrolysis, and conformational changes. Overall, there is a very poor conservation at the site which was thought to be involved in actin binding, but several other highly conserved residues have been identified. The essential functionality residues in the myosin’s motor domain are almost exclusively found at the N-terminus, which is well conserved among all myosins. Besides the motor domain, a short, regulatory domain which is associated with the members of the calmodulin family (divalent cation binding proteins) was found in all myosins studied.7 The divalent cation binding proteins bind to the IQ-motif on myosin; the IQ-motif is a sequence of amino acids which usually follows a pattern of Ile–Gln–x–x–x–Arg–Gly–x–x–x–Arg. The term IQ is derived from the first two amino acids of the motif, namely isoleucine (I), and Glutamine (Q).7 What differs most myosins is the specificity at the C-terminal regions, which diverse in size and sequence; it is the C-terminal regions that determine the specific function of the myosin. The diversity of the C-terminal region indicates that the myosin family cannot be grouped and was therefore subdivided into three classes: conventional myosins (class II), single-headed unconventional myosins (class I), and the rest were divided into classes determined by order of discovery. Interestingly, as eukaryotic functionality evolved, so did the diversion in Myosins II sequences. Unlike prokaryotes, as multicellular organisms with special structures and tissues evolved, the functionality of myosins evolved as well (cardiac and skeletal myosins). Once skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle myosins II were introduced, the myosins II overall conserved its C-terminal residues and adopted a common backbone for similar actin-activated ATPase rates.8 The conservation of residues means that there is functional and structural importance. The key areas are the actin and nucleotide binding sites and the regions that involve conformational changes. The most conserved residues in myosin involve the binding of nucleotide, and most of the side chains are found in the well-conserved sequences GESGAGKT and NSSRFGK; these residues are illustrated in figure three. The conserved residues form the active site that fulfills a variety of roles in the power stroke which will be further discussed; the phosphate which binds to the head of the myosin is held firmly by interacting with glycine, alanine, and lysine. They make water-mediated contacts with the ATP phosphate which its ligands are responsible for the catalysis of the contractile cycle. Arginine is also relatively conserved and is associated with an “escape route” of a phosphate while ATP is hydrolyzed at the center of the motor domain. Overall, the positions of the conserved residues which were examined in the motor domains provide with a hypothesis to their possible function. The residues related to ATP-binding and hydrolysis are now defined and are highly conserved. There is, however, very poor conservation in the proposed actin-binding site, implying that understanding the actin-myosin interface is much more complex than assumed. To generate the power stroke, tension stimuli must occur in the nerve. This occurs by a stimulus which is spread down the alpha motor neuron. Then, acetylcholine (abbreviated as Ach) is released and crosses the synapse. The Ach opens up the Na and K channels to the sarcolemma. Then Na flows in the cell, while K flows out of the cell, creating the muscle fiber action potential. Once this occurs, Na goes down to the T-tubule system which causes Ca to be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.9 Ca then binds to troponin, and a change in the configuration of actin occurs which exposes its binding site, leading to the further discussion of the power stroke.10 The power stroke, or cross-bridge cycling, is the mechanism that generates contractile and is fully illustrated in figure four. Although there is a consensus on the general outline of the mechanism, much less is known on how it produces mechanical work. First, myosin binds initially through flexible loop regions near the catalytic site, followed by progressive and extensive hydrogen bonding. In the process, a piece of the protein is removed from the interaction with cell water during the bond formation. In cases in which protein binds similarly without conformational changes, it will cost 60-80kj/mol to form the bonds (twice than the observed number of myosin to actin); it suggests that the myosin head captures energy internally. When myosin moves into its tightly bound configuration, the energy deforms the myosin head, which applies force to the neck region. Most of this energy is channeled to mechanical work once the filaments slide past one another and myosin tightly bind to actin. Subsequently, Mg-ATP binds to myosin (a very high-affinity binding) and provides the necessary free-energy and thermodynamics to change the binding site to a lower affinity state, which allows further detachment. The binding of ATP substantially lowers the affinity of myosin for actin. Then, hydrolysis of ATP occurs which results in a subtle change in free energy and Pi and ADP are released from the ATPase site. The overall conversion of energy of the hydrolysis of ATP to the myosin-actin binding is about 50kj/mol and called chemomechanical transduction. The timing of ATP hydrolysis and ADP and Pi release in respect to the myosin-actin binding states and power stroke states is unknown; it is thought, however, that ATP hydrolysis often occurs after the transition of the actomyosin-ATP complex to its weaker-bound state. Then, the complex actomyosin-ATP, called A-M-ATP, remains weakly bound until it is detached by the filament movement. The released M-ADP-Pi (myosin, ADP, and Pi) has relatively moderate affinity for actin, and once reattached, it forms A-M-ADP-Pi and phosphate release occurs (Actomyosin, ADP, and a Pi which refers to a free phosphate); this generates a high-affinity state which is associated with the beginning of the famous power stroke. Once the structural change that occurred by the tight binding to actin produce high strain in the myosin head and forces a movement, ADP is released. Therefore, once power stroke is almost terminated, cross-bridges are typically in the actin-myosin state (rigor state) which is the tightest rigid state in which they remain until another ATP is available and re-alter the affinity. As long as [Ca2 ] remains high, the cycle continues (if adequate ATP concertation and other internal conditions are met). The rate-limiting step is the release of Pi, and everything else, from the Pi release through ATP hydrolysis, happens quickly. Therefore, M-ADP-Pi and A-M-ADP-Pi state dominate. There is evidence that in high-speed contraction there might be many attachments and detachments per one hydrolysis. Therefore, it is hard to understand the cycle entirely.11 To fully understand the power stroke, the chemistry of ATP catalysis when binding to the myosin must be understood. Three reaction pathways, which are illustrated in figure five, were found to be associative with a pentavalent bipyramidal phosphorene transition state.12 A bond between Mg2 cation coordination sphere and the switch-1 loop of the myosin (consists of Ser and Thr) must occur to break the product state; this step prepares the opening of the switch-1 loop (switch 1 loop is a central element which transmits information between the nucleotide binding pockets of myosin to future binding partners).13 The opening of the switch-1 loop is necessary for the release of hydrolysis products once power stroke occurs. The first reaction path is the “Direct Path.” In the direct path, the activation of the attacking water happens by straight proton transfer of the water to the third phosphate of ATP. At transition state, the third phosphate adopts a geometry of trigonal bipyramidal. In the product state, the Mg shifts from the first and second phosphates and moves away from Ser237; therefore, breaking the bond with switch-1 loop. This action weakens the strong interaction that maintains the closure of switch-1 over the nucleotide. The second path is the “Ser236 Path.” Here, the Ser236 transfers the proton onto the third phosphate, and the “attacking water” changes orientation into an optimal position for proton transfer to Ser236. The third path is the “Ser181 Path.” Here, Ser181 transfers its proton to the third phosphate, and the “helper water” transfers a proton to the side chain of Ser181, and the “attacking water” moves its proton to the “helper water.” These three pathways which occur in similar likelihoods explain catalysis of ATPase and the following binding to the myosin head. Conclusion In this paper, both myosin II and other myosin classes were carefully examined. The paper introduced the purpose of myosin in biological aspects (cell division) and biomechanical aspects (the power stroke). Conserved key residues were introduced to examine what residual regions of the myosin have been conserved and what it is important. Through illustrations and detailed description, the structure of myosin, the organic chemical, and the biological components were introduced and clarified. Overall, myosin II and its relation to the actin filament in contraction is fairly understood. Other myosins’ nuclear functions, however, are hardly understood. Dysfunctions of non-muscle myosins, such as mitosis myosin, have recently emerged as a critical regulator of genetically complex diseases, including various cancers, neuronal disorders, and vascular diseases. Nonetheless, the relationship and cause remain unknown.14 Broader focus and investigation on non-muscle myosins and other unconventional myosins must occur to decipher complex genetic diseases and potentially save human lives. With further research, the way we perceive non-muscle and contractile myosins may change forever. More profound understanding of conventional and unconventional myosin groups might not just prevent things from happening, but will provide with an opportunity to improve cell-division and contractile activity. Now, imagine a world in which muscle contractile activity is personally optimized to one’s needs and non-muscle myosins are understood and regulated to enhance control of cancerous mutations and neuronal and vascular diseases. Perhaps, this is what the future holds if myosin is better understood. References Rayment, I.Myosin: A Superfamily of Motor Proteins
Write a promotion plan on social media for Uber Wine.

Suppose Uber Vine is another service of Uber coming in 2018. This is a sommelier delivery service. Kind of following the Uber eats model. The customer would speak with one of our delivery sommeliers about what kind of Wines they enjoy and are looking for, and indicate the price range, then the sommelier would make the selection and deliver at a predetermined time and place.Write a promotion plan ( no need for definition) for this service in 5 pages including what type of channel you want to promote (social media, KOL,..), how do you use that, and budget for that. please state clearly howw do you use the channels to promote and within $1.000.000 budget, how you gonna use that for all the channels?
Write a promotion plan on social media for Uber Wine

Info Analysis and Communication

Info Analysis and Communication.

Discussion Board 1Briefly describe the next steps in your MAP process and list a few milestone goals for phase development leading up to and upon reaching the MAP Project Management. Consider including a Project Schedule or Gantt chart using software (e.g. MSProject, project name is – Improving security of business websites by using Intelligent Agent.Discussion board has to write with in 300 words.AssignmentReflect on the importance and steps you will take to maintain Confidentiality, Integrity, and theAvailability aspects of your MAP project.Watch short video project name is – Improving security of business websites by using Intelligent Agent.paper should be 4-5 pages.No plagiarism,reference should be must.please follow the question and answer properlyTotally you have to do one discussion board and one Assignment.
Info Analysis and Communication

English Paper 3 pages

online dissertation writing English Paper 3 pages.

So for my english final, we were asked to write a research any topic and have a written component on what we researched. Here is my proposal I sent to my English teacher on what I plan to turn in. While growing up, my parents have always been very strict while raising me. I think that because of this, it has shaped my character and affected me in both a positive and negative way. For my final project topic, I plan to research the behavior of parents and how it affects a child. More specifically, I am going to focus on parents who use “tough love” to discipline their child and the negative outcomes. I will also look at the opposite style of parenting – parents who gave their children more freedom and were less strict – and compare it.Ok so basically my argument is that overcontrolling parents negatively effect their children.My thesis statement is that parents are oblivious to the fact that their strict parenting style is neglectful of their child’s needs.I want my paper to mention the following-why parents are so controlling-the effect on the child-counterargument-a better way of parentingREQUIREMENTS: 750 wordsNeed it done as soon as possibleA minimum of 4 sources need to be used and put into a work citedNO PLAGARISM because essay will be checked through blackboard safe assign and if caught, I will get expelled. 
English Paper 3 pages

Kotters Eight Step Change Management Model Management Essay

Change is the word that best described of the modern societies and culture. Change occurred in almost every aspects of life. Change presses us out from our comfort zone. People changed in their life to avoid stagnation and to improve their quality of life and become a better person. This is also true in business where the rapid change in technologies, the way of doing things, advances in information technologies, internal and external pressures, e-business and globalization creates a competitive environment in most organization in order to survive and to be relevant. How business react, operate and adapt to any changes determine the survivability of the company. In organization, change is necessary but often proves to be challenging. To guide a change (managing a change process) may be the greatest test for the leader of the organization especially when there is resistance. Therefore to lead a change is essential but difficult (Kotter 2007). The successfulness on implementing change in an organization requires a series of phase, a correct tools and proper planning. Palmer, Dunford and Akin (2009) quoted that “Changing organizations is as messy as it is exhilarating, as frustrating as it is satisfying, as muddling-through and creative a process as it is a rational one” (p. 1). On the other hand, ‘Lean Six Sigma’ or ‘Lean thinking’ has been widely accepted and adoptable tool for improving organizational performance. The thinking provides a method to do more with less without jeopardizing the quality, cost and delivery and at the same time meeting customers’ requirements. Less means less effort, less equipment, less time, less cost, less space and eliminating all sources of wastes in the process. Developed as a production systems eliminating wastes in the Toyota’s manufacturing plant in 1960’s, now lean thinking evolving across countries and industries as a management approach that improves all processes at each level of the organization. However, in realities, many organizations are not able to transform themselves to lean organization and unable to get the benefit out of it. Transformation initiatives towards the lean organization are full with challenges and resistances. Many companies that promote lean thinking, even those undertaken with the best intention are often destined to a failure due to its unsuccessful execution (Jeyaraman 2010). There are a lot of resistance factors and mostly can be divided into human and non-human factor. From Langstrand et al. (2012) “In a member survey, the Lean Enterprise Institute (LEI) found that more than 36% of the respondents attributed change failure to middle management resistance. Along with employee resistance and supervisor resistance, these were considered three of the four most significant obstacles to implementing lean (LEI, 2007)”. According to (Norani 2011) lean transition requires emergent strategy and he suggested that among all the emergent change approaches, Kotter’s Eight-Step Change Management Model is one of the best-known change management model. Kotter (1996) suggested Eight-Step Change Management Model as shown on Table 1.1. Table 1.1: Kotter’s Eight-Step Change Management Model Step 1 Establishing a Sense of Urgency Step 2 Creating the Guiding Coalition Step 3 Developing A Vision And Strategy Step 4 Communication the Change Vision Step 5 Empowering Employees for Broad-Based Action Step 6 Generating Short-Term Wins Step 7 Consolidating Gains And Producing More Change Step 8 Anchoring New Approaches In The Culture This study will analyze the effectiveness of change steps efforts that have been taken during the implementation of Lean Six Sigma Program in government owned service oriented organization from a perspective of change management using the Kotter’s eight-step change management model as benchmarks. Background of The Study In today’s fast-moving era, if there is an organization that is looking for the pace of change to slow or slow in their reaction to any response, is likely to be sorely disappointed and left behind. In fact, some says that, in businesses change is permanent. Change is important in every organization because without change, business would likely lose their market shares, competitive edge and fail to meet the various needs of the customers. SIRIM Berhad is also not neglected from the challenges of reacting more intelligently to customers’ needs to become more effective. SIRIM Berhad, formerly known as the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM), is a corporate organization owned wholly by the Malaysian Government, under the Minister of Finance Incorporated. It has been entrusted by the Malaysian Government to be the national organization for standards and quality, and as a promoter of technological excellence in the Malaysian industry. The organization came into operation on September 1, 1996 via corporatization scheme of standards and industrial research institute, initiated by the government with the vision to be a corporation of choice for technology and quality. SIRIM Berhad as the national organization of standardization and quality, and as the prime mover in industrial research and development acts as a catalyst in bringing about national economic dynamism through excellence in technology and international acceptance of Malaysian products and services. Their mission is to enhance their customers’ competitiveness through technology and quality, and fulfill the needs of the shareholders. As such its role is to act as: A champion of quality. The national technology development corporation. Vehicle for technology transfer. A provider of institutional and technical infrastructure for the Government. SIRIM Berhad has initiated a program called ‘Lean Six-Sigma Program’ (LSSP). LSSP is developed based on the infamous improvement methodology known as Lean Six Sigma Strategy. It was initiated based on the emerging needs to develop SIRIM to be a market driven organization with sustainable business growth and global market penetration. The proposal has been developed by Group Quality Occupational Safety Health and Environment Department (GQOSHE) in 2008. The main objective of the LSSP is to establish an Integrated Business Process Improvement (IBPI) system that builds on four initiatives namely Lean Six Sigma (LSS), Innovative and Creative Circle (ICC), Just Do It (JDI) and Personal Quality Program (PQP). The first three initiatives are continuous improvement methodology used to enhance business performance while the latter is a motivational and cultural conditioning program for SIRIM staffs. The continuous improvement initiatives were used to promote, nurture and inculcate innovative, creative thinking and learning culture into SIRIM to strengthen its business processes and systems in order to be a market driven organization. Problem Statement Upon acceptance of the proposal from President and Chief Executive, LSSP was officially started on January 28, 2008 followed by the directive to begin the Lean Six Sigma project implementation on few small scale “pilot” projects on February 29, 2008. Seven (7) departments / divisions of SIRIM Berhad have been selected for the pilot project. These departments have been participating in the Lean Six Sigma workshops and training program which comprise of Green Belt and Black Belt programs. The program focusing on areas as follows; To assist the existing project team to implement prioritized ICC projects, Lean Six Sigma Value Stream projects, To initiate Lean Six Sigma initiative at other SIRIM departments and, To certify the Green Belt who has fulfilled the certification process. During the training period, 19 projects initiated on cost saving activities and 9 of the projects have been completed. Based on value stream mapping (process analysis) conducted at participating departments, upon completion of all the prioritized projects, the program has estimated cost savings of RM300k per year (including project savings from Genba Kaizen 5S implementation). Other tangible benefits from the program are: Safer and more organize work place. Creation of work space and elimination of obsolete and out-dated items. Low and controllable stock keeping level of certain items such as stationeries, chemicals resulting to better cash flow and stock management. Improved process visibility and productivity. Lean Six Sigma Program (LSSP) is expected to be a new change program in SIRIM Berhad and the successful implementation of the program is important for sustainability and growth of the organization. Despite the 3 years of training program consists of briefings, training session and pilot projects, the program unable to reach its goal of transferring SIRIM Berhad to become lean organization and to embed lean thinking into the culture of the organization. From an early interview with some of the staff involved, it is confirmed that currently Lean Six Sigma has not been practiced in their section or department. The program seems to be abandoned and not getting enough coalition to sustain the initiatives. Research Objectives The objectives of this study are: To analyze the effectiveness of change steps efforts that have been taken during the implementation of LSSP with reference to Kotter’s Eight-Step Change Management Model. To determine the benefit of LSSP to the department during the implementation stages. To determine the weakness of LSSP to the department during the implementation stages. To make recommendation on the finding to the management of SIRIM Berhad on managing lean program and any change management initiatives. Scope of The Study This study will be focusing on the implementation stages of Lean Six Sigma program in SIRIM Berhad. The respondents will comprise of managerial and non-managerial employees that participated in the program before. This study is focusing the change management steps as per Kotter’s eight change steps of change management as a benchmark. Significance of The Study After the training period, Lean Six Sigma program seems to be abandoned and not getting enough coalition to sustain the initiatives but no formal and structured study has been done to understand why the program not achieving the expected outcome especially on the implementation process. Therefore this study is significant to fill the gap by assessing the implementation steps that have been taken during the implementation of the Lean Six Sigma program. The research will analyze the employee’s perception toward the effort of change steps that have been taken during the implementation. By understanding this, it will help the management to prepare the suitable and effective steps to improve the implementation of LSS program in SIRIM Berhad and also to be used as a guideline for any change’s initiatives in the organization. This study will also provide value by identifying if Kotter’s popular change management model is also useful in government owned service organization. As a result, the outcome can also be used by other government owned organizations that will or are undergoing Lean Six Sigma initiatives by providing information concerning the applicability of Kotter’s eight-step change management model as a useful model on managing a change in their organization. Academician and lean consultant could also get the benefit from the findings on the effective way of managing lean in government owned service oriented organization. Limitation of The Study It is important to understand that this is a case-study. This study is limited only to the staff of SIRIM Berhad that involved during the implementation of LSSP. The survey is based on perception and subject to bias that could impact the end results. Therefore the sincerity of the correspondents during answering the survey is very important. Definition of Terms Black Belt Full time position responsible for leading project teams. They are responsible for delivering the value and benefits that were determined for each of their projects during the projects selection process. Green Belts A person who works on a Lean Six Sigma project only part-time, on a specific process about which he or she generally possesses knowledge important to the success of the project (Michele 2002). Kaizen Continuous improvement in Japanese. The kaizen process is modeled after quality circle, the team-based continuous improvement vehicle utilized in the Toyota production System. The secret to Kaizen is that it emphasize creativity before capital (Michele 2002). Lean Six Sigma The activities that cause the customer’s critical-to-quality issues and create the longest time delays in any process offer the greatest opportunity for improvement in cost, quality, capital, and lead time (Michele 2002). Value Stream The set of activities that convert customer needs into delivered products and services. Improving an entire value stream requires multiple projects (Michele 2002). CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Chapter 2 presents the literature review of the research study. This chapter is discussing about the change management, lean six sigma, change model, Kotter’s eight-step change management model and the research questions. Change Management Change is a reality of life. In the past five decades change/improvements initiatives have been driven by a lot of approaches. For example, in 1950s Management by Objectives (MBO), Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) have been introduced. In 1960s to 1970s Sensivity Training, T-groups, Quality Circles, Corporate Culture have been used. The famous improvement initiatives such as ISO9000, Total Quality Management and Corporate Culture were introduced in 1980s and in 1990s Reengineering Agile Strategies, Horizontal Corporations, Employee Empowerment, Core Competencies and Vision have taken the scene (Palmer, I. 2009). Motivations for change have been customers satisfaction, cost reduction, improved efficiency, improved quality, or, in extreme cases, survival (Longbothom 2006). Self D.R and Schraeder M. (2009) explained that the first challenge organization faced during implementing change in the organization is recognizing the need for change and second, and possibly more significant is effectively deploying strategies to implement change. Contemporary literature outlines a multitude of various strategies for implementing change in an organization. Wikipedia (2012) defines Change Management as an approach to shifting / transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to desired future state. Smith (2005) explained that change is a process of letting go of things as they are in order to take up a new ways of doing things. Organizational change normally challenges the status quo of the employee and it may challenge the values and perceived rights of workers and work group. For some people, change is welcome and relates to something new, fresh and exciting but for some people may be more cautious by seeking to test and examine before proceeding. Palmer et. al (2009) explained that there are six images of managing change. First is ‘change manager as a director’ which gave an image of management as control and change outcomes as being achievable. Second is ‘change manager as a navigator’ where the manager is in control of a given situation and the outcomes are partly emergent rather than completely planned and result from a variety of influences, competing interests and processes. Third is “change manager as care taker” is an ideal image of management is still one of control, although the ability to exercise control is severely constrained by a variety of forces, both internally and externally driven, that propel change relatively independent of manager’s intentions. Forth is ‘change manager as a coach’ where the manager is in a position to shape the organizations capabilities in particular ways. Fifth is ‘change manager as an interpreter’ where managing change places the change manager in the position of creating meaning for the other organisational members, helping them to make sense of various organisational events and actions. And lastly ‘change manager as nurturer’ where the nurturing image to managing assumes that even small changes may have a large impact on organizations and managers are not able to control the outcomes of their changes. For other journal, Michael Stanleigh (2008) found that most change initiatives fail because management may not be engaging employees in the process towards change and do not allow sufficient time for change to set. It is important to implement change in a series of phases that will engage employee and to allow sufficient length of time for each phase to become institutionalized within the organization. He listed out several drivers of change such as mergers and acquisitions, innovation, technology, restructuring / re-organizing, declining sales and/or market share, globalization, expansion and growth, sense of urgency and lastly when 75% of the leadership is honestly convinced that business as usual is no longer as acceptable plan. However he claimed that, too often, management fails to recognize that adjustment to change takes time. They expected the employee to react quickly to the changes and fail to recognize that each individual will go through all of the phases at different paces. As a result, sometimes the employee may burn out, scared or frustrated and unable to cooperate. Therefore he recommended all managers to apply multi-step process to guide, include, empower, enlist and motivate employees toward change. 2.2 Lean Six Sigma Lean Six Sigma is a technique to improve process and can be used either individually, in a group of people or in combination with a target to improve the quality and delivery of any business process. Originally developed by Toyota called as ‘Toyota Production System’ is based on series of principles focusing on eliminating 7 categories of Muda, Japanese word means ‘waste’, specifically any activity of consuming resources but creates no values. Waste such as over produced of goods that no one wants, transportation of goods from one place to another without any reasons, waste due to correction of defects which require rectifications, waste in waiting time due to delay in process, over-processing, inventory pile up and motion waste of unnecessary processing steps will end up not meeting the needs of the customers. Liker (2004) claimed that the lean thinking was used by Taiichi Ohno, a Toyota’s Plant manager who was assigned to improve Toyota’s manufacturing process back in 1950. TPS underpins many innovation including the elimination waste – ‘muda’, quality at the source – ‘jidoka’ and continuous improvement – ‘kaizen’. Through years of trial and error, Toyota caught the world’s attention in 1980s where the cars produced were lasting longer than American cars and required much less repair. Based on his study, in 1990s Toyota capable to produced new design of auto faster, with more reliability, at a competitive cost and became third-largest auto manufacturer in the world behind General Motors and Ford. Much of the success comes from its astounding quality reputation. Kaizen (continuous improvement) will lead to ‘learning organization’. This culture when embedded to the organization will give a great benefit by providing opportunities for improvement and sustainability in a long run. Any organization will obtain an effectiveness and efficiency in their process by implementing Lean. Lean requires a specific way of thinking, philosophy and management system. Liker (2004) describes fourteen principles of lean at Toyota Production Systems (TPS) and the principles can be divided into four categories that are; Long-Term Philosophy. The Right Process Will Produce The Right Results. Add Value by Developing Your People and Partners, and Continuously Solving Root Problems Drives Learning. Womack J.P and Jones D.T (1996) explained that the lean thinking provides a method to make any tasks more satisfying by converting waste into value with less human effort, less equipment, less time and less space – while coming closer and closer to providing customers with exactly what they want. He proposed 5 lean principles consist of: Specify Value. Identify the Value Stream. Determine the Flow. Pull. Perfection. They proposed that all 5 steps should be applied holistically and it is important that all the steps are performing together due to the interrelationship between the principles is enough to enhance the outcomes of the others. They also argue than lean not just can be successful in manufacturing organization but also in any other organization. They come out with a term called ‘From Lean Production to Lean Enterprise’. Although lean will always associated with reduction of costs, eliminating waste and JIT but the adoption of lean is beneficial for knowledge-based activities such as services, design, engineering and product development. 2.3 Change Model There are a lot of change models been studied and introduced to organize change activities in a systematic approach. Researchers have been studying change, specifically organizational change, for decades. Detail studies on implementing change has been conducted by Ian Palmer, Richard Dunford and Gib Akin (2009) and presented in their book “Managing Organizational Change”. They said that in various change management approaches provide multistep models of how to achieve larga-scale, transformation change. They studied 9 examples of change management model that have been introduced from 1992 to 2006. These models differ not just in terms of the number of steps but also the way to implement the steps. Katner, Stein and Jick proposed an approach called ‘Ten Commandments’ in 1992, Pendlebury, Grouard and Meston proposed ‘Ten Keys’ in 1998, Nadler proposed ’12 Action Steps’ in 1998, Taffinder proposed ‘Transformation Trajectory’ in 1998, Anderson and Anderson proposed ‘Nine-Phase Change Process Model’ in 2001, Kirkpatrick proposed Step-by-Step Change Model in 2001, Mento, Jones and Dirndorfer proposed 12-Step Framework in 2002, Light proposed RAND’s Six Steps in 2005 and Leppit proposed ‘Integrated Model’ in 2006. The summary of all 9 change models made by Palmer et. al. (2009) is as Appendix 1. Ian Palmer, Richard Dunford and Gib Akin (2009) said that possibly one of the best-known change management model is John Kotter’s eight-step model. Norani (2011) also says that among all the emergent change approaches, Kotter’s model is said to have a long standing high reputation that has flexibility to deal with vast number of problems and issues that may be experienced during change. Kotter’s simplifies the steps during change process to overcome the challenge and constraints that might occurred during the implementation. 2.4 Kotter’s Eight-Step Change Management Model John P. Kotter graduated from MIT and Harvard. He joined the Harvard Business School faculty in 1972 and after 8 years, at the age of thirty-three, he was voted tenure and a full professorship. He wrote a lot of books, journals and articled related to leadership, change and managements. In 1994 he wrote an article for the Harvard Business Review entitled “Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail.” It was based on his analysis from a lot of initiatives to produce significant useful change in organization via restructuring, reengineering, restrategizing, acquisitions, downsizing, quality programs and cultural renewal in companies that trying to remake themselves into significantly better companies. These companies included large organizations such as Ford, General Motors, British Airways, Landmark Corporation etc. The basic goal of all change efforts was to make fundamental changes in how business is conducted in order to cope with a changing market environment. He has made his study on both success and fail of change initiatives. As a result from his analysis Kotter developed his 8 steps for change. The eight steps were created to be followed one by one and in sequence where for him each step building on the previous. Kotter states that it is essential to thoroughly complete all 8 steps, not cutting only one or short. Kotter (1996) quoted “Whenever you leave one of the steps in the eight-stage change process without finishing the work, you usually pay a big price later on”. Step 1 is ‘Establishing a Sense of Urgency’. Change efforts begin successfully when some individuals of a group of people start realize and look hard at a company’s competitive situations, market positions, technological trends and financial performance. Kotter notes that over half of the companies he analyzes have never been able to create enough urgency to prompt action. Compared with other steps in the change process, step one can sound easy but it is not. “Well over 50% of the companies I have watched fail in this first phase” (Kotter, 2007, pg. 3). Kotter proposed that the change initiatives can be successful is when 75% of company’s managements is honestly convinced and agreed to change. Step 2 is “Creating the Guiding Coalition”. Kotter (1995) described it as a step that requires the organization to assembling a group with enough power to lead the change effort and encourage the group to work together as a team. The team may consist one or two people in the early stage but it must grow over time. It is important that the team get full support by the top managements. A high sense of urgency for change within the top management is such organization helps enormously in putting a guiding coalition together. Leadership play an important role to spread out the sense of urgency to change. Efforts that don’t have a powerful enough guiding coalition can’t only sustain for a while and in the end the progress will stop. Step 3 is “Developing a Vision and Strategy”. A vision helps clarify the direction in which the change results should be. Kotter (1995) describe this step as developing a picture of the future that is relatively easy to communicate and appeals to customers, stock-holders and employees. Without a sensible vision, any change effort can easily dissolve into a list of confusing and incompatible projects that can take the organization in the wrong direction or nowhere at all. Step 4 is “Communicating the Change Vision”. In this step, every possible communication channel must be used to spread out the change initiatives. Everybody needs to know, aware and get familiar about what is happening. Some key elements of effectively communicating shall be used such as repetition, explanation, forums and leading by example of the guiding coalition. Step 5 is “Empowering Employees for Broad-Based Action”. In this step, action should be taken to remove all obstacles to change. This might as be up to the extent of changing systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision. It also may involve allocating some budget, money, time, support etc. These are to get more people to involve. The more people involved, the better the outcome (Kotter 1995). Step 6 is “Generating Short-Term Wins”. Transformation will take time and effort and will risk losing momentum if there are no short-term goals or achievement. Some people will only get participate when they start to see the positive results. Without short term wins, people will get exhausted and may turn back to their original behavior or condition. Step 7 is “Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change”. In this step, Kotter gave warns that people tend to declare victory too soon before they are really won. They easily get satisfied with the changes without knowing that it is not fully embedded into the systems of the organization. The change might take years to complete. Step 8 is “Anchoring New Approaches in The Culture”. This step is the ultimate goal of any change initiatives. It embeds in the culture of the organization, when it seeps into the bloodstream of the organization. 2.5 Research Questions Based on the discussion above, the following research questions have been formulated to guide the study. Is the program established enough ‘Sense of Urgency’ to the staff during the implementation period? Is the program creating a group of people with enough power to lead the change effort and encourage the group to work together as a team during the implementation period? Is the staff been thought about the ‘Vision and Strategy’ and understand the end results of Lean Six Sigma program? Is the staff well versed and understand about the benefit of Lean Six Sigma? Is the program gets enough support from the management and well accepted by the staff? Is staff clear about the short term target and long term target of the program and feel that Lean Six Sigma will give a lot of benefit to them? Is the program continuously developing and more people start to talk about Lean Six Sigma? Is Lean Six Sigma embedded into the culture of every staff? CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction The previous chapters provide with a contextual framework for understanding the purpose and objectives of the research. Chapter three focuses on the research methodology and its application to the research objectives and questions outlined in chapter one and two. The research design, population and sample, sampling procedure, assessment instruments and pilot study are described according to its use in this chapter. In addition the statistical tools used for data analysis are defined in relation to the objectives and research questions. Research Design Research can be describe as a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem that needs solution. “Management research could encompass the study of employee attitude and behavior, human resources management, the impact of changing demographic on management practices, production operation management, strategy formulation, information systems, and the like” (Sekaran, 1984, p. 5). The type of this research is applied research. “When research is done with the intention of applying the results of its findings to solving specific problems currently being experienced in the organization, it is called applied research” (Sekaran, 1984, p. 6). Data can be collected in a variety of ways, settings and sources. This study will base on quantitative research using questionnaires (survey) method and qualitative research by interviewing some of the selected staff ‘purposive sampling’. Sekaran (1984) explained that a “questionnaire is a preformulated written set of questions to which respondents record their answer, usually within rather closely defined alternatives” and interviewing is a process to obtain information on the issues of interest to the researched. It can be either unstructured or structured and could be conducted either face to face or any means. The main purpose of the interview is to have an early understanding on Lean Six Sigma Program that has been implemented. Population and Sample A total of 120 participants from 7 departments / divisions of SIRIM Berhad participated in Lean Six Sigma Program will involve in this study. The participants are full time staff work

Writing a Dice Game Usiing Blue J Exercise

Writing a Dice Game Usiing Blue J Exercise.

I’m working on a java project and need support to help me learn.

Task #1 The Dice GameWrite a DiceYI class with one instance variable, value. Constructor with a parameter for the initial face value. Validate that it allows only 1..6.Accessors getValue( ) which returns an integer. Mutators setValue( ) to set value. Validate it only sets 1..6 Mutator roll( ) which randomize the instance variable to 1..6toString( ) method to return a string like “3” or “6”printMe( ) method for DEBUG. This should simply print the value in toString( ).Write a class (NOT A SUBCLASS) DicePairYI with a 2 element array of type DiceYI.Default constructor: Use Random class methods to initialize each DiceYI Constructor with a parameter for the initial face values. Validate that it allows only 1..6.Accessor getValue( i ) which returns the value of the first or second DiceYI. Accessor getTotal( ) which returns the sum the array DiceYI face values.Mutators setValue( i ) to set value. Let DiceYI validate it only sets 1..6 Mutator roll( ) which randomizes each DiceYI in the arraytoString( ) method to return a string like “3, 4” or “6, 5″equals( ) method to compare a pair of dice with another pair of dice. Return true if they have the same face values. For example if one DicePairYI object has 4,6 and the other has 6,4 they are equal.printMe( ) method for DEBUG. This should simply print the value in toString( ).Write a client DiceGame1YOURNAME.Instantiate and initialize a pair of diceInstantiate score, a 20 element integer array of integers and initialize it to all 0.Write a play( ) method for a new game, it should reset the game and then continuously roll the dice until you win or lose or the array is full.Each roll is entered in the array until you win, lose, or the array is full.Write a printArray( ) method to print the score array on ONE line. Make it easy to read by adding a ” – ” after every 5 scores e.g. 4 8 9 8 5 – 7 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 The rules of the game: A player rolls the two dice and adds the number shown on them.Roll the two dice up to 20 times and save the total in the array.If the total is 7 or 11, you win. Put this in the array, report the results and exit the game.If the total is 2, 3, or 12, you lose. Put this in the array, report the results and exit the game.If the total is anything else, save the total as the “goal”. put it in the array, and you get to roll again.The new objective is to roll the same total as the “goal”.You keep rolling until you either get “goal” or a 7. Show the array.If you roll “goal”, you win. Put this in the array, report the results and exit the game.If you roll a 7, you lose. Put this in the array, report the results and exit the game.Sample Terminal:You win: 10 10 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 You win: 7 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 You win: 8 11 8 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 You lose: 6 3 3 7 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 You lose: 4 5 5 12 9 – 6 6 7 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 You win: 8 8 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0
Writing a Dice Game Usiing Blue J Exercise